List of automotive superlatives

Automotive superlatives include attributes such as the smallest, largest, fastest, lightest, best-selling, and so on.

This list (except for the firsts section) is limited to automobiles built after World War II, and lists superlatives for earlier vehicles separately. The list is also limited to production road cars that:

  • Are constructed principally for retail sale to consumers for personal use transporting people on public roads. No commercial or industrial vehicles are included
  • Have had 25 or more instances made by the original vehicle manufacturer offered for sale to the public in new condition (cars modified by either professional tuners or individuals are not eligible)
  • Are street-legal in their intended markets and capable of passing any official tests or inspections required to be granted this status

Calendar years rather than "model years" are used except when explicitly marked as otherwise.

Vehicle dimensionsEdit

LengthEdit

 
Mercedes-Maybach S600 Pullman
  • Longest
  • Shortest
    • Current production car – 1,371 mm (54.0 in) – 2011 Peel P50[1]
    • Production car – 1,340 mm (52.8 in) – 1962–1965 Peel P50
    • Two seat production car – 1,854 mm (73 in) – Peel Trident
    • Four seat production car – 2,900 mm (114 in) – 1957–1959 BMW 600 (international)[2]
    • SUV / dually truck – 2,324 mm (91.5 in) – 1950–1952 Crosley Farm-O-Road
    • Four-wheel-drive car – 2,718 mm (107 in) – 1959–1962 M422 Mighty Mite
    • Light military truck – 2,718 mm (107 in) – 1959–1962 M422 Mighty Mite

Width (without mirrors)Edit

 
Bugatti Chiron

HeightEdit

 
Lincoln Navigator (78.3 in tall) in front of a Ford Fusion (56.9 in tall)

WheelbaseEdit

 
Ford F-250 Crew Cab

TrackEdit

 
Lamborghini Aventador

Curb weightEdit

 
Ariel Atom

EnginesEdit

Engine displacementEdit

SmallestEdit

  • Current production car – 660 cc (40.3 cu in) – Caterham 7 160, as well as all kei cars
  • Production car
    • Single-cylinder – 49 cc (3.0 cu in) – 1962–1965 Peel P50
    • Two-cylinder – 352 cc (21.5 cu in) – 1967–1972 Honda N360
    • Three-cylinder – 356 cc (21.7 cu in) – 1967 Suzuki Fronte
    • Four-cylinder – 356 cc (21.7 cu in) – 1963–1967 Honda T360
    • Five-cylinder – 1.9 litres (117.2 cu in) – 1980–1982 Audi 100
    • Six-cylinder – 1.6 litres (97.5 cu in) – 1992–1998 Mitsubishi Mirage/Lancer
    • Eight-cylinder – 2.0 litres (121.5 cu in) – 1975–1980 Ferrari 208 GT4
    • Ten-cylinder – 4.8 litres (293.2 cu in) – 2010–2012 Lexus LFA
    • Twelve-cylinder – 2.0 litres (122.0 cu in) – 1948–1950 Ferrari 166 Inter
    • Sixteen-cylinder – 1.5 litres (91.5 cu in) – 1950–1953 BRM Type 15 Formula One car

LargestEdit

 
Bugatti Chiron 8.0 L W16

PowerEdit

Highest power by engine typeEdit

 
Koenigsegg Regera

Highest power by body styleEdit

Highest specific power (power-to-weight ratio)Edit

Highest specific engine output (power/unit displacement)Edit

Highest power by cylinder count (Production Cars)Edit

  • Two-cylinder – 1.0 litre (58.8 cu in) – 77 kW (104 hp; 105 PS) 145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft) – 2007 Fiat 500
  • Three-cylinder – 2.0 litres (121.3 cu in) – 447 kW (600 hp; 608 PS) 600 N⋅m (443 lb⋅ft) – 2020 Koenigsegg Gemera[12]
  • Four-cylinder – 2.0 litres (121.9 cu in) – 328 kW (440 hp; 446 PS) 559 N⋅m (412 lb⋅ft) – 2016 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution FQ-440 MR
  • Five-cylinder – 2.5 litres (151.3 cu in) – 298 kW (400 hp; 406 PS) 500 N⋅m (369 lb⋅ft) – 2020 Audi RS3
  • Six-cylinder – 3.8 litres (231.8 cu in) – 530 kW (710 hp; 720 PS) 780 N⋅m (575 lb⋅ft) – 2020 Nissan GT-R50 by Italdesign
  • Eight-cylinder – 6.6 litres; 402.8 cubic inches (6,600 cc) – 1,355 kW (1,817 hp; 1,842 PS) 1,617 N⋅m (1,193 lb⋅ft) – 2020 Hennessey Venom F5
  • Ten-cylinder – 8.4 litres (511.5 cu in) – 481 kW (645 hp; 654 PS) 813 N⋅m (600 lb⋅ft) – 2015 Dodge Viper
  • Twelve-cylinder – 6.5 litres (396.4 cu in) – 746 kW (1,000 hp; 1,014 PS) 740 N⋅m (546 lb⋅ft) – 2021 Aston Martin Valkyrie
  • Sixteen-cylinder – 8.0 litres (487.8 cu in) – 1,103 kW (1,479 hp; 1,500 PS) 1,600 N⋅m (1,180 lb⋅ft) – 2016 Bugatti Chiron Sport

TorqueEdit

Highest torque by engine typeEdit

 
Rimac C_Two

Highest torque by body styleEdit

Highest specific torque (torque/unit displacement)Edit

The mean effective pressure (MEP) is a useful comparison tool, giving the average cylinder pressure exerted on the piston.

Fuel economyEdit

Most economicalEdit

 
Hyundai Ioniq Electric

The following are all vehicles once certified for sale in the United States. Some vehicles from other countries have better fuel economy. Figures (showed in miles per US gallon units) are based on laboratory estimates, not consumer data.

  • All-diesel production vehicle – 1984 Nissan Sentra with 41 combined / 37 city / 46 highway.[31]
  • All-petrol production vehicle – 1986 Chevrolet Sprint ER with 48 combined / 44 city / 53 highway[32]
  • All natural gas production vehicle – 2012 Honda Civic GX with 31 combined / 27 city / 38 highway[33]
  • E85 production vehicle – 2013 Ford Focus SFE FWD FFV with 22 combined / 19 city / 27 highway[34]
  • Production electric hybrid – 2021 Hyundai Ioniq Hybrid (Ioniq Blue) with 59 combined / 58 city / 60 highway[35]
  • Production plug-in electric hybrid – 2014/2016 BMW i3 REx with 117 combined MPGe (EV mode) and 39 MPG combined city/highway (petrol)[36]
  • Production all-electric vehicle – 2021 Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus RWD with 142 combined / 150 city / 133 highway MPGe[37]

The following are as sold in Europe:

Longest rangeEdit

  • At an Auto Motor und Sport event in 2011, a Volkswagen Passat 1.6 TDI BlueMotion travelled 2,545.8 km (1,581.9 mi) across Croatia without refuelling, and averaged a fuel consumption of 3.08 l/100 km (76 mpg‑US).[39]

PriceEdit

PerformanceEdit

AccelerationEdit

  • Quickest 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) with 1 foot rollout – 1.85 seconds – Rimac Nevera[43]
  • Quickest 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) with standing start – 1.97 seconds – Rimac Nevera[43]
  • Quickest 0 to 161 km/h (0 to 100 mph) – 3.61 seconds – Rimac Nevera[44]
  • Quickest 0 to 200 km/h (0 to 124 mph) – 5.23 seconds – Rimac Nevera[45]
  • Quickest 0 to 300 km/h (0 to 186 mph) –
  • Quickest 0 to 400 km/h (0 to 249 mph) – 22.82 seconds – Koenigsegg Regera[46]

Top speedEdit

Highest rpm redlineEdit

SalesEdit

Best-selling models
 
Toyota Corolla
  • Best-selling vehicle nameplate – Toyota Corolla (more than 50,000,000 sold in 12 generations since 1966)[53]
  • Best-selling single model – Volkswagen Beetle (21,529,464 of the same basic design sold worldwide between 1938 and 2003)
  • Best single-year sales – 1.36 million – 2005 Toyota Corolla[54]
  • Best single-month sales – 126,905 – July 2005 Ford F-Series[55]

FirstsEdit

Mostly full-production vehicles are listed here. Many were preceded by racing-only cars. This list mainly includes developments that led to widespread adoption across the automotive industry.

IndustryEdit

Engine typesEdit

Engine technologiesEdit

Engine configuration & other miscellaneous fundamental construction details
Wankel engines
Valvetrain
Multi-valve engines
Variable valve timing (VVT)

Internal combustion engine coolingEdit

Aspiration
Fuel systems
Fuel injection (FI)
Ignition systems
General miscellany

Electric vehiclesEdit

Hybrid vehiclesEdit

Plug-in electric vehiclesEdit

BodyEdit

TransmissionEdit

LayoutEdit

SuspensionEdit

BrakesEdit

Driver aidsEdit

Passive restraintEdit

Active restraintEdit

TiresEdit

LightingEdit

Electrical systemEdit

Climate controlEdit

In-car entertainmentEdit

OtherEdit

Pre-warEdit

  • Best-selling pre-war vehicle – Ford Model-T (15,000,000 sold between 1908 and 1928)
  • Least-expensive – US$125 (equivalent to $1,933 in 2020) – 1922 Briggs & Stratton Flyer
  • Least-expensive full-featured automobile – US$300 (equivalent to $4,386 in 2020) – 1926–27 (for the 1927 model year) Ford Model-T
  • Fastest pre-war stock production vehicle – Cord Automobile – 1937 supercharged 812 Beverly sedan 173 km/h (107.66 mph) – September 1937 at the Bonneville Salt Flats
  • Fastest pre-war limited production vehicle – Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 – 1939 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 clocked to 211 km/h (131 mph) average at Brooklands Speedway (41 made)
  • Fastest pre-war vehicle – Railton Mobil Special – 2-SC Napier Lion V-12 – 595 km/h (369.740 mph) – Driver John Cobb on 23 August 1939 at the Bonneville Salt Flats
  • Longest pre-war production – 6,096 mm (240.0 in) – 1933–35 (for the 1934–35 model years) Cadillac V-16
  • Longest pre-war limited production – 6,400 mm (252.0 in) 1927–33 Bugatti Royale
  • Longest pre-war production wheelbase – 3,912 mm (154.0 in) – 1933–37 (for the 1934–37 model years) Cadillac V-16
  • Longest pre-war limited production wheelbase – 4,572 mm (180.0 in) 1927 Bugatti Royale Prototype
  • Longest pre-war Production convertible – 6,096 mm (240.0 in) (29 produced) – 1933–1935 (for the 1934–35 model years) Cadillac V-16
  • Longest pre-war Production coupe – 6,096 mm (240.0 in) (20 produced) – 1933–1935 (for the 1934–35 model years) Cadillac V-16
  • Longest pre-war Limited production convertible – 6,401 mm (252.0 in) – 1932 Bugatti Royale Weinberger
  • Longest pre-war Limited production coupe – 6,401 mm (252.0 in) – 1931 Bugatti Royale Kellner
  • Widest pre-war – 2,100 mm (82.7 in) 1938–43 Mercedes-Benz 770 W150 (armoured)
  • Widest pre-war front track – 1,626 mm (64.0 in) – 1938–43 Mercedes-Benz 770 W150
  • Widest pre-war rear track – 1,676 mm (66.0 in) – 1938–43 Mercedes-Benz 770 W150
  • Tallest pre-war production car – 2,550 mm (100.4 in) – 1904-9 Fiat 60 HP
  • Heaviest pre-war curb weight – 4,800 kg (10,582 lb) – 1938–43 Mercedes-Benz 770 W150 (armoured)
  • Largest pre-war limited production car inline-four engine 28.3 L (1,727 in3) 1911 Fiat S76 Record[155][156]
  • Largest pre-war straight-6 – 21,112 cc (1,288 in3) – 1905 Panhard et Levassor 50 CV
  • Largest pre-war limited production straight-8 – 14,726 cc (899 in3) – 1927 Bugatti Royale
  • Largest pre-war V8 – 14,700 cc (897 in3) – 1910–12 De Dion-Bouton
  • Largest pre-war V12 – 13,514 cc (825 in3) – 1912 Pierce-Arrow
  • Largest pre-war V16 – 8,048 cc (491 in3) – 1930–33 (for the 1931–33 model years) Marmon Series 16

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Peel P50". UK: Peel Engineering. Archived from the original on 11 December 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  2. ^ Norbye, Jan P. (1984). BMW – Bavaria's Driving Machines. Skokie, IL: Publications International. ISBN 0-517-42464-9.
  3. ^ a b Bogomolov, Andrei (5 December 1999). "Mercedes-Benz 770 W150 Grosser". Oldtimer picture gallery. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  4. ^ "Chevrolet Silverado 3500HD – 2020". GM Media (Press release). Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  5. ^ Ford Transit (PDF) (in Dutch). The Netherlands: Ford. May 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  6. ^ "Mercedes Sprinter (2008-2018) van review". Auto Express. UK. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  7. ^ Specialist Sports Cars, Peter J. Filby, p.74
  8. ^ a b "2019 BMW i8 Specifications". The Car Connection. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Mercedes-Maybach S600 Pullman Guard". Mercedes-Benz. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  10. ^ "Caterham Seven 170 revealed as the lightest production Seven yet". Auto-Express. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  11. ^ "Caterham Seven 170". Caterham-Cars. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  12. ^ a b Page, Felix (3 March 2020). "New Koenigsegg Gemera revealed as 1700bhp four-seat hybrid". Autocar. UK. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  13. ^ "The Short and Intriguing History of V-16 and W-16 Engines @ Top Speed". 29 June 2020.
  14. ^ "1931-1933 Marmon Sixteen". 6 December 2007.
  15. ^ "Marmon: The rise, fall, and rarity of a forgotten American automaker". 15 December 2017.
  16. ^ "Aston Martin Valkyrie V12 turns the hypercar engine up to 11,100" (Press release). UK: Aston Martin. 14 December 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  17. ^ "The World's most powerful diesel passenger cat". AUDI AG. AudiWorld.com. 11 September 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  18. ^ "The ultimate high-performance SUV – the new Audi Q7 V12 TDI quattro". AUDI AG – press release. Audi-MediaServices.com. 2 March 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  19. ^ "2022 Tesla Model S Plaid First Test: 0–60 MPH in 1.98 Seconds*!". MotorTrend. 17 June 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  20. ^ Maxwell Mortimer (2 July 2020). "710-HP 2021 Dodge Durango SRT Hellcat Is Coming for One Year Only". Car and Driver.
  21. ^ Alisa Priddle (2 July 2020). "2021 Dodge Durango SRT Hellcat First Look: The Family SUV From Hell". Motor Trend.
  22. ^ Adlen, Nathan (5 March 2020). "2021 Chevy Express Van Gets New 6.6-Liter Gas V8 Power". The Fast Lane Truck. US. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  23. ^ "The naturally-aspirated cars with the most power per litre (List) | GRR".
  24. ^ Pétrány, Máté (5 March 2019). "The Koenigsegg Jesko Has 1600 HP and Promises a 300-MPH Top Speed". Road & Track. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Highlights: ALPINA Automobiles". Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  26. ^ "SSC Finally Admits 1750-HP Tuatara Did Not Break 300 MPH". 22 July 2021.
  27. ^ Bruce, C (25 December 2020). "2021 Ram Heavy Duty Debuts With More Torque, Higher Max Tow Rating". Motorsport Network. US. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  28. ^ "Technical specifications". Koenigsegg. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  29. ^ Bruce, C (25 December 2020). "2021 Ram Heavy Duty Debuts With More Torque, Higher Max Tow Rating". Motorsport Network. US. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  30. ^ "2009 Audi Q7 V12 TDI Diesel". Car & Driver. 15 October 2020.
  31. ^ "Power Search Results". US Department of Energy. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  32. ^ "Highest Fuel Economy rated at new 2008 EPA MPG rules". Epa.gov. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  33. ^ "Highest Fuel Economy rated at new 2008 EPA MPG rules". Epa.gov. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  34. ^ "Compare Old and New Fuel Economy Estimates". Epa.gov. 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  35. ^ "Top Fuel Sippers (EPA Ratings, 2021 Model Year) – Exclude EVs and PHEVs". fueleconomy.gov. 25 March 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  36. ^ "compare Plug-in Hybrids Side-by-Side – Years: 2011–2017 Vehicle Type: Plug-in Hybrid". fueleconomy.gov. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  37. ^ "Most Efficient EPA-Certified Vehicles". fueleconomy.gov. 25 June 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  38. ^ McAleer, Michael (17 October 2014). "World's most fuel efficient production car takes to Dublin". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  39. ^ "Greatest distance driven on a single tank of fuel". Guinness World Records.
  40. ^ "Bugatti just revealed a $3.3 million Chiron — and it's the ultimate hypercar". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  41. ^ George, Patrick (27 August 2018). "The Most Expensive Car Ever Sold at Auction Is This 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO For $48.4 Million". Jalopnik. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  42. ^ "Classic 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO sold for record $70 million". Fox News. 1 June 2018.
  43. ^ a b "Nevera". Rimac Automobili. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  44. ^ Kane, Mark (31 August 2021). InsideEVs https://insideevs.com/news/526584/rimac-nevera-dragstrip-world-record/. Retrieved 19 January 2022. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  45. ^ (Press release). InsideEVs. 2021-13-08 https://insideevs.com/news/526584/rimac-nevera-dragstrip-world-record/. Retrieved 2022-19-01. {{cite press release}}: Check date values in: |access-date= and |date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  46. ^ "Koenigsegg Regera - 0-400-0 (0-250-0 mph) On-board Footage #WORLDRECORD". Koenigsegg. 27 September 2019. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  47. ^ Lee, Kristen (30 January 2021). "After the internet debunked a $1.6 million supercar's 316 mph record, it tried again — just not as fast". Business Insider.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  48. ^ "New Alpina D5 S revealed in saloon and estate forms in Frankfurt". Evo. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  49. ^ "Alpina D5 S: Der schnellste Seriendiesel der Welt". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 12 September 2017.
  50. ^ Dhimaan, Sid (13 January 2021). "Fastest Electric Cars in the World".
  51. ^ Duff, Mike. "McLaren F1—Inspired Gordon Murray T.50 Revs to 12,100 RPM, Weighs Only 2174 Pounds". CarAndDriver.com. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  52. ^ "Q&A with Tesla's lead motor engineer (Full Interview)". 6 January 2016.
  53. ^ "A Quick Look Back on the Corolla's 55-Year History with Over 50 Million Customers". Toyota Times. 13 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  54. ^ "Happy Birthday, Corolla! The world's best-selling nameplate turns 40". Bloomberg. 6 September 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  55. ^ "Ford F-Series Sets New Monthly Sales Record .: News". Ford-trucks.com. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  56. ^ a b "1924 Isotta Fraschini Straight 8 Town Car". Alden Jewell. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  57. ^ Hull, Peter. "Delahaye: Famous on Road and Race Track", in Ward, Ian, executive editor. World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Volume 5, p.523.
  58. ^ Wise, David Burgess, "De Dion: The Aristocrat and the Toymaker", in Ward, Ian, executive editor. The World of Automobiles (London: Orbis Publishing, 1974), Volume 5, p.514
  59. ^ "1915 Packard Twin Six". larzanderson.org. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  60. ^ "Counting to Twelve: The Packard Twelve and Twin Six". ateupwithmotor.com. 26 June 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  61. ^ "The Great Pathfinder – "King of the Twelves"". theoldmotor.com. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  62. ^ "Tipo V4". maserati.com. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  63. ^ a b c "BERNARDI mod 3,5 HP". museoauto.it. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  64. ^ a b c d "History of Automobiles and Early Transmissions". National Capital Freenet. Canada. Retrieved 10 October 2016. In 1889, Bernardi started building larger engines. One engine built in 1889 had the following innovations: 1) detachable head, 2) overhead valves actuated by a camshaft and rockers, 3) centrifugal governor on the inlet valve, 4) a constant level carburettor with a float and hand control, 5) filters for air and gas, 6) automatic lubrication of moving parts, 7) cooling by water circulation, 8) a tubular radiator, 9) a silencer, and 10) roller bearings for the transmission and wheel hubs.
  65. ^ "GEORGES RICHARD mod. 3 e 1/2HP". museoauto.it. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  66. ^ "1920/1930". fcagroup.com. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  67. ^ "The First Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle was Created in 1966".
  68. ^ "GM Hydrogen Fuel Cells Mark 50 Years of Development". 5 October 2016.
  69. ^ "GM Heritage Center Collection | GM Fuel Cell Vehicles".
  70. ^ "1966 GM Electrovan Fuel Cell Prototype Turns 50". November 2016.
  71. ^ https://www.hyundainews.com/en-us/releases/1008
  72. ^ "Marr Auto Car Company – Welcome". Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  73. ^ Georgano, p.43.
  74. ^ "The Revs Institute | 1913 Peugeot". revsinstitute.org. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  75. ^ "The 6:36 'Hi-Tech' Engine". maserati-alfieri.co.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  76. ^ "Alfa Romeo Spider FAQ" (PDF). alfaspiderfaq.org. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  77. ^ Rees, Chris (2001). Original Alfa Romeo Spider. MBI Publishing 2001. p. 102. ISBN 0-7603-1162-5.
  78. ^ "Olds FAQ – Jetfire". Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  79. ^ "AE: Honda revives turbo". Dwolsten.tripod.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  80. ^ "Turbo Pioneer". honeywell.com. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  81. ^ a b "1958 DeSoto Electrojector – World's First Electronic Fuel Injection". allpar.com. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  82. ^ McCourt, Mark J. (July 2011). "Volkswagen Type 3 Flat-Four". Hemmings Daily. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  83. ^ a b "Air technologies – Heritage". fiat.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  84. ^ "New Powertrain Technologies Conference". autonews.com. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
  85. ^ "Dinoplex Documentation, Wiring and Repair Guides". Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  86. ^ a b "Air Resources Board approves first of new generation of clean cars" (Press release). US: California Air Resources Board. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  87. ^ "Introducing the French inventor of the electric car".
  88. ^ "A brief history of the Electric Vehicle". October 2019.
  89. ^ "Renault, leader for electric vehicles in Europe - Renault Group".
  90. ^ "A Short History of Electric Vehicles".
  91. ^ Caradisiac.com. "Stand Peugeot : les 106 et 107 Electric". Caradisiac.com (in French). Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  92. ^ "Monte Carlo Automobile Quadrifuel". 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012.
  93. ^ "ALA 50 Project". Monte Carlo Automobile. 2 September 2010.
  94. ^ Niepraschk, Michael (20 January 2015). "Audi restauriert Elektroauto – Die Letzten werden die Ersten sein". Magazin (in de-DE). Retrieved 19 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  95. ^ Chong, Chris (2 July 2006). "History in its magnificence". star-motoring.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  96. ^ Georgano, p.75.
  97. ^ "1934 Lancia Belna Eclipse by Pourtout". Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  98. ^ "Obscure American Car: Lincoln Versailles – Roadshow". Roadshow. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  99. ^ a b https://media.daimler.com/marsMediaSite/en/instance/ko/1908-Debut-of-a-Mercedes-with-propeller-shaft-drive.xhtml?oid=9914004#:~:text=The%20Daimler%20Phoenix%20of%201897,developed%20by%20Maybach%20and%20Daimler.
  100. ^ "Mercedes 35 hp, 22/40 hp, 22/50 hp, 28/50 hp and 28/60 hp shaft-drive cars, 1908 - 1924".
  101. ^ "1929 Isotta Fraschini 8A". supercars.net. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  102. ^ "CEIRANO mod. 5 HP". museoauto.it. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  103. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Extraordinary Automobiles, Giles Chapman 2009
  104. ^ "Cisitalia 360 Grand Prix Car" (PDF). stevemckelvie.files.wordpress.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  105. ^ "A brief history of missing clutch pedals and almost-automatics". 11 December 2020.
  106. ^ "Archived copy". www.siddeley.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  107. ^ "240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology – Full range electronically controlled 5-speed automatic (mounted on Nissan Cedric Y31)". Jsae.or.jp. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  108. ^ "Alfa Romeo". zf.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  109. ^ "E46 M3 SMG 2 Transmission » Bimmerscan". 20 June 2014.
  110. ^ "Volkswagen DSG – World's first dual-clutch gearbox in a production car". Volkswagen-Media-Services.com (Press release). Volkswagen AG. 22 November 2002. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  111. ^ "DKW Front F1 – First Front-Wheel Drive Automobile". www.sportscardigest.com. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  112. ^ Thompson 2008, p. 57.
  113. ^ "Volvo with four world-firsts turns 20". www.media.volvocars.com (Press release). Volvo Car Corporation. 9 June 2011. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  114. ^ a b c "TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE – 75 Years of TOYOTA – Technical Development – Chassis". toyota-global.com.
  115. ^ "Suspension: The world's first suspension system with "eyes"" (Press release). Stuttgart/Hamburg: Daimler. 15 May 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  116. ^ Georgano, p.181.
  117. ^ Georgano, p.186.
  118. ^ Van Bogart, Angelo (2003). Cadillac: 100 Years of Innovation. Krause publications. ISBN 0873496906.
  119. ^ "Honda Worldwide | History". World.honda.com. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  120. ^ Wade, Lisa (8 March 2013). "When Did Cars Get Cup Holders?". Sociological Images. US. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  121. ^ Dean, Sam. "The History of the Car Cup Holder". Bon Appetit. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  122. ^ "Great Cars of Mazda – Cosmo". Mazda.com. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  123. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CL-Class press kit
  124. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2003. Retrieved 30 December 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  125. ^ a b "TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE – 75 Years of TOYOTA – Technical Development – Electronics Parts". toyota-global.com.
  126. ^ "Technology | Self-parking car hits the shops". BBC News. 1 September 2003. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  127. ^ "Volvo Cars introduces new systems for alerting tired and distracted drivers". Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  128. ^ "Toyota Enhances Pre-crash Safety System with Eye Monitor" (Press release). Toyota. 22 January 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  129. ^ "TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE". toyota-global.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015.
  130. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Toyota Develops New Pedestrian Safety Technology
  131. ^ a b "Saab Innovation". Saab Museum. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  132. ^ "A rare win for Saab over Toyota in Australia". 2 February 2009. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011.
  133. ^ Jim Mateja (22 August 1994). "And Now, From Volvo, The Side-impact Air Bag". articles.chicagotribune.com. Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  134. ^ "Second-Generation Sips-Bag protects both chest and head". www.volvogroup.com (Press release). Volvo Group AB. 17 July 1998. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  135. ^ Lesley Wright (24 May 1996). "New Air Bag Will Aim For Knees, Legs". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
  136. ^ Sam Abuelsamid (30 September 2008). "Toyota develops rear curtain airbag for tiny iQ". www.autobloggreen.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  137. ^ GAUTHIER, MICHAEL (24 July 2020). "The 2021 Mercedes S-Class Has The World's First Rear-Seat Airbags". Carscoops. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  138. ^ "Michelin and the Birth of the Radial Tyre". Auto Universum. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  139. ^ Robson, Graham (2001). The Illustrated Directory of Classic Cars. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-1049-1.
  140. ^ "The history of the headlamp: From the candle lamp to motorway mode" (Press release). Daimler. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  141. ^ "THE FULL-LED TECHNOLOGY FOR AUTOMOTIVE LIGHTING". magnetimarelli.com. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  142. ^ "New headlamp and night-view systems: Adaptive Highbeam Assist selects the optimum light settings automatically" (Press release). Daimler Global Media. 25 November 2008. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  143. ^ "New spotlight function for Active Night View Assist Plus: Enhanced safety for pedestrians" (Press release). Stuttgart: Daimler. 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  144. ^ "Lights: The first ever car without a single light bulb" (Press release). Stuttgart/Hamburg: Daimler. 15 May 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  145. ^ Golson, Jordan. "Audi's New R8 Supercar Has Frickin' Lasers for Headlights – WIRED". WIRED. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  146. ^ Georgano, p.49.
  147. ^ Georgano, p.25.
  148. ^ "AutoSpeed – Burger With the Lot". Autospeed.drive.com.au. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  149. ^ a b "Top 10 Fascinating First in Motoring". listverse.com. 12 July 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  150. ^ "First Bluetooth car". Gizmodo. 24 February 2003. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  151. ^ "The Four Primary Flavors of iPod Integration". US: edmunds. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  152. ^ "Ansaldo "Tipo 22" – 1930". museonicolis.com. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2017. The gear lever is rather singular too: it has a lock with a special security key, one of the first car antitheft devices
  153. ^ Egan, Peter (29 May 2016). "In 1987, The World's Fastest Cars Couldn't Catch A 211-mph Twin-Turbo Ruf". Road & Track. US. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  154. ^ "Fiat S76". teamdan.com. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  155. ^ "Fiat S76 (#1) 28.3 liter 1911". flickr.com. January 1911. Retrieved 22 October 2012.