List of biographies of Muhammad

This is a chronological listing of biographies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ranging from the earliest traditional writers to modern times.

Earliest biographersEdit

The following is a list of the earliest known Hadith collectors who specialized in collecting Sīra and Maghāzī reports.

1st century of Hijra (622–719 CE)Edit

2nd century of Hijra (720–816 CE)Edit

  • Al-Qāsim ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr (d. 107 AH), another grandson of Abu Bakr. His traditions are mainly found in the works of al-Tabari, al-Balathuri, and al-Waqidi.[1]
  • Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. during 725 to 737, or 114 AH). Several books were ascribed to him but none of them are now existing. Some of his works survive as quotations found in works by Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī, and others.[1][2]
  • Ibn Shihāb al-Zuhrī (d. c. 737), a central figure in sīra literature, who collected both ahadith and akhbār. His akhbār also contain chains of transmissions, or isnad. He was sponsored by the Umayyad court and asked to write two books, one on genealogy and another on maghāzī. The first was canceled and the one about maghāzī is either not extant or has never been written.[2]
  • Musa ibn ʿUqba, a student of al-Zuhrī, wrote Kitāb al-Maghāzī, a notebook used to teach his students; now lost. Some of his traditions have been preserved, although their attribution to him is disputed.[2]
  • Muhammad ibn Ishaq (d. 767 or 761), another student of al-Zuhrī, who collected oral traditions that formed the basis of an important biography of Muhammad. His work survived through that of his editors, most notably Ibn Hisham and Ibn Jarir al-Tabari.[2]
  • Ibn Jurayj (d. 150 AH) , has been described as a "contemporary" of Ibn Ishaq and "rival authority based in Mecca"[3]
  • Abū Ishāq al-Fazarī (d. 186 AH) wrote Kitāb al-Siyar.[4]
  • Abu Ma'shar Najih Al-Madani (d. c. 787)
  • Al-Waqidi, whose surviving work Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi (Book of History and Campaigns) has been published.
  • Hisham Ibn Urwah ibn Zubayr, son of Urwah ibn Zubayr, generally quoted traditions from his father but was also a pupil of Al-Zuhri.

3rd century of Hijra (817–913 CE)Edit

4th century of Hijra (914–1010 CE)Edit

5th century of Hijra (1011–1108 CE)Edit

Others (710–1100 CE)Edit

  • Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, the husband of Asma bint Abi Bakr.
  • Asim Ibn Umar Ibn Qatada Al-Ansari
  • Ma'mar Ibn Rashid Al-Azdi, pupil of Al-Zuhri
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Abdul Aziz Al-Ausi, pupil of Al-Zuhri
  • Muhammad ibn Salih ibn Dinar Al-Tammar was a pupil of Al-Zuhri and mentor of Al-Waqidi.
  • Ya'qub bin Utba Ibn Mughira Ibn Al-Akhnas Ibn Shuraiq Al-Thaqafi
  • Ali ibn mujahid Al razi Al kindi.
  • Salama ibn Al-Fadl Al-Abrash Al-Ansari, pupil of Ibn Ishaq.
  • Abu Sa`d al-Naysaburi wrote Sharaf al-Mustafa
  • Faryabi wrote Dala'il al-Nubuwwa

Later writers and biographies (1100–1517 CE)Edit

19th century CEEdit

  • Bush, George (1831). The Life of Mohammed: Founder of the Religion of Islam, and of the Empire of the Saracens. J. & J. Harper.
  • Gustav Weil, Mohammed der Prophet, sein Leben und seine Lehre (Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler'schen Buchhandlung, 1843)
  • Aloys Sprenger, The Life of Mohammad, from Original Sources (Allahabad: The Presbyterian Mission Press, 1851).
  • William Muir, The Life of Muhammad and History of Islam to the Era of the Hegira (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1858-1861), 4 vols. – several later editions with slightly different titles.
  • Aloys Sprenger, Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad: Nach bisher größtentheils unbenutzten Quellen (Berlin: Nicolai'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1861-1865), 3 vols – a revised 2nd edition was published in 1869.
  • Theodor Nöldeke, Das Leben Muhammed's: Nach den Quellen populär dargestellt (Hannover: Carl Rümpler, 1863).

Modern biographies (1900 CE – present)Edit

Biographies missing date of publicationEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i M. R. Ahmad (1992). Al-sīra al-nabawiyya fī ḍawʾ al-maṣādir al-aṣliyya: dirāsa taḥlīliyya (1st ed.). Riyadh: King Saud University. pp. 20–34.
  2. ^ a b c d e Raven, Wim (2006). "Sīra and the Qurʾān". Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 29–49.
  3. ^ AL-Azraqi, Akhbar Makka, ed. Ferdinand Wustenfelf (Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1858) 65, 1. 16: thumma raja'a ila hadith Ibn Jurayj wa-ibn Ishaq; quoted in book review by Conrad, Lawrence I. of "Making of the Last Prophet: A Reconstruction of the Earliest Biography of Muhammad by Gordon Darnell Newby", in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 113, n.2 258-263
  4. ^ Published from Lebanon, Beirut: Mu'assasa al-Risāla, 1987.
  5. ^ "Tara MacArthur | Listen Free on Castbox". Retrieved 2018-05-20.
  6. ^ Preamble to the book
  7. ^ 40 Ahl-e Hadith Scholars from the Indian Subcontinent. Independently Published. 2019-07-18. pp. 224 تا 250. ISBN 978-1-0810-0895-6.
  8. ^ "Allamah Muhammad Ibrahim Mir Sialkoti".