List of bicycle-sharing systems

This is a list of bicycle-sharing systems, both docked and dockless. As of December 2016, roughly 1000 cities worldwide have a bike-sharing program.[1][2][3][4]

Bicycle sharing systemsEdit

The following table lists active bicycle-sharing systems across the world. Most systems listed allow users to pick up and drop off bicycles at any of the automated stations within the network.

Country City Name System Operator Launched Discontinued Stations Bicycles Daily ridership
Albania Tirana[5] Ecovolis March 2011 8 200
Argentina Buenos Aires[6][7] Ecobici Serttel Brasil[8] Bike In Baires Consortium.[9] 2010 400 4000 21917
Mendoza[10] Metrobici 2014 2 40
Rosario Mi Bici Tu Bici[11] 2 December 2015 47 480
San Lorenzo, Santa Fe Biciudad Biciudad 27 November 2016 8 80
Australia Melbourne[12] Melbourne Bike Share PBSC & 8D Motivate June 2010 30 November 2019[13] 53 676
oBike 4 Gen. oBike July 2017 July 2018 dockless 1250
Brisbane[14][15] CityCycle 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux September 2010 150 2000
Sydney oBike 4 Gen. oBike July 2017 July 2018 dockless 1250
Ofo 4 Gen. Ofo October 2017 dockless 600
Reddy Go Reddy Go July 2017 2000
Austria Burgenland LEIHRADL nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 40
Lower Austria[16] LEIHRADL nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 295 1300
Salzburg nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2011
Vienna Citybike Wien[17] 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux Gewista June 2003 121 1500 2800[18]
Viennabike 2 Gen. Association and city council April 2002 November 2002 200 1500
Vorarlberg 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 14 70
Bangladesh Dhaka JoBike JoBike 2018 05 300
Belgium Different locations[19] dBlue-bike Blue-bike Blue-Mobility 1 May 2011 70 (2021)[20] 1790 (2019)[21]
Antwerp Velo Antwerp[22] 3 Gen. Clear CC Service2Cities (subsidiary of Clear Channel Belgium) 9 June 2011 305 (2021) 4200 (2021) 7010[23]
Brussels[24] Villo! 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 19 May 2009 (earlier system since 2006) 346 4115[25]
Namur[26] Libiavelo 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 21 April 2012 24 200
Brazil Belo Horizonte[27] Bikebh Mobilicidade 2014 40 400
Fortaleza Bicicletar Mobilicidade 15 December 2014 80 800
João Pessoa[28] SAMBA Mobilicidade 3 20
(Pedro de) Toledo[29] Toopedalando Toopedalando 2011 6 60
Rio de Janeiro[30] Bike Rio tembici 2011 60 300
Salvador[31] Bike Salvador tembici 2013 23
São Paulo[32] Bikesampa tembici 2012 241 600
Sorocaba[33] Integrabike tembici 2012 15 120
Bulgaria Burgas VeloBurgas Mobilicidade 2012 10 120
Canada Hamilton[34] Hamilton Bike Share Social Bicycles 20 March 2015 100 750
Kitchener, Ontario[35][36] Community Access Bicycles Community Access Bicycles 2011, relaunched 21 August 2013 7 65
Montreal[37] BIXI Montréal PBSC & 8D 2009 794 7270 (regular) 2395 (electric)[38]
Toronto[39] Bike Share Toronto PBSC Motivate 2011 625 6850 9700
Vancouver Mobi 3 Gen. CycleHop 20 July 2016 150 1500
Victoria[40] U-Bicycle September 2017 initially 150
Chile Santiago Bikesantiago 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2013 53
China Anqiu Anqiu Public Bicycle December 2013 95 2280
Baoji Baoji Public Bicycle Service September 2013 100 2000
Beijing 2012 508 16000
Changzhou Changzhou Public Bicycle
Chengdu (Jinniu District)[41] Shanghai Forever Bicycle Co. June 2010 156 1500
Chengdu (Gaoxin District [zh])[42] December 2010 72 1200
Foshan August 2010 208 11694
Fuzhou Fuzhou Public Bicycle June 2011 59 1400
Guangzhou[43][44] GZ-Public Bicycle June 2010 50 4840
Haikou April 2013 105 3000
Haining Haining Public Bicycle October 2012 100 2200
Hangzhou[45][46] Hangzhou Public Bicycle October 2008 2965 78000
Heihe May 2012 62 2230
Heze April 2014 100 2000
Hohhot October 2013 112 5100
Huaian[47] Huaian Public Bicycle October 2013 335 7000
Huaibei Huaibei Public Bicycle April 2014 100 3000
Huangyan Huangyan Public Bicycle January 2012 93 2500
Huizhou Guangzhou Huimin April 2012 100 10000
Huzhou Huzhou Public Bicycle December 2013 85
Jiangyin November 2008 23 700
Jiaxing Jiaxing Public Bicycle December 2011 334 7800
Jinhua Jinhua Orange Public Bicycle Service October 2013 100 3000
Jiujiang February 2014 6 120
Jiyuan September 2013 32 500
Kaixian January 2011 58 1600
Kunshan[48] Forever Bicycle September 2010 745 20000
Lanxi China July 2014 50 1500
Lanzhou Lanzhou Public Bicycle June 2014 111 2000
Lhasa November 2013 15 242
Linhai June 2011 82 2700
Lishui February 2013 26 800
Luoyang Luoyang Public Bicycle 25 May 2013 35 1000
Maanshan Maanshan Public Bicycle
Nanning December 2013 50 1000
Nantong[49] Nantong Economic and Technological Development Area Public Bicycle Forever Publicbike Intelligent Systems 1 January 2013 182 3800
Ningbo Ningbo Public Bicycle September 2013 600 15000
Qingzhou 2010 550 10300
Shanghai[50][51][52][53] Forever Bicycle March 2009 596 19165
Shaoxing[54] Shaoxing Public Bicycle 15 June 2011 204 9000
Shenzhen / Shekou / Xiaomeisha Shenzhen City Bicycle Public Forever Bicycle September 2010 16 350
Suzhou 2010 976 22940
Taiyuan September 2012 1262 41000
Taizhou, Jiangsu[55] 2014 80 2000
China 2010 200 13000
Weifang Weifang Public Bicycle October 2013 735 20000
Wuhu 2012 553 12000
Wuxi Wuxibike January 2010 27 1500
Xi'an Xianbicycle April 2011 900 20000
Xuzhou September 2012 480 18000
Yangzhou March 2014 140 5000
Yantai August 2010 110 6000
Yiwu October 2013 52 1000
Yixing Yixing Public Bicycle December 2012 148 3600
Yueyang April 2014 210 5000
Zhangjiagang Forever Bicycle Forever Bicycle June 2010 152 3200
Zhenjiang[56] Zhenjiang Public Bicycle 1 April 2013 80 2000
Zhijin June 2014 30 1000
Zhongshan 2010 527 11180
Zhuhai December 2012 195 5000
Zhuzhou Foshan Tianzhou May 2011 1005 20000
Colombia Medellin[57] EnCicla 3 Gen (formally 0 Gen) The Metropolitan Area of Aburra Valley[58] 2011 50 1400
Croatia Zagreb[59] nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike May 2013 21 100
Cyprus Limassol[60] nextbike Cyprus 3 Gen. nextbike May 2012 13 170
Pissouri[61] Cyprus own pedelecs April 2019 3 10
Nicosia[62] EasyBike EasyBike[63] EasyBike October 2011 27 315
Limassol, Nicosia District Bike in Action 3 Gen. Smoove 27 310[64]
Czechia Brno Rekola 4 Gen. 2014 [65] 50
České Budějovice Rekola 4 Gen. 2015 [66] 100
Frýdek-Místek Rekola 4 Gen. 2018 [67] 80
Hradec Králové Rekola 4 Gen. 2015 [68] 2016
Kladno Rekola 4 Gen. 2017 [69] 2017 80
Liberec Rekola 4 Gen. 2018 [70] 100
Pardubice Rekola 4 Gen. 2014 2016
Prague Rekola 4 Gen.[71] 2013 [72] 500 4,700[73][non-primary source needed]
Freebike HomePort 500[74]
Prague 4 and Brno Velonet Velonet 9 October 2016[75] 2020[76]
Prague 7 Ofo 4 Gen. Ofo Ofo 2017 Discontinued [77]
Prostějov Nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike Nextbike 2019 180[78]
Olomouc Rekola 4 Gen. 2014 [79] 70
Ostrava Rekola 4 Gen. 2018 [80] 180
Nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike Nextbike 2019 600[81]
Teplice Rekola 4 Gen. 2017 [82] 40
Denmark Aarhus Aarhus City Bikes 2 Gen Aarhus Municipality March 2004 52 450
Århus Bycyklen 2 Gen May 2007 57 400
Copenhagen Bycyklen Gobike 16 August 2013[83] 105 1860
Bycykler København 2 Gen 1995 October 2012 [84][85][86] Copenhagen municipality changed its mind and a new version was introduced in late 2013.[87] 110 initially 800 (later 2500)
Farsø 2 Gen 1991 [88]
Ecuador Quito BiciQ BiciQ 2012 25 425
Emirates Abu Dhabi[89] ADCB Bikeshare 8D Cyacle December 2014 11 75
Finland Espoo Kaupunkipyörä CityBike Finland HSL 2017 110 3520
Hamina Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2019 20
Helsinki Helsinki City Bikes 3 Gen. Smoove Helsinki City Transport (HKL) May 2017 [90][91] 345 3450
Helsinki City Bikes 2 Gen. Helsinki City Transport (HKL) 2000 2010 [92]
Hyvinkää Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2020 20 60
Iisalmi Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2019 5 40
Imatra Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2018 11
Kotka Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2018 40 90
Kouvola Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2018 35
Kuopio Vilkku-fillarit Freebike City of Kuopio 2019 35 250
Lahti Mankeli Freebike 2022 30 250
Lappeenranta Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2019 30 85
Mikkeli Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2021 7 30
Mäntsälä Mäntsälä-pyörä Donkey Republic Kaakau 2019 9
Oulu Sykkeli Nextbike Polska 2019 2019[93] 60 600
Pori Rolanbike Pori Rolanbike Rolanbike 2021 12 50
Porvoo Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2020 25 100
Raseborg Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2020 5 30
Riihimäki Kaakau Donkey Republic Kaakau 2020 20 60
Rauma Easybike Easybike Easybike 2019 13 50
Seinäjoki Easybike Easybike Easybike 2020 14 50
Tampere Sale-Pyörä CityBike Global Nysse 2021 70 700
Turku Föli-Fillarit Nextbike Föli 2018 41 300
Vaasa Rekola[94] 4 Gen. 2018 60
Vantaa Kaupunkipyörä CityBike HSL 2019 100 1000
Varkaus Juro Juro Juro Sharing Infra 2021 5 20
France Amiens[95] Vélam 3 Gen. Cyclocity February 2008 26 250 376[96]
Angers[97] VéloCité 3 Gen. Cyclocity 2004
Avignon[98] Vélopop' 3 Gen. Smoove July 2009 17 200
Belfort Optymo 3 Gen. Smoove May 2013 21 200
Besançon[99] VéloCité 3 Gen. Cyclocity September 2007 30 200 380[96]
Bordeaux VCUB Keolis February 2010 139 1545
Caen V'eol 3 Gen. Clear CC March 2008 40 350
Calais Vel'in OYBike July 2010 37 160
Cergy-Pontoise[100] VélO2 Cyclocity JCDecaux March 2009 42 320
Chalon-sur-Saône Réflex 3 Gen. Smoove Transdev December 2007 14 100
Clermont-Ferrand C.Vélo 3 Gen. Smoove SMTC June 2013 10 (22) 100 (220)
Créteil[101] Cristolib 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux April 2010 10 75
Dijon Velodi 3 Gen. Clear CC February 2008 39 400
Dunkirk Dk'vélo Veolia 2013 20 200
Grenoble Métrovélo 3 Gen. Smoove 2006 16 1250
La Rochelle Yélo Homeport February 2010 63 300
Vélos Jaunes Zero Generation 1974 Discontinued
Lille V'Lille Keolis 2011 215 1100
Lyon[102] Vélo'v 3 Gen. Cyclocity 19 May 2005 [103][104] 348 4000
Marseille[105] Le vélo 3 Gen. Cyclocity 2007 122 672
Montpellier Vélomagg' 3 Gen. Smoove June 2007 52 2414
Mulhouse[106] VéloCité 3 Gen. Cyclocity 15 September 2007 40 240
Nancy[107] VélOstan 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 27 September 2009 29 250 675[96]
Nantes[108] Bicloo 3 Gen. Cyclocity May 2008 103 885 3640[96]
Nice Vélo Bleu OYBike July 2009 175 1750
Orléans Vélo'+ EFFIA June 2007 33 300
Paris[109] Vélib' 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 15 July 2007 31 December 2017 1229 14500 105000 (2017[110]
Grand Paris[111] Vélib' Métropole 3 Gen. Smoove Smovengo[112] 1 January 2018 [113] 1360 10500 150000 [110]
Pau IDEcycle 20 220
Perpignan BIP! 3 Gen. Clear CC February 2008 15 150
Poitiers Cap'Vélo September 2007 360
Rennes[114] LE vélo STAR 3 Gen. Clear CC June 1998 82 800
Rouen[115] Cy'clic 3 Gen. Cyclocity December 2007 21 190
St. Etienne Vélivert
formerly Vélo Vert
3 Gen. Smoove 26 June 2010 30 700
Strasbourg Vélhop 3 Gen. Smoove October 2010 4 1852
Toulouse[116] VélôToulouse 3 Gen. Cyclocity 16 November 2007 280 2465
Valence, Drôme[117] Libélo 3 Gen. Smoove Transdev March 2010 20 380
Vannes Vélocéa OYBike June 2009 20 174
Georgia Batumi BatumVelo[118] 3 Gen. SmooveKey[119] Batumi Avtotransporti[120] May 2013 24[120] 370[120]
Germany Aachen Velocity [121] 3 Gen. 27 June 2008 46
Aschaffenburg nextbike 3 Gen. 4
Call a Bike 3 Call a Bike
Baden-Baden Call a Bike 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex
Berlin Call a Bike [122] 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex March 2003 2016 dockless
LIDL-BIKES - Call a Bike [122] 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex March 2017 350 & dockless 3500
nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 500 300
Ofo 4 Gen. Ofo October 2016 August 2018
Donkey Republic Berlin [123] 4 Gen. April 2017 600
Mobike [124] 4 Gen. November 2017 700
fLotte [125] 0. Gen Freie Lastenräder [126] March 2018 12
LimeBike[127] 4 Gen. April 2018 500
Jump Bikes[128] 4 Gen. Jump Bikes November 2018 100
Bielefeld nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 10
Bochum metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 6 30
Bonn nextbike 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex October 2018 15 & dockless [129] 500
Bottrop metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 15
Bremen LimeBike[130] 4 Gen. March 2018 500
Coburg nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 5
Cologne Call a Bike 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex March 2000 dockless
Ruhr Area, Dortmund metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 27
Darmstadt Call a Bike 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex 2014 30 350 [131]
Dresden nextbike branded SZ-Bike since 2017[132] 3 Gen. nextbike DVB [133] 2005 30+ 500
Duisburg metropolradruhr nextbike 3 Gen. September 2010 14
Düsseldorf[134] nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2008 45 400
Flexbeee [135] 4 Gen. July 2018 400
Mobike [136] 4 Gen. 30 May 2018 600
Call a Bike branded FordPass Bike[137] 3 Gen. Call a Bike October 2017 135 1200
Dortmund metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike July 2008 55 400
Dreieich Byke 4 Gen. October 2017 100
Erfurt nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 10 30
Essen metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 25
Flensburg nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 10 30
Frankfurt am Main Call a Bike 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex March 2000 dockless
nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 30 300
Byke [138] 4 Gen. October 2017 100
LimeBike[139] 4 Gen. January 2018 500
Gelsenkirchen metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 4
Freiburg im Breisgau Call a Bike 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex 2010
nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2019
Hamburg StadtRAD Hamburg 3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex Deutsche Bahn July 2009 200 2450
nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2008 30 250
Hamm metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 10 50
Hannover oBike 4 Gen. oBike 2017 500
Herne metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 7 45
Kassel Konrad
Leipzig[140] nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2008 60 500
Magdeburg nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2008 21 100
Mainz MVGmeinRad July 2011 120 1000
Munich Call a Bike 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex March 2000 dockless
nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2011 30 3000
Mülheim a. Ruhr metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 13 65
Münster tretty August 2020 dockless 175
Nuremberg NorisBike 3 Gen. nextbike 2011 2018 66 750
Lastenrad für alle Bluepingu e.V. 2017 5 5
VAG Rad 3 & 4 Gen. nextbike 2019 32 &
Oberhausen metropolradruhr 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 8 40
Offenburg nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 13 86
Potsdam nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2010 20 150
Stuttgart Call a Bike 4 Gen. Call a Bike fix June 2007 64 400
Tübingen nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2009 9 50
Greece Aigialeia[141] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. 2013 3 45
Aktio-Vonitsa[141][142] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. 2013 3 35
Ancient Olympia[141][143] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. 2013 4 60
Corfu[144] EasyBike[145] 3 Gen. Smoove[146][147][148][144] November 2010 8 100[63]
Didymóteicho[141][149] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove May 2013 8 100
East Mani[141][142] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove 2013 6 100
Ioannina[150] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove September 2012 2 10
Iraklio[151] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove April 2010[152] 100
Karditsa[153] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove March 2013 10 60
Kavala[141][154] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove 2013 4 52
Keratsini-Drapetsóna[141][155] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove November 2012 6 70
Komotini[141][156] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove 2013 6 100
Marathónas[142] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. 2013 4 50
Maroussi[141][157] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. February 2013 6 70
Moscháto-Távros[158] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. January 2013 5 60
Náfplion[141][159] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. June 2013 4 60
Naupactus[141][160] EasyBike 3 Gen. Smoove January 2013 4 60
Municipality of Nafpaktos[161]

municipality bike rental

0 Gen. June 2010
Nea Erithréa[161]

municipality bike rental

0 Gen. 2010
Nea Smyrni[142] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. 2013 3 40
Salonica[162] Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Bike 0 Gen. May 2012 60
Sikyona[141][142] Cyclopolis 3 Gen. 2013 4 24
Hungary Budapest MOL BuBi 3 Gen. April 2014[163] 126 1526[164]
Esztergom EBI 20 September 2013[165] 9 93
Győr GyőrBike 7 September 2015 23 180[166]
Kaposvár Kapsvári Tekergő[167] 27 October 2015 4 32 (including 6 rollers) [167]
Szeged CityBike Szeged[168] CityBike Szeged 1 October 2013[169] 12 100
India Bengaluru Namma Cycle 2013 150
Mumbai FreMo, Cycle Chalao 2012
Mysuru Embarq, India 2009 52
New Delhi Greenolution 2007 7
Indonesia Bandung[170] Boseh Banopolis July 2017 30 350
Iran Shiraz Bdood 4 Gen. Bdood 31 December 2019 91 - Dockless 2000
Tehran Bdood 4 Gen. Bdood 18 December 2018 112 - Dockless 5700
Ireland Cork Coca-Cola Zero Bikes NTA & An Rothar Nua 18 December 2014 31 320
Dublin[171][172] Dublin Bikes Cyclocity JCDecaux September 2009 102 950
Galway Coca-Cola Zero Bikes NTA & An Rothar Nua 24 November 2014 19 205
Limerick Coca-Cola Zero Bikes NTA & An Rothar Nua 8 December 2014 23 215
Israel Tel Aviv[173] Tel-O-Fun April 2016 200+ 2000
Italy Alpignano ToBike 2 8
Brescia Bicimia 65 395
Carugate[174] Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 3 30
Cernusco sul Naviglio[174] Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 3 40
Collegno ToBike 10 35
Druento ToBike 1 5
Florence Ofo 2017 [175]
Grugliasco ToBike 9 30
Milan BikeMi[176] 3 Gen. Clear CC 8 December 2008 [177] 320[178] 5430 (1000 E)[179] 19000
Mobike 4 Gen. 30 August 2017 dockless 8000
Ofo 4 Gen. Ofo 20 September 2017 dockless 4000
Bitride Sharing Zehus 1 March 2018 31 December 2018 dockless 350
Padua GoodBike Padova 28
Mobike dockless
Pioltello[174] Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 2 20
Pisa[174] Ciclopi May 2013 15 200
Rimini[180] Rimini in Bici 16
Rome Roma'n'Bike 19 200
Turin ToBike 4 March 2011 184
Venaria Reale ToBike 10 35
Japan Kyoto[181] Community Cycle 5
Toyama, Toyama[182] Cyclocity Toyama Cyclocity JCDecaux 22 March 2010 17 130
Yokohama Baybike April 2011 15 300
Kazakhstan Almaty Almatybike[183] 3 Gen. Smoove[184] June 2016 300 1700
Astana Astanabike[185] 3 Gen. Smoove[186] July 2014 250 1280
Shymkent Shymkentbike[187] 3 Gen. Smoove[188] July 2016 40 200
Latvia Riga, Jurmala BalticBike 20
Lithuania Vilnius[189] CycloCity 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 2013 33 300
Luxembourg Luxembourg City[190] Vel'oh 3 Gen. Cyclocity March 2008 73 680
Malaysia George Town LinkBike Fast Rent Bike (PG) December 2016 25 250
Mexico Guadalajara MIBICI PBSC 2014 242 2116
Mexico City[191] Ecobici 3 Gen. Clear CC 2010 452 6500 31000
Toluca PBSC
Netherlands Amsterdam WhiteBikes WhiteBikes Provo 1965 1966 50
Delft, Rotterdam and The Hague Mobike 4 Gen. 2018/2019
Various Locations (especially railway stations) OV-fiets OV-Fiets/Nederlandse Spoorwegen 2003 205 21700 [192] 14887
Various Locations Bikedispenser 2005 5 500
Norway Drammen Drammen City Bikes 3 Gen. Clear CC 2001
Oslo Oslo Bysykkel 3 Gen. Clear CC 2003 106
Sandnes WhiteBikes volunteers and city council 1996 2002 225
Sandnes 3 Gen. Clear CC 2002
Trondheim Trondheim City Bikes Bycykler 1998 2005 200
Trondheim City Bikes 3 Gen. Clear CC 2005 10 125
Poland Białystok BiKeR 3 Gen. nextbike 31 May 2014 46 460
Grodzisk Mazowiecki Grodziski Rower Miejski 3 Gen. nextbike 27 September 2014 9 60
Juchnowiec Kościelny[193] Rower Gminny 3 Gen. nextbike July 2015 2 20
Katowice[194] City by bike 3 Gen. nextbike May 2015 3 40
Konstancin Konstanciński Rower Miejski 3 Gen. nextbike 14 June 2014 5 55
Kraków Wavelo BikeU October 2008 157 1500
Łódź Łódzki Rower Publiczny 3 Gen. nextbike 30 April 2016 148 1490
Lublin Lubelski Rower Miejski 3 Gen. nextbike 19 September 2014 90 891
Opole Opole Bike 3 Gen. nextbike 15 June 2012 16 164
Poznań[195] Poznański Rower Miejski 3 Gen. nextbike April 2012 89 973
Rzeszów RoweRes 2010 16
Sopot[195] Rower Trójmiejski 3 Gen. nextbike 5 September 2013 8 80
Szczecin[196] Bike S 3 Gen. nextbike 2015 85 724
Toruń Toruński Rower Miejski April 2014 12 120
Warsaw Bemowo Bike 3 Gen. nextbike 1 April 2012 15 140
Veturilo 3 Gen. nextbike 1 August 2012 390 5700
Wrocław[197] Wrocławski Rower Miejski 3 Gen. nextbike June 2011 76 760
Portugal Águeda[198] beÁgueda 3 Gen. 2011 4 20
Anadia[199] b→AND 3 Gen. 2014 11
Aveiro[200] Buga 2 Gen. 2000 1 300
Cascais[201] biCas 3 Gen. 2016 90 700
Figueira da Foz[202] Figas 3 Gen. 2020 7 60
Lisbon[203] GIRA 3 Gen. 2017 91 800
Torres Vedras[204] Agostinhas 3 Gen. 5 June 2013 19 260
Vila do Conde[205] biConde 3 Gen. 5 June 2014 12 60
Vilamoura[206] Vilamoura Public Bikes 3 Gen. 15 July 2012 43 260
Romania Bucharest[207] Cicloteque Proprietary 31 July 2008 6 400
Russia Almetyevsk Gobike September 2017[208] dockless[209] 45
Kazan Veli'k 3 Gen. Cyclocity Russ Outdoor[210] 1 July 2013 6 120[211]
Moscow Velobike Smoove CityBike June 2013 430 4300
Saint-Petersburg Velogorod July 2014 96 800 1400
Serbia Novi Sad NS Bike Parking Servis 2011 5 70
Slovakia Bratislava Whitebikes Open Source Bike Share May 2014 50 100
Slovnaft BAjk Slovnaft 7 September 2018[212] 90 400[213]
Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 1 June 2020[214] dockless 80[215]
Rekola 4 Gen. Rekola 7 September 2020[216] dockless 200
Humenné Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 22 June 2021[217] dockless 40
Košice Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 24 April 2019[218] dockless 500[219]
Krásno nad Kysucou Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 26 May 2021[220] dockless 40
Kysucké Nové Mesto Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 26 May 2021[220] dockless 50
Moldava nad Bodvou Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 25 July 2019[221] dockless 25[222]
Nitra ARRIVA Bike nextbike Arriva 28 July 2017[223] 14[224] 70
Poprad, Spišská Teplica, Svit Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 8 August 2019[225]
14 May 2021[226]
dockless 150
Považská Bystrica Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 17 June 2022[227] dockless 60
Prešov, Veľký Šariš Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 24 June 2020[228]
6 July 2021[229]
dockless 215
Sabinov Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 28 July 2021[230] dockless 50
Snina Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 28 June 2021[217] dockless 50
Svidník Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 8 June 2021[231] dockless 50
Trebišov Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 17 July 2019[232] dockless 65
Trnava Arboria bike City of Trnava 1 March 2019[233] dockless 118
Vranov nad Topľou Verejný bicykel Antik Telecom 15 June 2022[234] dockless 50
Žilina BikeKIA nextbike Arriva 29 March 2019[235] 21 123[236]
Slovenia Celje[237] KolesCE Nomago 13 September 2018 27[238]
Kranj[239] KRsKOLESOM Mestna občina Kranj 26[240]
Ljubljana[241] Bicike(lj) Cyclocity JCDecaux 12 May 2011 33 215
Rogaška Slatina in Podčetrtek
Velenje BICY MICikel 18 September 2012 9 40
South Africa Orania, Northern Cape[242] Orania Openbare Fietsprojek 16 July 2014 3 30
South Korea Changwon[243][244] NUBIJA October 2008 235 2348[245]
Daejeon Tashu Tashu Daejeon Metropolitan Government, Daejeon Metropolitan City Facilities Management Corporation 13 October 2008 304
Sejong Eouling Eouling & New Eouling Sejong City Transportation Corporation 28 October 2014 1055
Seoul[246] Ddareungi 15 October 2015 2500[247] 37500 87000
Spain Barcelona Bicing 3 Gen. Clear CC 22 March 2007 424 6000 28093[248]
Córdoba[249] Eco-bici 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 2003 4 35
Elche (Elx) bicielx 14 June 2010 14 200
Gijón Gijon-Bici 3 Gen. Cyclocity 2003 8 64
Girona[250][251] Girocleta 25 September 2009 10 260
Madrid[252] BiciMAD May 2014 123 1580
Málaga, Andalucía MálagaBici Cemusa 2013 20 400
Murcia, Region of Murcia Muybici[253]
Palma Bicipalma 28 March 2011 28 336
Pamplona n'bici July 2007 5 101
Santander[254][255] Tusbic 3 Gen. Cyclocity September 2008 15 180
Seville[256] Sevici 3 Gen. Cyclocity April 2007 259 2100
Valencia[257] Valenbisi 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 22 June 2010 276 2400
Zaragoza Bizi 3 Gen. Clear CC 28 May 2008 130 1000
Sweden Gothenburg[258] Styr & Ställ 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 10 August 2010 60 1000
Lund Lundahoj 3 Gen. Cyclocity JCDecaux 20 August 2014 17 250
Malmö Malmö By Bike 3 Gen. Clear CC 14 May 2016 50 500
Stockholm Stockholm City bikes 3 Gen. Clear CC April 2006 67 1000
Switzerland Aigle, Monthey PubliBike PubliBike 2010 10 99
Bern PubliBike PubliBike 2011 8 54
Freiburg PubliBike PubliBike 2010 8 94
Lausanne velopass June 2009 April 2013
Lausanne PubliBike PubliBike April 2013 23 251
Lugano PubliBike PubliBike 2010 9 88
Luzern nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 2008 30 280
Nyon, Gland PubliBike PubliBike 2011 13 167
Sion PubliBike PubliBike 2010 7 69
Vevey PubliBike PubliBike 2009 5 41
Taiwan Changhua YouBike May 2014 68 1695
Kaohsiung C-bike 300 4800
Taipei[259][260] YouBike November 2009 400 13072
Thailand Bangkok KU Mobike Mobike 2017
oBike 4 Gen. oBike July 2017
CU Bike Smoove 2012[261] 5 125
Pun Pun Bike Share 2012[262][263] 50 500
Chiang Mai Mobike Mobike 2018
Turkey Izmir Bisim January 2014 29
Karşıyaka Karbis 3 Gen. nextbike January 2014 6
Konya nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike 40
Ukraine Kyiv nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike nextbike Kyiv LLC 15 August 2018[264] 33 100
Lviv nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike nextbike Ukraine LLC 31 March 2016[265] 24 140
United Kingdom Barton-upon-Humber, England Factory Bikes WhiteBikes Elswick Hopper 19?? 19??
Belfast, Northern Ireland Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes 3 Gen. nextbike NSL 27 April 2015 30 300
Blackpool, England[266] Hire-a-Bike Hourbike 2009 60 400
Bristol, England YoBike YoBike May 2017
Cambridge, England GreenBike WhiteBikes 1993 1995 300
Cardiff, Wales Nextbike 3 Gen. nextbike March 2018
Dundee, Scotland Embark Dundee RideOn 20
Glasgow, Scotland Mass Automated Cycle Hire (MACH) 3 Gen. nextbike 24 June 2014 31 400[267]
Greater Manchester, England GM Cycle Hire Beryl November 2021[268] 200 1500[269]
Edinburgh, Scotland Just Eat Cycles Urban Sharing Serco 24 June 2018 50+ 500[270] 700[270]
Liverpool, England City Bike May 2014 130 1000[271]
London, England[272][273] Santander Cycles (formerly Barclays Cycle Hire) PBSC & 8D Serco 30 July 2010 839 13600
Leicester, England Santander Cycles Leicester RideOn 14 April 2021[274] 38
Milton Keynes, England SantanderCyclesMK 3 Gen. nextbike CycleSaviours 17 June 2016 42 300
Newcastle, England ScratchBikes
(known as WhipBikes until 2011)
ScratchBikes 2010 12 60
Nottingham, England Ucycle Sustrans & Evans Cycles 2010 0 460
Portsmouth, England Bikeabout Public Velo University of Portsmouth 1996 1998 2
Slough, England Smoove 3 Gen. Smoove November 2013 4 60
Southampton, England YoBike YoBike September 2017
United States Ann Arbor, Michigan[275] ArborBike 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2014 14 125
Atlanta Relay Bike Share May 2016 65 500
Aspen, Colorado WE-cycle PBSC June 2013 16 200
Austin, Texas[276] Bike Share of Austin 3 Gen. B-Cycle December 2013 46 375
Yellow Bike Project WhiteBikes Austin YBP and city council January 1997 200
Battle Creek, Michigan[277] Battle Creek BCycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 19 August 2013 3 21
Black Rock City, Nevada[278] Yellow Bikes Yellow Bikes
Boise, Idaho[279] Boise Bike Share Social Bicycle 16 April 2015 September 2020[280][281] 15 117
Boston[282] Hubway PBSC & 8D Motivate 2011 158 1461 3268
Boulder, Colorado[283][284] Boulder B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2011 23 120
Broward County, Florida Broward B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2011 35
Charlotte, North Carolina[285] Charlotte B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2012 21 200
Chattanooga, Tennessee[286] Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System PBSC 2012 37 334
Chicago[287][288] Divvy PBSC & 8D Motivate 2013 576 5837 13000
Cincinnati, Ohio[289] Red Bike 3 Gen. B-Cycle 15 September 2014 50
Columbia, South Carolina BlueBikeSC Bbewege September 2018 18 135
Columbus, Ohio CoGo PBSC & 8D Motivate July 2013 41 335
Denver[290] Denver B-cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2010 January 2020 89 737
Des Moines, Iowa[291][292] Des Moines B-cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2010 4 18
El Paso, Texas[293] El Paso BCycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 14 September 2015 8 80
Eugene, Oregon[294] PeaceHealth Rides PeaceHealth Rides 2018 36 300
Fairbanks, Alaska Fairbikes A2B Bikeshare 24 September 2015
Fargo, North Dakota[295][296] GreatRides 3 Gen. B-Cycle 15 March 2010 11 101
Fort Worth, Texas[297] Fort Worth B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 22 April 2013 32 300
Fullerton, California OCTA BikeShare Bike Nation 6 January 2014 10 75
Hoboken, New Jersey[298] Hudson Bike Share 3 Gen. nextbike September 2015 29 250
Houston[299][300] Houston B-cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2012 126[301] 1000
Indianapolis[302] Indiana Pacers Bikeshare B-Cycle Indianapolis Cultural Trail 22 April 2014 50 525
Jersey City, New Jersey[303] Citi Bike 8D Motivate September 2015 50 500
Kailua, Hawaii[304][305] Hawaii B-cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2011 2 12
Kansas City, Missouri[306] Kansas City B-cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2012 30 300
Kona District, Hawaii PBSC 2016 3 30
Lansing, Michigan Capital Community Bikeshare A2B Bikeshare 2014 8 20 Closed[307]
Lincoln, Nebraska[308] BikeLNK 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2018 19 100
Los Angeles Metro Bike Share 3 Gen. B-Cycle 7 July 2016 207 1700
Madison, Wisconsin[309] Madison B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2011 39 350
Meridian, Colorado M-Bike Zagster 15 March 2010 11
Miami Beach, Florida[310] Decobike SandVault 2011 100 1000
Milwaukee[311][312] Bublr Bikes 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2014 87 400+
Minneapolis–Saint Paul[313][314] Nice Ride PBSC & 8D 2010 171 1833
New York City[315][316][317][318][319] Citi Bike PBSC & 8D Motivate 27 May 2013 739 20000 65000
Oklahoma City[320] Spokies Spokies 2012 7 100
Omaha, Nebraska[321] Omaha B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2011 5 35
Philadelphia[322][323] Indego 3 Gen. B-Cycle (incl. some e-bikes 23 April 2015 125 1400
Phoenix, Arizona Grid Bike Share 3 Gen. CycleHop and Social Bicycles 25 November 2014 40 500
Pittsburgh Healthy Ride PGH 3 Gen. nextbike 2015 50 500
Portland, Oregon Biketown 19 July 2016 100 1000
Yellow Bike Project 1 Gen. WhiteBikes Yellow Bike Project 1994[324] 1997[325] 1000
Salt Lake City[326] SLC Bike Share 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2013 12 100
San Antonio[327] San Antonio B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2011 68 600
San Diego[328] DecoBike DecoBike JCDecaux February 2015 180 1800
San Francisco Bay Area 2013
Baywheels 8D Motivate June 2017 550 7000
Santa Monica, California[329] Breeze Bike Share 3 Gen. CycleHop and Social Bicycles 13 August 2015 80 500
Savannah, Georgia[330] CAT Bike 3 Gen. B-Cycle 24 January 2014 2 16
Seattle[331] Pronto Cycle Share 8D Motivate 13 October 2014 31 March 2017 50 500
Spartanburg, South Carolina[332] Spartanburg B-Cycle 3 Gen. B-Cycle 2011 5 40
St. Paul Yellow Bike Project 1 Gen. w/ BikeCard volunteers and city council 1997
Tampa, Florida[333] Coast Bike Share 3 Gen. CycleHop and Social Bicycles 7 December 2014 30 300
Washington metropolitan area[334] Capital Bikeshare PBSC & 8D Motivate 2010 658 5,400


The advertising company JCDecaux launched its "Cyclocity" programs initially in Vienna,[335] Austria in 2003 and in Lyon, France in 2005. The company also started programs in other cities in Europe such as Paris, Córdoba, and Kazan, as well as cities outside of Europe, such as Brisbane, Australia. Payment for using the bikes is done with smart cards.

Competitor Clear Channel, then operating as Adshel, opened the first example of this in Rennes in 1997, and has several other sites including Oslo, Stockholm, Sandnes and Trondheim, most generally similar to that offered by their competitor.

A different financial model called bicing is used in Barcelona, which is paid for by car owners parking on public streets and not by advertising – which is contracted to JCDecaux in some places.[336]


French cities not included in the list above offering a bicycle sharing system include Lorient, Annemasse and Aix-en-Provence.


In 1965, the group Provo painted fifty bicycles white and scattered them unlocked in downtown Amsterdam for everyone to use freely.[4] The bicycles were both stolen as well as impounded by the authorities, as a city ordinance forbade leaving unlocked bikes in public places.[337][338]

In September 1997, a pilot project for a public share system, based on the UK's Grippa racks was established in Rotterdam for use by commuters but it was terminated the following year due to poor functionality of the electronic bike racks.[339]


The first Norwegian bicycle-sharing system was introduced in Sandnes[340] in 1996.[341] It consisted of 225 green DBS bikes that were free to use in the fashion of a first generation bicycle sharing system. The Sandnes system was converted to a third generation system in 2002.[342] In 1998, Trondheim introduced a second generation system with 200 bicycles modeled after that of Copenhagen's. The Trondheim system was converted into a third generation system in 2005. The following cities are known to have city bike arrangements. Some are prepaid automatic (for example Oslo), some are manual (Tønsberg). In 2001, Drammen introduced a third generation system together with Clear Channel.[341] Bergen, the second-largest city in Norway has occasionally had city bikes, and as of 2018 and 2019 opened a new and improved system based on the system in Oslo together with OBOS [no] and Urban Infrastructure Partner.[343]


Portugal has several bike-share systems implemented in various cities and towns. The largest is Lisbon's GIRA public bikeshare system,[345] a hybrid system currently operating with 700 pedelec and conventional bicycles served by 91 stations. A large expansion of Lisbon's bikeshare system is currently underway, expected to duplicate both fleet and coverage.[346] Other systems with reasonable urban coverage for the size of their operating areas are those of Vilamoura with 260 bicycles and 43 stations,[206] Torres Vedras with 260 bicycles and 19 stations,[347] and Vila do Conde with 60 bicycles and 12 stations.[205] The town of Cascais with Portugal's second largest bike-sharing system has a relatively adequate geographical coverage of the municipality, but operating hours are limited (from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.), some stations have few or no bicycles available for long periods of time, and operations were suspended during 15 months, from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in mid-March 2020[348] until June 2021, when the system was gradually reactivated. Other systems are being implemented in various towns nationwide, mostly in towns along the central and northern coastal areas [349] and in the Azores.[350]


Timișoara is the first Romanian city to introduce a public rent-a-bike system. The scheme is called VeloTM and has 25 stations and 300 bikes. The rent-a-bike system works with the RATT card. Renting a bike is free; however, there is a fee for the card.[351]

Russian FederationEdit

VeloBike bicycles in Moscow

Automated public bicycle sharing-services in Russia operate in Moscow, Sankt-Petersburg, Kazan and Almetyevsk (Republic of Tatarstan). The system in Moscow is steadily expanding each year[352] while the systems in Sankt-Petersburg and Kazan are struggling to survive.[353][354] The system in Almetyevsk is dockless with about 300 pre-marked parking lots across the town where the bicycles must be left after use.[209] A couple of smaller-scale dockless systems are deployed in Adlersky City District in Sochi.[355][356]


The Velobike system was opened in 2013. In 2015 it was fully replaced by the Smoove-based solution using B’TWIN bicycles.[357][358] In 2018 there were 430 parking stations in the system with 4300 bicycles. There were 424,736 registered users and 4.25 million trips taken that year.[352]

Saint Petersburg

In 2020 the Smart Bike system was launched in Saint Petersburg.

Other cities

In 2020 Velobike opened in Murmansk, making it the northernmost bicycle-sharing system in the world. There are 10 stations in the city centre. In August 2020 Velobike opened in Nizhny Novgorod.

Mobee network

The Russian-based Mobee bike-sharing company operates a few dockless bike-sharing networks. As of 2019, it has opened in three cities: Sochi, Volgograd and Saratov.[359][360]


In 2001, the not-for-profit organization BiCyBa released white bicycles into public use in Bratislava, Slovakia. During the next three months all the bikes were stolen or destroyed, and the project was cancelled.[361][362] In 2013, a new community-run bike-sharing program in Bratislava called White Bikes commenced service with about 100 bikes (donated by the local Rotary Club[363]) and over 60 stations as of December 2017.[364] It is built on the Open Source Bike Share System[365] based on SMS and a web app. It was started in 2013 by BikeKitchen initiative and cycling advocacy NGO Cyklokoalicia. There is no fee; membership is granted after initial introduction and training. Bikes are available year-round.

The official Bratislava city bike-sharing system Slovnaft Bajk was launched on 7 September 2018[366] in cooperation with Slovnaft. It initially offered under 100 bicycles at around 80 stations.[367] The number of bicycles increased to around 190 later, but users complained about the UX, broken bicycles, and the rental process. An estimated 23%[368] of bicycles were non-functional or inaccessible for rental. Another free-floating bike sharing system, Rekola, from Czechia was launched in September 2020.[369]

The first commercial bike-sharing system in Slovakia was launched in 2016 in the city of Prievidza. Zelený bicykel (Green bicycle) has 19 stations and is expected to add 10 more in 2018.[370] Bikes are not available during the winter season.[371]

Public transportation company Arriva launched a bike-sharing system in Nitra in 2017. It is a complementary service for bus riders. It features 7 docking stations. The price is €25 per year, €3 per day or €0.50 per hour.[372][373] Bikes are not available during the winter season.

Another commercial floating bike-sharing system was launched by a telecom provider, Antik Telecom, in Košice in May 2019. They introduced their system to the districts of Rača[214] and Vajnory[215] in Bratislava in June 2020.


Bicing in Barcelona

The Ayuntamiento de Burgos[374] runs a bike-sharing program in BiciBur,[375] with 23 locations, most with positions for ten bikes. Membership is €15 per year.[375]


The Stockholm City Bikes system has more than 80 stands and 1,000 bikes, functioning from April to October.[376]

The bike sharing system in Gothenburg, known as Styr & ställ, was launched in August 2010. The system has 60 stations and 1,000 bikes.[377]


A station in Lausanne (Switzerland).

Switzerland possesses several bicycle sharing systems including PubliBike, Smide, and oBike which was launched in Zurich on 5 July 2017.[378] The PubliBike network consists more than 500 stations and 5000 Bikes throughout the country.[379] It includes nine stations on the Lausanne campus.[380] oBike is said to have deployed 350 bikes in the city of Zurich with bike hire being CHF 1.50 for 30 minutes, with a CHF 129 deposit being required.[381] The city of Zürich also has a free bike-rental program, "Züri rollt", with several pick-up and drop-off locations.[382]

United KingdomEdit


In 1993, a Green Bike Scheme bike sharing programme was initiated in Cambridge, United Kingdom, using a fleet of some 300 bicycles. The overwhelming majority of the fleet were stolen or missing within a year of the programme's introduction, and the Green Bike Scheme was abandoned.[383][384][385]

In an attempt to overcome losses from theft, the next innovation adopted by bike sharing programmes was the use of so-called 'smart technology'. One of the first 'smart bike' programmes was the Grippa™ bike storage rack system used in Portsmouth's Bikeabout scheme.[386][387][339] The Bikeabout scheme was launched in October 1995 by the University of Portsmouth, UK, as part of its Green Transport Plan in an effort to cut car travel by staff and students between campus sites.[387] Funded in part by the EU's ENTRANCE[388] programme, the Bikeabout scheme was a "smart card" fully automated system.[387][339][389] For a small fee, users were issued 'smart cards' with magnetic stripes to be swiped through an electronic card reader at a covered 'bike store' kiosk, unlocking the bike from its storage rack.[387] CCTV camera surveillance was installed at all bike stations in an effort to limit vandalism.[387] Upon arriving at the destination station, the smart card was used to open a cycle rack and record the bike's safe return.[387] A charge was automatically registered on the user's card if the bike was returned with damage or if the time exceeded the three-hour maximum.[387] Implemented with an original budget of approximately £200,000, the Portsmouth Bikeabout scheme was never very successful in terms of rider usage,[a] in part due to the limited number of bike kiosks and hours of operation.[387][389] Seasonal weather restrictions and concerns over unjustified charges for bike damage also imposed barriers to usage.[387] The Bikeabout program was discontinued by the university in 1998 in favour of expanded minibus service; the total costs of the Bikeabout programme were never disclosed.[390][391] Following the discontinuation of the University of Portsmouth's Bikeabout programme in 1998[392] (it had been launched in 1996),[393][394] the introduction of new bicycle share systems proceeded more slowly in the United Kingdom than in the rest of Europe.

Barclays Cycle Hire, London, UK started in 2010

In 2007,[395] (another source gives early 2008) London mayor Ken Livingstone promised that an extensive bicycle sharing system modelled on the Paris Vélib' system would be introduced in London during his final term in office.[396] The scheme was not completed until Boris Johnson was in office, and consequently became known informally as "Boris Bikes".[397] With initial sponsorship from Barclays and later Santander, Transport for London launched the scheme in 2010. Hire under 30 minutes is free from special bicycle stands across the city, after a daily, monthly or annual charge has been paid.[398]

Outside London, the largest is the hire-a-bike operation in Blackpool, operated by Hourbike,[399] with 60 stations and 500 bikes in the scheme. This scheme uses both RFID membership cards and instant point-of-sale memberships to cater for both residential users and the very many visitors that go to the resort every year. Hourbike also has schemes in Lincoln, Reading, Liverpool, Nottingham and Southport in England as well as Dumfries, Scotland.[400]

In 2017, ofo, a Beijing-based bike share company, announced plans to provide shared bike services to several British cities. In 2018, the company withdrew service to several British towns and reduced service area coverage to others as part of a global restructuring plan.[401]

In May 2017, Bristol became the first European city to have a hire-a-bike system operated by YoBike.[402][403]

Some bike-sharing schemes use mobile phone apps to reserve or sign out bikes. In the UK, OYBike delivered small-scale operations at 2 universities, 3 business parks, 3 London boroughs, and a private hotel chain in London until 2011. Like Munich's Call-a-Bike, OYBike used mobile phone technology to log use and charge for hires and can set up hire points in as little as 10 minutes.[404]

Brompton Bike Hire has 40 docks across 25 major locations in the UK, starting at £2.50 for 24 hours and is using the same hardware as BIXI Montréal, members can rent a folding Brompton bike. The locations of the docks include London, Birmingham, Manchester, Bristol, Reading, Southampton and Oxford.[405]

In 2018 the Singaporean-based company oBike launched in London, with 400 dockless bikes and is anticipated to soon spread to other cities in the UK.[406][407] In the UK, oBike's bike hire is 50p for 30 minutes, with a £49 deposit being required.[406][408]

In June 2019, bicycle light company Beryl launched a dockless cycle share scheme in Bournemouth and Poole, which was extended to Christchurch the following year.[409][410] Beryl also operates schemes in Hereford, Norwich, Watford and the Isle of Wight.[411]

In June 2021, Transport for Greater Manchester announced Beryl as the delivery partner to design, install and operate a 24/7, docked public cycle hire scheme made up of an initial 1,500 bikes and e-bikes at over 200 new cycle hire docking stations across Manchester, Trafford and Salford, in Greater Manchester.[268] The scheme is scheduled to launch in November 2021.[269]

Northern IrelandEdit

Belfast launched a public bike hire scheme on 27 April 2015. The scheme was sponsored by Coca-Cola HBC Northern Ireland and is called Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes. The Department for Regional Development (DRD) provided initial capital funding for the scheme as part of their Active Travel Demonstration Projects budget. NSL is looking after the daily operation of the scheme, while Nextbike is responsible for the bikes.[412] There are 33 docking stations with options for expansion depending on securing additional resources and council approval.[413][414]


Recent expansions to cities in Scotland piggy-backing on the Commonwealth Games 2014 in Glasgow included Glasgow and Stirling.[415][416][417] Stirling's scheme was named "Pedalforth" following a competition in the community and comprises 100 bikes and 11 stations. Glasgow was provided with 400 bikes across 31 stations in 2014.[418] In addition to this, in 2018, Edinburgh launched its own cycle hire scheme in partnership with Just Eat, aptly titled ‘Just Eat Cycles’.



Nextbike started a public bike hire scheme operating in Cardiff on 26 March 2018, with five docking stations and 50 bicycles.[419] The original plan had been to have the public bike hire scheme operating in Cardiff by Autumn 2017.[420] The plan is still to reach 500 cycles over 50 docking stations in the city.[419] It came 6 years after OYBike ended a smaller scheme (with 10 stations), following the council's withdrawal of funding in 2011.[420]


Santander began a bike sharing scheme in Swansea in summer of 2018.[421] Initially, there were five docking station, with a sixth later being added in Mumbles. The scheme has proven popular and there are prospects of expanding the service in the city.

North AmericaEdit


Montréal, QCEdit

BIXI Montreal, Quebec, Canada

The first widely deployed bicycle sharing system was BIXI Montréal. BIXI Montréal launched in 2009.[422] It has since expanded to 6200 bicycles at 540 stations,[423] making it and the one in Toronto by far the largest bicycle sharing systems in Canada. Although initial program costs were $15 million for planning and implementation of the Bixi project, subsequent additional costs incurred in expanding the program have driven costs upwards of $23 million.[424][425][426] Started in May 2009, it has expanded to over 5000 bicycles at 450 stations.[427] The system was developed by PBSC Urban Solutions along with a consortium of vendors. The BIXI technology was then used in numerous bike sharing systems in North America, Europe and Australia. The Montreal system was ranked by Time Magazine as the 19th best invention of 2008.[428]

Hamilton, ONEdit

Sobi Hamilton launched in March 2015 with 750 bicycles at over 100 stations.[429]

Ottawa, ONEdit

The Bixi system was implemented in June 2009 in Ottawa/Gatineau as Capital Bixi. Capital Bixi launched in 2009 as a pilot program with 100 bicycles and 10 stations. In 2012, it was expanded to 250 bicycles and 25 stations. Its owner, the NCC, sold it to US-based CycleHop in April 2014 when its operator, Montreal-based Public Bike System Company, filed for bankruptcy protection in January 2014.[430][431] CycleHop renamed the service to VeloGo and replaced the fleet with all-new 'smart' bicycles, where intelligence (i.e. GPS tracking, etc.) is built into each bicycle, instead of relying on base stations, as with Bixi system. VeloGo began its service in the summer of 2015.[432]

Toronto, ONEdit

From 2001 to 2006, BikeShare, operated by the Community Bicycle Network (CBN) in Toronto, was for a time the most popular community bicycle sharing program in North America. BikeShare was intended to overcome some of the theft issues by requiring yearly memberships to sign out any of the 150 refurbished yellow bikes locked up at 16 hubs throughout central Toronto. At its height, over 400 members could sign out a bike from any hub for up to three days. The hubs were located at stores, cafes and community centres where the staff would volunteer their time to sign bikes out and in.[433] Despite steadily increasing administrative, implementation, and maintenance costs, CBN could only charge users around 20 percent of actual costs, as users were unlikely to spend more than $50 per year for a membership. Without sufficient funds in the form of private and government grants, CBN was forced to discontinue BikeShare in 2006.[434]

Bixi Toronto launched in 2011 with 800 bicycles at 80 stations.[435] In 2013, when Public Bike System Company acknowledged that it could not repay its $3.9 million loan to the city, the system was taken over by the Toronto Parking Authority and renamed Bike Share Toronto.[436] In 2016, the city of Toronto signed a contract with PBSC to expand their system. Its network hosts 6,850 bicycles spread among 625 stations.[437][438]

Vancouver, BCEdit

In 2016, Vancouver installed a bike sharing system, Mobi (bike share), operated by CycleHop Corp.[439]

Mobi (bike share) launched in July 2016 with 1500 bicycles at 150 stations.[440]

Victoria, BCEdit

In September 2017 a dockless bike share became available in the city of Victoria, starting with 150 bicycles.[40] The dockless bike share was operated by U-Bicycle.

Edmonton, ABEdit

From 2005 to 2008, a largely unregulated bike sharing program was operated by the Peoples' Pedal organisation in Edmonton, Alberta. The program suffered from high theft and vandalism rates, with 95% of the bikes that had been placed into service stolen or missing by 2008.[441]

Costa RicaEdit

Cartago east of San José, Costa Rica started a bikeshare program.[442][443]


Ecobici bicycles in Mexico City

Mexico CityEdit

Ecobici is one of the world's largest programs, with 452 stations covering a 35-square-kilometre (14 sq mi) area.[444][445]

In February 2010, the government of Mexico City inaugurated a new bicycle sharing network called Ecobici.[446] With distinctive red and white liveried bicycles, the network as of February 2015 consists of 444 stations with 6,500 bicycles.[447] With more than 240,000 registered users, it has been argued that Ecobici is the largest bicycle-sharing program in North America.[448] The system is run by a private company, Clear Channel México, but[449] funded by the government with an initial investment of 75 million pesos. Users of the system are required to purchase an RFID card at a cost of 400 pesos which will provide them with access to the bicycles for one year. Use of a bicycle is free for the first 45 minutes; extra charges are applied for use beyond this time limit.


In December 2014, the government of the State of Jalisco implemented a bicycle sharing system called MiBici with 86 stations and 860 bicycles.[450] As of August 2021, it has 300 stations with 3,200 bicycles.[451] This system uses the technology and the hardware of PBSC.[452]


In November 2015, the Municipality of Toluca inaugurated a bicycle sharing system called Huitzi with 26 stations and 300 bicycles, using PBSC as a provider.[453][454]


In February 2016, the Municipality of Pachuca inaugurated a bicycle sharing system called Bici Capital with 6 stations and 140 bicycles.[455]


From January 2017, the Puebla will have a system called Bici Puebla with 139 stations and 2,100 bicycles.[456]

United StatesEdit

In the United States, public bicycle share programs have largely centered around major cities and universities.[457] Some corporate campuses have private systems.[458] According to a report by the National Association of City Transportation Officials, a total of 35 million bike-share trips took place within the United States in 2017 across 100 bike-share systems across the country, operated by eight companies.[459] With Seattle leading the way on dockless bike sharing in the U.S. in summer 2017, but other cities soon joining the ranks, nine months later, about 44% of rides were dockless.[459] As elsewhere, the bikes became controversial in various cities;[460] Dallas reportedly had 20,000 bikes on the streets,[461] they were essentially banned in New York City and San Francisco,[462] with Austin, Texas issuing emergency rules for their implementation.[463]

Bikes Belong (Dem/Rep Conventions), 2008Edit

In 2007, Bikes Belong (now known as PeopleForBikes), an advocacy group financed by major bicycle manufacturers worked with city officials, local advocates, and the healthcare firm Humana to bring bikesharing to the Republican and Democratic 2008 conventions. Called "Freewheelin!" the program offered 1,000 bicycles at 12 stations throughout the downtowns of the host cities, Denver and Minneapolis/St. Paul, over the five days of each convention. Bikes Belong's stated goal was to provide a proof-of-concept that large-scale bicycle sharing that was exploding in European cities could work in U.S. cities and provide a valuable addition to the transportation mix. The program was popular among conventioneers, and helped the city of Denver to create a narrative around the "green" attributes of the convention. Both Denver and Minneapolis successfully pursued permanent bikesharing systems, with Denver B-cycle launching on 22 April 2010 as the first of its scale in the U.S., followed by Minneapolis' NiceRide system launching on 10 June 2010.[464]

Aspen/Basalt, COEdit

The system was launched in 2013 with 16 stations and 200 bikes with provider PBSC.[465][466]

Albany, NYEdit

In 2017, CDPHP Cycle! launched in Albany and three other Capital region cities.[467] The bikes can be locked to official docks or any other rack for a slightly higher fee.[468] The system is operated by CDTA.[468]

Alpharetta, GAEdit

Alpharetta offered a bike share program operated by Zagster. Trips under 3 hours were free, and annual memberships were $20. Bikes could be rented from 4 stations throughout Alpharetta.[469] Bikes could be taken anywhere, including Alpharetta's Big Creek Greenway– a 12 foot wide concrete path that stretches eight scenic miles terminating in Big Creek park.[470] The service was suspended late May 2020 due to a large-scale Zagster shutdown, and all bicycles and stations were removed.[471][472]

Atlanta, GAEdit

In June 2016, Relay Bike Share launched as the bike share system for the City of Atlanta. The program—operated by Cyclehop, LLC and Social Bicycles, LLC—launched with 100 bicycles at 10 stations throughout the downtown area. The program aims to offer 500 bicycles across the city by the end of 2016.[473]

Austin, TXEdit

In December 2013, Austin B-cycle launched as the bike share system for the City of Austin with 11 stations.[474] Austin B-cycle set a national bike share record for the most checkouts per bicycle in a single day, 10.1 checkouts per bike, on 14 March 2015 during the SXSW festival.[475] In July 2020, Capital Metro and the city of Austin finalized a partnership to improve Austin’s mobility network utilizing the city-owned BCycle bikeshare system. This partnership, now called Metrobike, aims to create long-term bikeshare service improvements such as expanding the BCycle fleet and stations, optimizing the system’s first and last mile transit solution, improving services and reaching communities outside of the downtown core, and fully electrifying BCycle’s fleet. As of March 2022, the MetroBike system operated more than 75 bike share stations with 800 bikes in the central Austin area.[476]

Baltimore, MDEdit

In May 2014, over 40 bicycles were stolen from Baltimore Recreation and Parks department's bike-share program. The bikes were stolen during the city's Ride Around Reservoir program in Druid Hill Park. The bikes were set up to be lent out when a group of youths took them. The cost of replacing the stolen bikes is devastating to the program, which operates completely on donations.[477][478]

Birmingham, ALEdit

Birmingham launched Zyp Bikeshare in October, 2015. Annual memberships are $75, with monthly passes for $20, 3-day passes for $12, and daily passes for $6.[479] Zyp also offers discounted annual memberships to individuals who qualify. Zyp operates 400 bikes at 40 kiosks. Bikes can be ridden anywhere in the downtown Birmingham area. Once a bike is unlocked, riders have 45 minutes to ride before incurring additional fees if they have not docked at another station. As well as traditional bikes, Zyp was the first bikeshare in North America to have electric pedal-assist bikes to help riders cover distances or mount hills faster.[480]

Boston, MAEdit

In 2007, Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino and Director of Bicycle Programs, Nicole Freedman, decided to bring bike sharing to the Boston area. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council, the regional planning agency for the metro-Boston region of 101 cities and towns, joined the effort. Brookline, Cambridge, and Somerville also participated.

Boston Bluebikes station

On 28 July 2011, Boston launched its 60-station, 600-bike Hubway system, sponsored by the shoe manufacturer New Balance and funded in part by a $3 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration. The contract to operate was awarded to Alta Bicycle Share and the equipment provider was PBSC Urban Solutions. Bicycle-sharing was greeted with a mix of excitement and skepticism. In its first two and a half months, Hubway recorded 100,000 station-to-station rides. After recording 140,000 trips in four months, Boston's European-style bicycle-sharing system expanded outside city limits, planting stations across Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline.

In spring of 2018 Motivate the operator of the system changed sponsors from Hubway to the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association and officially changed the name of the bike share program to Bluebikes Boston.[481] As of December 2018, the system had deployed 262 stations with a fleet of over 2,500 bikes.[482]

Boulder, COEdit

Solar powered Boulder B-cycle station with double sided docks. The system was launched in April 2010.

In May 2011, Boulder, Colorado launched a bicycle sharing system, Boulder B-Cycle, with 100 bicycles and 15 stations. This system, like many in northern latitude cities, closes down during winter months to help preserve the life of the equipment.[483]

Broward County, FLEdit

Broward B-Cycle launched in December 2011 as the country's first county-wide bike share program, with 200 bikes and 20 stations located in several cities within Broward County, including Fort Lauderdale. This system was funded through a public-private partnership with the Florida Department of Transportation providing a $311,000 grant through Broward County, and B-Cycle's sponsors providing the remainder of the initial capital and operating costs.[484]

Buffalo, NYEdit

Reddy Bikeshare launched in 2016 with 200 bicycles at 35 stations around the city.[485]

Charleston, SCEdit

In August 2013, the College of Charleston's Office of Sustainability began a bike sharing program.[486] This program's 16 bicycles are free to use for all full-time students, faculty, and staff members.[487]

Charlotte, NCEdit

A system of B-Cycle stands are installed downtown and a few places nearby.[285]

Chattanooga, TNEdit

In July 2012, the Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System launched in Chattanooga, Tennessee with 300 bikes and 28 solar-powered stations by PBSC.[488] It was the first large scale bicycle transit system in the Southeast. The system has expanded to 33 stations and had recorded over 78,000 trips by its second anniversary.[489]

Chicago, ILEdit

Launched in 2013, Divvy is the bike sharing program for Chicago and the largest in North America.

On 28 June 2013, Chicago launched Divvy, a bike share system with 750 bikes at 75 stations.[490] As of December 2016, the system operates over 5800 bikes at 580 stations,[491] using both PBSC's hardware and software.[492]

Cincinnati, OHEdit

In September 2014, Cincinnati Red Bike started operation. It opened with 35 docking stations in downtown, Over the Rhine, University of Cincinnati's main campus and surrounding areas. In 2015 Red Bike expanded to 50 stations with over 300 bikes and has a ridership of 100,000+ per year.[493]

Cleveland, OHEdit

On 21 September 2016, Cleveland launched its UH Bike system, with 250 bicycles and 22 stations distributed around the city.[494][495]

Columbia, SCEdit

In September 2018, Columbia launched BlueBikeSC with BlueCross BlueShield SC being the chief sponsor.[496] In March 2019, the regions transit authority, The Comet (transit) expanded the bike share system adding 10 stations to the system with a $250,000 grant from the federal transit authority.[497]

Columbus, OHEdit

On 30 July 2013, CoGo Bike Share started in Columbus, Ohio. It opened with 300 bikes and 30 docking stations in downtown and surrounding areas,[498] all provided by PBSC and operated by Motivate.[499]

In summer 2015, Zagster launched a 115 bicycle, 15 station system on the Ohio State University campus. The university decided not to integrate with the city's CoGo system.[500] The Ohio State University announced plans to integrate electric assist bicycles as part of its bicycle share program launching in 2015.[501] The Zagster program at Ohio State University shut down in August 2018.[502]

Denver, COEdit

On 22 April 2010, Denver became the first U.S. city with a large-scale smart-technology enabled bicycle sharing system with the launch of Denver B-cycle. The system launched with 45 stations and 450 bicycles throughout downtown, downtown-adjacent neighborhoods, and on higher-education campuses. Denver B-cycle's roots came from the "Freewheelin" bikesharing program which operated for 6 days during the 2008 DNC convention in Denver. In Denver, several B-cycle rental stations are located at RTD Light Rail Platforms. The Denver B-cycle program varies in cost depending on use. Fees range from $8 per day to $80 per year.[503]

Denver's B-cycle needed 7+12 months to reach 100,000 station-to-station rides.[504]

Des Moines, IAEdit

B-Cycle has partnered with the Des Moines Bicycle Collective, operating bike-sharing stations throughout the downtown core, East Village, Ingersoll, Sherman Hill, and Drake University neighborhoods. The system is in operation from 1 March - 30 November each year.[505]

Detroit, MIEdit

Mogo, a nonprofit affiliate of the Downtown Detroit Partnership launched MoGo Bike Share in the Greater Downtown area with 430 bicycles across 43 stations on 23 May 2017.[506]

Eugene, OREdit

PeaceHealth Rides is administered by JUMP Bikes (formerly Social Bicycles, and now owned by Uber) and is a partnership of the City of Eugene, Lane Transit District, and the University of Oregon. The system launched in downtown Eugene, the Whiteaker neighborhood, and the area around the University of Oregon with 300 bicycles across 36 stations in April 2018. PeaceHealth, a not-for-profit Catholic health system with 10 hospitals in three states including one hospital in Eugene, is the sponsor.[507]

Fargo, NDEdit

In March 2015, bicycle advocacy nonprofit Great Rides Fargo launched Great Rides Bike Share, a system with 101 bicycles at 11 stations.[295] The system was launched in partnership with North Dakota State University, where students are enrolled at no additional cost. It was the first system to include integrated card access for enrolled students.[508][509][296]

Fort Wayne, INEdit

In April 2016, The city of Fort Wayne announced a small system in its downtown area.[510]

Fort Worth, TXEdit

On 22 April 2013, Fort Worth Bike Sharing, a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, launched a B-cycle system consisting of 300 bikes and 30 stations serving Downtown, Near Southside, and Cultural District in Fort Worth, Texas.[511][512] Fort Worth B-cycle is included in a program called "B-connected" which allows members of over 15 participating B-cycle cities to use their annual memberships for free in other cities.[513]

Greenville, NCEdit

The City of Greenville and nearby Farmville, NC launched the Bikeshare system LimeBike in early 2018. The service serves the citizens of Greenville and Farmville along with the students of East Carolina University.[514]

Harrisburg, PAEdit

The City of Harrisburg launched the Harrisburg Bike Share in late 2017 with 55 bikes through Zagster. 93% of the proceeds benefitted a State nonprofit to prevent school dropouts.[515] In June 2020 the bikeshare program was shut down when Zagster shut down operations across the country.[516][517]

Honolulu, HIEdit

The City and County of Honolulu passed Bikeshare Resolution 14–35 on 14 March 2014. Bikeshare Hawaii, a local non-profit, operates as "Biki", chose PBSC as the system provider in 2016. The initial service provided about 100 stations and 1000 bicycles and started in June 2017. During the first partial year NACTO ranked Biki as the 8th most ridden bike share service in the US. Biki reached 1 million rides after about 16 months of service. A 30% service expansion was undertaken in December 2018. The current service area extends from Iwilei to Waikiki / Diamond Head and mauka of H-I highway with about 1300 pedal bikes and over 130 stations. Biki had its first >100,000 ride month in October 2018 and had over 1 million rides during 2018. NACTO ranked Biki as the 6th most ridden bike share service in the US for 2018. Biki chose PBSCs FIT model bicycle for its accessibility (lower weight and lower center of gravity) and as such has a much higher ratio of women riders (44%) than most US systems. Additionally, there is currently an independent small pilot program in Kailua (Hawai`i County) with 3 stations also utilizing PBSC equipment. This program received an additional small expansion grant in 2018.[518]

Indianapolis, INEdit

On April 22, 2014, Indianapolis launched its public bike-share program called Indiana Pacers Bikeshare with 25 stations and 250 bikes.[519] On September 5, 2019, the program expanded to include 21 more stations and 275 more bikes, bringing the program total to 525 bicycles and 50 stations.[520]

Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine

Jersey City, NJEdit

On 21 September 2015, the Citi Bike system that started in New York City in 2013 expanded across the Hudson River to Jersey City, New Jersey with 35 stations and 350 bikes. Even though Citi Bike Jersey City is independent of Citi Bike New York, one membership works for both systems.[521] The system experienced its first wave of expansion in July 2016 with 15 new stations and 150 additional bikes. The system currently boasts 50 stations with 500 bicycles throughout Jersey City.[522]

Kansas City, MOEdit

In 2012, Kansas City, Missouri launched Kansas City B-cycle in partnership with Blue Cross Blue Shield.[523] The system currently has 30 stations and over 200 bicycles reaching downtown, Union Hill, Westport, Plaza and as of Summer 2015, Brookside Trolley Trail. North Kansas City will be adding 3 more stations in spring 2017 as well as several more coming to Midtown KCMO.[524]

La Crosse, WIEdit

On 20 April 2021, Drift Cycle was launched with 40 bikes at 8 stations in downtown La Crosse. In 2022, the system was expanded and improved with new bikes, a new app and two new stations at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse and Gundersen Health System. With the relaunch on April 21, 2022 there are ten stations and 50 bikes.[525][526]

Los Angeles, CAEdit

On 7 July 2016, Los Angeles County launched Metro Bike Share,[527] a 1,400-bike system with equipment by B-Cycle, operated by Bicycle Transit Systems. It was the first North American system to be both branded as part of the public transit agency and accessible using the regional TAP card, though at the time of launch users were required to maintain separate accounts for each transit mode and pay separate fares.[528]

Lincoln, NEEdit

On 20 April 2018, BikeLNK was launched and as of 2019, is made up of 105 bicycles and 20 stations. The program has recorded over 70,000 trips in 18 months of usage.[308]

Madison, WIEdit

In 1996, Madison, Wisconsin, instituted its Red Bikes Project, a public bike sharing program. These red-painted bicycles were available for the use of the general public, primarily in the student areas of State Street between the University of Wisconsin campus and the Wisconsin State Capitol. Initially, the only rule regarding the use of a Red Bikes Project bicycle was that it was required to remain outside and unlocked, and thus available for any passerby. After a surge in bicycle thefts and vandalism, the program was modified to require a valid credit card and $80 in security deposits for both the bicycle and the now-mandatory bicycle lock.[529] The program is now only available seasonally, from spring (when all snow has melted) to 30 November.[530]

Manhattan, KSEdit

In 2015, the Green Apple Bikes bike-share system started in Manhattan, Kansas that makes single-speed cruisers available free for 4-hour periods. The program is funded by a consortium of businesses, and bicycles are maintained by volunteers.[531][532]

Memphis, TNEdit

On 23 May 2018, Explore Bike Share launched in Memphis, TN, and West Memphis, AR.[533][534] The system was launched with 60 stations and 600 bicycles serving portions of West Memphis, Downtown Memphis, Uptown Memphis, Midtown Memphis, South Memphis, and Orange Mound, with a plan to add another 30 stations and 300 bicycles in 2019. The system uses B-Cycle equipment.[535]

Miami & Miami Beach, FLEdit

In March 2011, DecoBike launched in Miami Beach, Florida.[536] The initial rollout of the program included "approximately 100 solar-powered stations and 1,000 custom-designed bikes available to residents and visitors."[537] This public bicycle sharing and rental program is owned and operated by DecoBike, LLC, a Miami-based company, and operates under a long-term agreement with the City of Miami Beach. The service is available to both residents and visitors: any adult with a major credit card can check out a bike to pedal to their next location. An iPhone app and an interactive map on the DecoBike website allows one to locate the nearest "station" and displays the number of bikes available and the number of free docking spaces in real-time.[538]

Milwaukee, WIEdit

In August 2014, the City of Milwaukee in partnership with a local non-profit organization, Midwest Bike Share, launched Bublr Bikes[539] with 10 stations in downtown Milwaukee.[540] The system grew to 17 stations by Fall 2015, and now there are 50 stations in the City of Milwaukee[541] plus another 7 stations in the adjacent suburb of Wauwatosa[542](as of December 2016). Planning for additional stations within the City of Milwaukee is underway. Additionally, the adjacent communities of Shorewood and West Allis are expected to add around 7 stations each to the system in 2017.[543] In May 2019 a project to add an additional 26 stations to the existing 87 was announced, with plans to have the additional stations online by summer 2020.[544]

Minneapolis, MNEdit

In June 2010, Minneapolis initiated operation of Nice Ride, one of the first examples of a large-scale municipal bike sharing program in the United States. Phase 1 included 700 bikes and 65 stations throughout Minneapolis[545] Due to popularity, the system was aggressively expanded into neighboring Saint Paul in 2011. As of 29 April 2012, Nice Ride had recorded a total of 330,000 trips, and a systemwide total of 1,330 bikes at 146 stations.[546] The system is provided by PBSC.[547] Minneapolis, Nice Ride needed six months to reach 100,000 station-to-station rides.[504]

New Paltz, NYEdit

The village of New Paltz, New York, home of SUNY New Paltz, has a bicycle lending program.[548]

New York City, NYEdit

Citi Bike opened in New York City in May 2013.

On Memorial Day, 27 May 2013, New York City started its privately funded Citi Bike program. It was the nation's largest when it began operation, but Washington, D.C.'s system has grown faster. It began with 6,000 bikes at 330 docking stations in Manhattan and parts of Brooklyn. According to the city vision OneNYC the city wants to expand it to 12,000 bikes and 750 docking stations in Manhattan, all of Brooklyn and Queens[citation needed]. By 29 May, in its third day of operation, the program had 21,300 individuals signed on as annual members.[549] As of June 2013 Citi Bike is the largest bike sharing program in the United States.[550] In August 2015, Citi Bike once again became the largest system in the United States with 400 stations.[551] Jump Bikes, a dockless electric bicycle sharing system launched in the city during September 2017.[552]

Oklahoma City, OKEdit

On 18 May 2012, the City of Oklahoma City launched its bike share program known as Spokies. On 1 August 2014, Spokies became part of EMBARK, Oklahoma City's transit agency. The system has eight docking stations and 145 bikes throughout downtown Oklahoma City.[320]

Philadelphia, PAEdit

The Indego system in Philadelphia

On 23 April 2015 the City of Philadelphia launched its privately funded Indego bike share program with 60 docking stations and 600 bikes, located in Center City, South Philadelphia, Northern Liberties, and University City.[553] It used equipment by B-Cycle and was operated by Bicycle Transit Systems with a naming sponsorship from locally based health insurer Independence.[554]

Phoenix, AZEdit

On 25 November 2014, Phoenix launched Grid Bike Share with 100 bikes at 27 stations.[555] It has since expanded to nearly 500 bikes at 48 stations, and has plans to add another 200 bikes and 20 stations.[556] Mesa, AZ, joined the system in March 2016, with 100 bikes at 14 stations, with plans to add another 200 bikes and 10–14 stations. Tempe, AZ, intends to join the three-city system in early 2017 with 300 bikes at 31 stations.[557]

Pittsburgh, PAEdit

On 31 May 2015 Pittsburgh, during an Open Streets day, launched its Healthy Ride bike share program. The system launched with 50 docking stations and 500 bikes located in Downtown Pittsburgh, South Side Flats, North Shore, Strip District, Lawrenceville, Oakland, Bloomfield, and Shadyside.[558][559]

Portland, OREdit

One of the first community bicycle projects in the United States was started in Portland, Oregon in 1994 by civic and environmental activists Tom O'Keefe, Joe Keating and Steve Gunther. It took the approach of simply releasing a number of bicycles to the streets for unrestricted use. While Portland's Yellow Bike Project was successful in terms of publicity, it proved unsustainable due to theft and vandalism of the bicycles. The Yellow Bike Project was eventually terminated, and replaced with the Create A Commuter (CAC) program, which provides free secondhand bicycles to certain preselected low-income and disadvantaged people who need a bicycle to get to work or attend job training courses,[560]

On 19 July 2016 Portland launched Biketown,[561] a system with 1,000 GPS-enabled smart bikes sold by Social Bicycles and operated by Motivate with a $10 million, five-year naming sponsorship by Nike.[562] It was the continent's largest smart-bike system at the time of launch. The 100 stations covered 8.1 square miles but were concentrated most densely in downtown Portland and the Pearl and Northwest Districts.[563] Funding came entirely from a $2 million allocation of federal dollars approved by the Metro regional government, from Nike, and from ongoing user fees and smaller sponsorships.[564]

Salem, MAEdit

In 2011, the city of Salem, Massachusetts launched a bike share program called Salem Spins offering use of bicycles free of charge, for use around the city. The seasonal program was financed in part with a $25,000 grant for a fleet of 20 bicycles.[565] The program was offered from April to October until June 2020, when the city's private bikeshare partner Zagster shut down.[566]

Salt Lake City, UTEdit

On 8 April 2013, Salt Lake City launched GREENbike as the region's Bike Share brand. The program launched in downtown Salt Lake City with 10 stations and added two new stations less than four months later. The program will be expanding to 20 stations by 2014 with the goal of 100 stations in downtown Salt Lake City. Satellite GREENbike systems in cities such as Ogden are in the works and will be connected by the state transit authority's Frontrunner light rail train.[567]

San Diego, CAEdit

Though the City of San Diego signed a 10-year contract with Discover (formerly DECO) Bike in 2013, a docked bike-share, in January 2018 the city attorney Mara Elliot opined that the city's contract did not preclude other companies from operating within city limits, as long as there were "no city support or participation, other than legally required reviews and approvals."[568] Ofo and LimeBike began operating on 15 February 2018.[569] As of March 2018, Ofo, LimeBike, and Mobike offered dockless bike rentals within the city. LimeBike and Bird offer electric scooters, and LimeBike offered electric pedal-assist bikes as well.[570][571][572][573] However, there have been some concerns in high-pedestrian corridors.[574]

Due to breach of contract (according to the city of San Diego), the City of San Diego withdrew the operations permit for the Discover Bike in March 2019 and thus ended docked bike share service in the city.[575]

San Francisco / Bay Area, CAEdit

The Bay Area Bike Share system began operating in the San Francisco Bay Area in August 2013.

In August 2013 the Bay Area Bike Share system began operating in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. The system allocated half of its 700 bicycle fleet in San Francisco, and the rest along the Caltrain corridor in Redwood City, Palo Alto, Mountain View and San Jose.[576] In 2015, it was announced that the scheme would expand to 7,000 bikes, over 2016–2017, and would include the East Bay Area communities of Berkeley, Emeryville, and Oakland.[577]

Seattle, WAEdit

On 13 October 2014, Pronto Cycle Share launched with 500 bicycles and 50 stations. Pronto uses Motivate of New York City as the operator.[578] In January 2017, Seattle's mayor announced the system would be permanently shut down at the end of March 2017 due to funding shortfalls.[579] Dockless systems by LimeBike and Spin were introduced in July 2017 as their first large-city systems in the US.[580][581]

Stony Brook, NYEdit

In April 2013, Stony Brook University launched the Wolf Ride Bike Share system with 4 stations and 48 bicycles. As of November 2015, the system consists of 12 stations and 78 bicycles using software and hardware provided by PBSC.[582][583]

Topeka, KSEdit

On 15 April 2015, Topeka Metro Bikes launched with 100 smart bikes and 10 stations.[584] An additional 100 bikes were added to the system in April 2016.[585] The program shut down in July 2020,[586] and all 300 bikes were subsequently sold at auction.[587] A local non-profit purchased the bikes, modified them to remove the electronics, and gave them to members of the community on a first-come, first-served basis.[588]

Tucson, AZEdit

In 1996, a pilot bicycle share project known as the Orange Bike Project was organised in Tucson, Arizona by Bootstraps to Share, a homeless advocacy organisation inspired by the Bikes Not Bombs movement.[589] Using funds from a taxpayer-funded government grant to obtain, recondition, and maintain 30 bicycles, project organisers announced plans to station the bicycles in downtown Tucson and areas adjacent to the University of Arizona.[589] The publicly shared bicycles, painted bright orange by Earl Scheib to identify them, were primarily intended for use by the homeless or those without means of affordable transportation.[589] The initial 30 bicycles placed into service for the Orange Bike Project were all stolen within a few weeks.[590] A total of 80 bicycles were eventually used in the Orange Bike Project, all of which were either stolen or vandalised beyond repair.[590] In one case, an Orange Bike Project bicycle was thrown in front of a freight train, in others, bikes were found with major frame damage consistent with deliberate vandalism.[590] The program was terminated after only five months of operation.[589][590]

Tulsa, OKEdit

The Tulsa Townies bicycle project was launched in August 2007 by Saint Francis Health System to promote an active and healthy lifestyle in the community. This project is the first bicycle program of its kind in northeastern Oklahoma. The bicycle rental stations are located at the Tulsa River Parks trail along Riverside Drive at 19th and 41st streets and in Jenks at the 96th street Arkansas River pedestrian bridge.[591]

Washington, D.C., Northern Virginia, & Suburban MarylandEdit

In Washington, D.C., a privately operated bike-sharing project known as SmartBike DC opened for service in 2008 for the District of Columbia with 10 stations and 120 bikes. Operated by an advertising firm, Clear Channel Outdoor, the system was funded by advertising revenues from bus shelters on public streets, along with revenues from user membership and usage fees.[592] The program suffered from perennially low membership and rider usage rates, as well as a limited number of bike rental stations.[593] It was officially terminated in January 2011.[594]

Capital Bikeshare was launched in Washington, D.C. and Arlington County, Virginia in 2010.

On 20 September 2010, Arlington County, Virginia and the District of Columbia launched the U.S.'s first public-private partnership bikeshare system, Capital Bikeshare (CaBi) which replaced SmartBike DC. Unlike SmartBike, CaBi is a public taxpayer-supported (local government and federal funds) bicycle sharing program. The initial scheme involved some 1,100 bicycles at 100 stations located throughout the District of Columbia and parts of Arlington County, Virginia. The cost of planning, implementation and administration for Capital Bikeshare totaled US$5.0 million, with first-year operating costs of US$2.3 million for 100 stations.[595] CaBi was operated by Alta Bicycle Share (now Motivate International) with equipment from Montreal-based PBSC Urban Solutions. For a time, Capital Bike Share was the largest bike sharing system in the United States until May 2013.[596]

As of 2017 Washington, D.C. has four dockless bike-share systems.[597][598][599][600]

Wauwatosa, WIEdit

In June 2017, the city of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin partnered with Zagster to incorporate an adaptive bike-share station into their existing Bublr network. It is thought to be the first adaptive bike-share station in Wisconsin, and the dual partnership is thought to be the first of its kind in the United States.(ride share programs existed in Madison Wisconsin for free)[601]


In California, many cities have launched or have stated plans to launch their own bike-sharing programs, including the cities of Anaheim (currently 10 bikes at 1 station, with plans for 100 bikes at 10 stations),[602] Los Angeles (plans for 4000 bikes at 400 stations),[603] Santa Monica (plans for 250 bikes at 25 locations),[604] and San Diego[605] The San Francisco Bay Area's Bay Area Air Quality Management District, in partnership with Alta Bike Share, city governments, and transportation authorities, have announced plans for a pilot regional sharing program in 2013 for the San Francisco Peninsula and San Jose.[606][607]

In the Fall of 2009, the University of California, Irvine introduced its Zotwheels automated bike share program. Students and university employees may sign up for a Zotwheels membership card at an annual cost of $40, which enables the user to check out a bike from any bike station located throughout campus for a maximum of three hours and drop it off at any other station. A$200 charge is imposed for a lost, stolen, or severely damaged bike. Bicycle availability and station operational status may be determined using an interactive map. Revenues from membership fees are sufficient to offset only a small fraction of the total operating costs of the program; all remaining manufacture, installation, maintenance, and implementation costs of the Zotwheels systems and the bicycles themselves are borne by UCI.[608] Zotwheels was developed as a collaboration between the UCI Parking and Transportation Services, The Collegiate Bicycle Company, CSL Ltd, and Miles Data Technologies.[609]

In January 2018, e-bike provider Jump Bikes officially launched in San Francisco, becoming the first dockless bicycle-sharing system to launch in the city.[610]

ofo offers a partnership program with universities to provide sustainable campus transportation.[611] On 21 February 2018, ofo and Pomona College in Claremont, California launched the first college pilot program in California.[612] The collaboration benefits not only the Pomona College community, but also the other Claremont Colleges in the Claremont Consortium.

South AmericaEdit

Bike Rio rental station located near Posto 9, Ipanema, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.
Bici Q station in Quito, Ecuador



On 2 December 2015 Rosario launched Mi bici tu bici and has 200 bicycles available at 18 rental stations in the downtown.[613]

San LorenzoEdit

In November 2016 San Lorenzo launched Biciudad, a free-to-use Bike Sharing System of the city of San Lorenzo. This is a system of Free Public Transport launched by the San Lorenzo Government to achieve the reduction of the use of motor vehicles and enhance other means of non-motorized transport such as walking, or the bike itself.

The Biciudad Bike Sharing System is expanding along with the construction of a circuit of exclusive lanes for bicycles across the city.[614]


Bike Itaú is a public bicycle sharing system in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is run by PBSC Urban Solutions and started on 20 February 2018, and is sponsored by the municipal government of Rio de Janeiro in partnership with Banco Itaú.[citation needed] The system replaces the old one operated by Serttel, a private concessionaire, that began operations in October 2011.[615]

A similar scheme was implemented in the city of São Paulo on 24 May 2012, called Bike Sampa. It is free up to the first hour of use, after which users are charged R$5 every 30 minutes.[616] There are about 140,000 registered users and, as of 6 May 2013, there had been 220,000 bicycle trips in the city. Serttel is also the concessionaire for this scheme, and the website of Bike Sampa is hosted by Mobilicidade. Other cities with similar bike sharing systems are operated by Serttel ( Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Porto Alegre, Santos, Recife, Belém, Manaus, Fortaleza, Vitória and Aracaju. Fortaleza deserves a highlight because its bike sharing system, named Bicicletar, has the highest relative use in Brazil. With 800 bikes and 80 stations the system register 6,4 trips per bike in workdays.[617]


There are three separate bike-share systems in the metropolitan area of Santiago, capital city of Chile: Bikesantiago, Bici Las Condes and Mobike.[618]

The commune of Providencia, part of the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, implemented a public bike-share system in Latin America, named B'easy and starting services in August 2008 with a monthly membership of 1000 Chilean Pesos (US$2) and 4 stations.[619]

Santiago Metropolitan AreaEdit

Bikesantiago started its services in October 2013 in the metropolitan commune of Vitacura with 30 stations, 300 bicycles and a monthly membership of 4990 Chilean pesos (US$8). By November 2015, it had 25000 subscribers, 132 stations and 1882 bicycles on the communes of Lo Barnechea, Vitacura, Providencia (Replacing the original B'easy system), Santiago, Ñuñoa, Recoleta and Independencia and has contracts for a programmed expansion in a total of 14 communes, 200 stations and 2100 bikes in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago.[620][621]

Las CondesEdit

Bici Las Condes is the communal bike-share system of Las Condes, part of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago. It began service in March 2015 with a total of 50 stations and 500 bikes and has a planned expansion to a total of 100 stations and 1000 bikes.[622] The decision of the Las Condes municipal council to not join the Metropolitan area tender for a bike-sharing metropolitan interconnected system was controversial.[623]


The EnCicla Bike Share System in Medellín is operated by the metropolitan area of Aburrá Valley. EnCicla is integrated with the city's existing infrastructure of cycle routes, mass transit and public transport systems.[624]


In August 2012 the Municipality of Quito government established a municipal bicycle sharing system called Bici Q.[625][626][627] The Municipality of Cuenca implemented a public bicycle sharing system in 2013.[628][629] Bici Q is completely free and is available for anyone to users with membership cards, which can be obtained online or in person.[630][631]


The Movete Bike Share System in Montevideo. Montevideo is integrated with the city's existing infrastructure of cycle routes, mass transit and public transport systems.[632]



JoBike is a bicycle sharing system serving the cities of Dhaka, Chittagong and Cox's Bazar.[633] Launched in 2018, it is the first such system in Bangladesh.[634]


Mobikes in Beijing

Initially, a number of traditional (third generation) docked public bike systems operated by local municipal governments opened across China, with the largest ones being in Wuhan and Hangzhou. The first was introduced in Beijing in 2007. However, third generation bike sharing is not considered successful for the majority cities in China. Bike sharing in Beijing virtually stopped and it also has encountered difficulties in Shanghai and Wuhan.[635]

In 2014, students from Peking University created a company called ofo and initialize the fourth generation bike sharing system in their campus. In 2017, a number of private competing app-based dockless bike-sharing programs have started to appear in numerous cities across China. The two largest dockless operators are Mobike and Ofo, others include Bluegogo and Xiaoming.[636][637] Many Chinese cities have experienced massive growth in the number and use these dockless bikeshare programs, clogging sidewalks around major commercial hubs and subway stations with parked bikes.[638] Given the speed of growth with these services, local governments did not have any regulations or planning to accommodate these systems.[639] However the Chinese government encourages the development of dockless bikes to reduce urban pollution. Early studies in Beijing and Shanghai have linked the massive increase of dockless bike shares to the decrease in the number of private automobile trips that are less than five kilometres.[640] In Guangzhou, the arrival of dockless bike shares had a positive impact in the growth of cycling modeshare.[641]


Shared bike rack in Beijing

A municipal scheme in Beijing launched in 2012 with the stationing of 2,000 bikes in Chaoyang district.[642] The scheme is scheduled to consist of 20,000 rental bikes and 500 kiosks, according to the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform. The main operating area will be in business districts and near subway stations and major public venues. By 2015, authorities intend to have 50,000 bikes available, similar to the Hangzhou scheme that is their model.[643][644] This follows the failure of a scheme launched in 2005–2006 (ahead of Velib) and in the light of a 2011 announcement by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport that it expects to raise the bike share of urban commuter journeys from 20 to 23 per cent by 2015.[643]

Ofo bikes randomly parked on the pavement (sidewalk) in Beijing

In March 2017, Beijing saw over 200,000 dockless shared bikes from various companies entered service. Near the end of 2017 it has grown to 2.35 million for-hire bikes from 15 companies.[citation needed] The bikes are accessible via an app, and cost 1 RMB per hour plus a refundable damage deposit of 299 RMB. This is on top of the existing municipal run dock based bike network with 86,000 bikes. The Beijing municipal government has pledged to improve management and parking availability in response to the rapidly growing fleets of dockless bikes shares.[645] Beijing cycling mode share increased from 5.5% to 11.6% after the arrival of these dockless bike systems.[646]


In preparation for the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China, Shanghai launched a limited bike share programme which are accessible by RFID cards. Users could purchase 100-ride credits for about $30. Short rides are rewarded credits and longer rides subtract credits once the bikes have been re-docked. Shanghai planned to expand to 3,500 Bicycle Hot Spots throughout the entire city by 2010. Two years after the World Expo, Shanghai's bicycle sharing programme has been mostly limited to the Minhang District.[647][648]

Bikes from various bike-share companies in Shanghai

The Shanghai Bike Authority estimated that there are 280,000 shared bikes in Shanghai by March 2017, with a projected increase of 220,000 bikes by June.[649] In March 2017, the government in Shanghai is requesting a temporary ban on the introduction of new private "dockless" shared bikes.[650] Shanghai has prepared new regulations that will restrict rider ages to between 12 and 70 and bikes in service for more than three years in a row must be permanently removed.[651] Mobike alone operates 100,000 bikes in Shanghai and has claimed to have made Shanghai into the city with the world's largest bike share network.[652]


Starting from around the beginning of 2017, Haikou, the capital of Hainan province, experienced a massive increase in the number of dockless bikes by Ofo, Mobike, and Quick To which and cost 2 RMB per hour. The fourth is the Haikou Public Bike System which is a traditional municipal run docked system.[653]


Wenzhou has multiple bike share programs serving different districts of the city. The first one opened in 2012 serving Lucheng District with about 5,000 bikes and 180 stations.[654] Next year, a bike share with 2,200 bikes and 66 stations opened in Longwan District. At the same time, a separate bike share program with 1,040 bikes and 32 stations opened in Ouhai District. The latter of the two is being expanded to 3,250 bikes and 109 stations.[655] According to local government records, more than 20,000 dockless bikes from various private bike share companies have entered service in Wenzhou recently.[656]


The Guangzhou BRT has a bike share program integrated around its BRT stations. According to the local government, in 2017, Guangzhou has a fleet of over 700,000 bikes in various public and private bike share programs. On average 4 million trips each day were made using share bikes.[657] The local government is reviewing traffic management strategies and road design standards to accommodate the increase in cycling traffic.[658][659]


In 2014, Guilin City opened docked bike share with 3,000 bikes spread out over 100 stations.[660]


The Hangzhou Public Bicycle bike-sharing system has 60,600 bikes and started in 2008. Bike-sharing stations can be found in Hangzhou every 100 metres. The first hour of use is free, followed by 1 yuan ($0.15) for the first hour, 2 yuan the second hour, and 3 yuan each subsequent hour.[661] In 2013 USA Today called the Hangzhou bike-sharing system the 'best in the world'.[662] From a March 2010 survey of Hangzhou Public Bicycle members and non-members it was found that 30% of Hangzhou Bike-Sharing users incorporated bicycle sharing into their most common commute. Furthermore, the bicycle sharing system captured modal share from bus transit, walking, autos and taxis. Another key finding in this study suggests that car ownership may not reduce the likelihood of bikesharing use. In fact, members of the Hangzhou system exhibited a higher rate of auto ownership in comparison to non-members.[663] Before the arrival of private dockless systems, Hangzhou was the largest bike share system in the world until it was overtaken by Wuhan. In 2011, the system had 2,050 bike-share stations with a fleet of over 50,000 bikes and serving 240,000 trips per day.[664] By 2015, it was expanded to over 84,000 bikes and 3,354 stations.[665]


Since December 2013, Nanning has a bicycle sharing system with 1000 bicycles and 50 stations. The first hour of usage is free, after it costs 2RMB/h.[666] By 2014, it was expanded to about 25,000 bikes and 896 stations.[667]


A municipal docked bike share program opened in 2013 with 7,500 bikes and 300 stations.[668] By 2015, it has been expanded to 30,000 bikes spread over 1,240 stations across the city.[669]


A municipal docked bike share program, operated by Taiwan-based YouBike, opened in 2016 with over 200 stations and a fleet of 6,000 bikes.[670] In 2017, it is being expanded to 410 stations with over 18,000 bikes.[671][672]


In 2011, a 1,500 bike, 26 station bike share opened in Shaoxing.[673] In 2012, it was expanded by 2,000 bikes and 50 stations.[674]


The Suzhou Industrial Park has a bicycle sharing system (苏州工业园区公共自行车) with 1,880 bicycles and 72 stations, which launched in January 2012.[675]


Since 2011, Xi'an has a bicycle sharing system with 8,000 bicycles and 375 stations.[676] By 2016, it was expanded to 52,000 public bicycles and 1,800 stations.[677]


In 2014, a bike sharing system was created around downtown Lanzhou with 377 stations.[678][679]


A municipal docked bike share program opened in 2015 with 5,000 bikes and over 700 stations.[680][681] In 2017, the system was expected to consist of 2,500 bike stations as far south as Chenggong District and approximately 45,000 bicycles. Kunming expects to expand its bicycle-sharing system to 6,500 stations by 2019. Bicycles are free for the first hour, 0.5 yuan for each additional half hour and 15 yuan for an entire day.[682]

Hong KongEdit

Major bicycle-sharing operations include ofo, Hoba Bike, Ketch'Up Bike, LocoBike, and oBike.[683][684]

The first dockless bike sharing provider in Hong Kong,, launched in April 2017 but terminated in July 2018.[685][686]

Meanwhile, plans have been announced by Cleantech Solutions to enable users to rent bikes from multiple providers, by providing an app with a centralised list of available bicycles across all providers.[687]



In July 2016, the first Iranian modern public bike system was designed and established in Urmia city with 250 bikes in 20 stations by ASI company by the brand name of "U Bike".[688]


Bicycle Sharing at Mysore, India


Mumbai operates two schemes,[171] and the Ministry of Urban Development is preparing to launch a 10-city public bike scheme as part of its "Mission for Sustainable Habitat".[689]

Mysuru (Mysore)Edit

Mysore was the first Indian city to initiate cycle sharing, in 2009,[690] with 28 locations as of 2009 and 52 planned locations.[691][692]


MyByk Cycle Station at Ahmedabad, India

MyByk cycle sharing program in Ahmedabad started with eight stations in the city in 2013. Subscribers can keep bicycles as long as required without having to return them.[693][694]

Bicycle station at Surat, India

New DelhiEdit

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) launched the first software based ‘Public Bicycle Sharing scheme (PBS)’ through which commuters can rent cycles from a residential area and travel to the nearest Metro station and then rent a cycle from a departing Metro station to the nearby localities.[695]


Two days prior to the 2018 Men's Hockey World Cup, a Public Bicycle Sharing (PBS) system was launched in Bhubaneshwar. The bikes included Hexi bikes, Yana and Yulu, and comprised 2000 bikes overall.[696]


A lot of IT companies in Pune have been taking the initiative of promoting cycling to work.[697] A lot of bicycle sharing systems started in Pune itself. One bicycle renting system was initiated by PedalSaddle in Pune providing cycles for rent for cheaper than public transportation.[698] Pune has India's first and biggest bicycle mall ever with a total investment of Rs 5 crore.[699] In January 2018, one of China's leading bicycle-sharing companies, Ofo, launched its dockless bicycle-sharing services in Pune.[700] In 2017, ENPRO Industries, Pune took the initiative of promoting cycling to work.[701]

Other citiesEdit

The trend is catching on in some other cities including Rajkot,[702] Bhubaneswar,[703] Vadodara (Baroda),[704] Ranchi,[705] Surat, Udaipur, Jamnagar[706] and Panchkula.[707]



It operates as a network with a campaign of sustainable environmental friendly transport system since 2004. As of 2015, it has 130 branches across Indonesia including Jakarta.[708]


Bandung municipal government operates 30 stations with 270 bikes, called Boseh Bikesharing.[709]


Gowes, which means "to paddle," in Indonesian, started operation in limited areas of Jakarta in 2018.[710]



Tel-O-Fun, started in 2011, is a bicycle sharing program in Tel-Aviv with 2,000 bicycles and 200 stations throughout the city and in some surrounding towns.[711]


According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism as of 2012 there were a number of city-level pilot schemes in operation in Japan, the largest of which was Edogawa City in Tokyo with 500 cycles available for hire.[712] Toyama also has a bicycle sharing system, that takes the region's public transit IC card Passca.[713]


Astana-Bike[714] in the capital Astana, 200 bikes in 40 stations, 1000 bikes for Expo 2017.[715]

Shymkent-bike[187] in Shymkent, 200 bikes in 44 stations.[716]

Almaty-bike[183] in Almaty, September 2016.[717][718]


George TownEdit

A LinkBike station in George Town, Penang.

LinkBike in George Town, Penang commenced operations in December 2016 with 60 bicycles, making it the first city in Malaysia to introduce a public bicycle-sharing system. This service has since been expanded to 250 bicycles and 25 stations throughout George Town, covering destinations between Gurney Drive to the north and Queensbay Mall to the south.[719][720][721]

Kota KinabaluEdit

In March 2017, the Kota Kinabalu City Hall began to implement its bicycle sharing service with 20 bicycles made available for the first stage. Those who want to use the service need to have the City Hall 'touch and go' card with RM200 (U$45) as deposit to use the bicycle for 24 hours with the money refunded when the bicycle is returned. Its stations are available in major hotels in the city as well as in Tanjung Lipat and in front of the Grace Court apartment in Sembulan with another 150 bicycles available in stores.[722]

Klang ValleyEdit

The Subang Jaya LRT/KTM station has been selected as the first pioneer for bicycle sharing system brought by Singaporean company into Malaysia. oBike rider will be charged RM1.00 per 15 minutes usage.[723][724]


South KoreaEdit


Following trials, a bike-sharing system named Ddareungi was introduced in Seoul in October 2015 in select areas of the right bank of the Han River.[725] After a few months, the number of stations reached 150 and 1500 bikes were made available.[726] In 2016, the number of stations has increased steadily to cover new districts.[727] As of July 2016, there were about 300 stations and 3000 bikes available, and Seoul mayor Park Won-soon has confirmed his intention to increase the number of bikes available to 20,000.[728]



National systemsEdit

A YouBike station in Hsinchu City, Taiwan.

Launched in Taipei City in 2009 and expanded through cooperation between the Taipei City Government and Taiwanese bike manufacturer Giant, YouBike is the largest bicycle-sharing service in the country; the system saw 22 million rentals in 2014, double the 11 million rentals in the previous year.[259]

Singaporean dockless bicycle-sharing platform oBike launched in Taiwan in April 2017 under the management of Taiwan's Aozhi Network Technology Co., Ltd.[729] The parking of the bikes in public areas such as sidewalks and motorcycle parking spaces caused controversy.[730][731]


The southern city of Kaohsiung launched the country's first bicycle-sharing service, CityBike, on 1 March 2009 with 20 stations and 1,500 Merida bikes.[732]


A Bisim station in İzmir, Turkey.

Public bike sharing services in Turkey use Baksi system.[733] In Istanbul, the system called İsbike, which was launched in 2012, serves with 140 stations and 1,500 bikes.[734] In İzmir, the Metropolitan Municipality launched a system called Bisim in 2014. It has 40 stations and 550 bikes as of 2020.[735]

Similar systems are operational in Antalya, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Kocaeli, Konya, and Samsun.[733]

United Arab EmiratesEdit

8D Technologies bike station for ADBC Bikeshare in Abu Dhabi.

ADCB Bikeshare scheme operates in the nation's capital city of Abu Dhabi, and is sponsored by Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank. ADCB Bikeshare launched December 2015. Run by Cyacle, the programme operates on Yas Island and Al Raha Beach, where there are 11 stations with 75 bicycles available for hire. In the first eight months of operation, 5,641 people became members of the scheme and rode 78,689 kilometres (48,895 miles) on 8,536 trips.[736]

The German bike sharing company Nextbike temporarily also operated a bike sharing scheme in Dubai,[737] but apparently discontinued it.[738]



A number of Australian cities have had docking shared bike systems since 2010. In 2017 dockless bike sharing commenced in all the capital cities. The dockless systems experienced a higher degree of vandalism, including bikes dumped in rivers, than has been seen in other countries.[739] The dockless services all provided helmets with the bikes.

Docked systemsEdit

Melbourne Bike Share (MBS), was first municipal bicycle share system in Australia, was launched in Melbourne in June 2010. It started with 10 stations. Usage has been lower than expected and has required ongoing public subsidy. Take-up was affected by the location of docking stations and the legal requirement for riders wear helmets, which are not provided with the bikes. Ridership doubled when $5 helmets were offered for sale from vending machines. The MBS used 500 cycles at about 50 stations around Melbourne's central business district before it was shut down in November 2019.[740]

One of nineteen E-bike docking stations across Newcastle CBD, NSW, Australia.

Newcastle's central business district launched an e-bike share scheme on 21 May 2018, including 19 docking stations with 100 electric bikes.[741] The bike scheme was launched as a partnership between the operator BYKKO, and Transport for NSW. An initial pilot program funded with $2000AUD[742] of council grant money was conducted,[743] though evidence of the evaluation does not appear to be posted publicly. After speaking with the local newspaper, BYKKO said the aim of the project is to complement the existing public transport system.[744]

The Brisbane CityCycle, operated by JCDecaux, started on 1 September 2010 and has grown to include 2000 bikes in 150 stations.[740][745] Its operation has depended on public subsidy. Initially, helmets were not provided with the bikes, but this was later changed. After only achieving 80,000 trips in its first twelve months[citation needed], this increased to 522,388 in the 2016-17 financial year.[746]

Dockless systemsEdit

In 2017 dockless systems were launched in a number of Australian cities.

  • Airbike launched in Adelaide, Canberra and Sydney.[747]
  • oBike has placed 1,000 bikes since July 2017.[739]
  • Reddy Go started with 1,500 bikes, also in July 2017, and has expanded to over 2,000 bikes.[739] The company quit Sydney in July 2018, citing "red tape".[748]
  • Ofo launched with 600 bikes in October 2017.[749] In July 2018 Ofo announced it was leaving Australia.[750]
  • Mobike distributed up to 500 bikes in November 2017.[751]
  • oBike placed 1,250 bikes in Melbourne since July 2017. There has been notable vandalism of the bikes in the first few months, including being dumping in the Yarra River.[739]

Ofo launched distributed 50 bikes through North Adelaide in October 2017.[753] In July 2018 Ofo announced it was leaving Australia.[750]

Airbike launched in Adelaide.[747]

A bicycle sharing station in Newstead, Brisbane

Subscriptions for CityCycle, a Vélib-style community bike hire scheme by JCDecaux for Brisbane started on 1 September 2010 and has grown to include 2000 bikes in 150 stations from the University of Queensland to Tenerife.[740][745] Its operation has depended on public subsidy. Initially helmets were not provided with the bikes but this was later changed. After only achieving 80,000 trips in its first twelve months, by 2016-17 this had increase to 522,388.[746]

The bikes were linked to the public transport go card – a single card covering all buses, trains, ferries and the Gold Coast light rail system. In 2017 it was announced new bank card facilities would be added to the stations.[745]

After ten years of operation, the hire scheme's decommission was announced for 2021. Throughout 2021, CityCycle stations are removed to make way for shared e-bikes.[754]

Gold Coast

Mobike started with 200 bikes around Surfers Paradise and Broadbeach in February 2018 with the number expected to grow to 2,000 by the time of the Commonwealth Games in April.[755] Mobike has been granted exclusive rights to operate bike sharing by the local council and will partner with Transit Australia Group and Good Cycles.[756]

New ZealandEdit

In both Auckland and Christchurch, Nextbike provide some limited cycle sharing facilities; plans are in hand to expand these. The New Zealand Transport Agency is working with Auckland Transport and the Christchurch City Council respectively to investigate cycle sharing schemes for each city, and independently a private consortium proposes to have a scheme in place in Auckland during 2017.[757]

Onzo NZ is the first and largest dockless bike sharing platform to launch in New Zealand, arriving in Auckland in late 2017,[758] and in Wellington in 2018.[759]






United KingdomEdit

Several cycle hire schemes in UK towns and cities overlap their university areas, e.g. the one at Stirling.[766] Others, e.g. Leeds,[767] offer longer-term cycle hire. Kingston University are reported to have a scheme called KU Bikes due to begin in early 2018,[768] while Derby anticipates that Hourbike will run a scheme in Derby operating electric bikes, around the same time.[769]

United StatesEdit

Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The Portsmouth Bikeabout programme never exceeded 500 users at any time during its operational existence.


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