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List of authoritarian regimes supported by the United States

Reunion of SEATO leaders in Manila, 1966, with the presence of authoritarian leaders Nguyen Cao Ky from South Vietnam (first from left, with Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt at his side), Park Chung-Hee from South Korea (third from the left), Ferdinand Marcos from Philippines (fourth from the left, with New Zealand Prime Minister Keith Holyoake at his right) and Thanom Kittikachorn from Thailand (second from the right, with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson at his side)

Over the last century, the United States government has provided, and continues to provide, financial assistance, education, arms, military training and technical support to numerous authoritarian regimes across the world. A variety of reasons have been provided to justify the apparent contradictions between support for dictators and the democratic ideals expressed in the United States Constitution.

Prior to the Russian Revolution, support for dictators was often based on furthering American economic and political priorities, such as opening foreign markets to American manufacturers. Following the rise of communism, the United States government also began to support authoritarian regimes that it felt were combating movements aligned with communism, including socialist and democratic socialist movements, especially in Latin America.[1][2] Such assistance continued despite the belief expressed by many that this contradicted the political ideals espoused by the U.S. during the Cold War.[3] Support was also geared toward ensuring a conducive environment for American corporate interests abroad, such as the United Fruit Company or Standard Oil, especially when these interests came under threat from democratic governments.[4][3] Support for authoritarian regimes has been justified under various ideological frameworks as well, including the Truman Doctrine and the Kirkpatrick Doctrine.[4]

From the 1980s onwards, after the Iranian Revolution, the United States government began to fear that its interests would be threatened by the increasingly popular Islamist movements in the Middle East, and began to work to secure cooperative authoritarian regimes in the region, while isolating, weakening, or removing, uncooperative ones.[5] In recent years, many policy analysts and commentators have expressed support for this type of policy, despite that this contradicted the political ideals espoused by the U.S. during the War on Terror, with some believing that regional stability is more important than democracy.[6][7] The United States continues to support authoritarian regimes today. However, international relations scholar David Skidmore believes that increased public pressure is motivating a shift away from supporting authoritarian regimes, and towards supporting more consensual regimes instead.[8]

Contents

Authoritarian regimes currently supportedEdit

Date of support Country Regime Notes
1991–present   Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev; Ilham Aliyev[9][10]
1999–present   Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa[11]
1984–present   Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah[12][13][14][15]
1998–present   Cambodia Hun Sen[16]
1982–present   Cameroon Paul Biya[17][18]
1990–present   Chad Idriss Déby[19]
1999–present   Djibouti Ismaïl Omar Guelleh[20][21]
2014–present   Egypt Abdel Fattah el-Sisi[22]
1979–present   Equatorial Guinea Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[23]
1991–present   Ethiopia Meles Zenawi[23]
1967–present   Gabon Ali Bongo Ondimba;Omar Bongo[24]
1954–present   Jordan Hashemite Dynasty[25][26]
1992–present   Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev[27][28]
1961–present   Kuwait Kuwaiti Royal Family[29][30]
1777–present   Morocco Alaouite dynasty[31]
1970–present   Oman Qaboos bin Said al Said[32]
1972–present   Qatar House of Thani[33][34]
2000–present   Rwanda Paul Kagame[35]
1945–present   Saudi Arabia House of Saud[36][37][32]
1959–present   Singapore People's Action Party[38][38][39]
2011–present   South Sudan Salva Kiir[40]
1994–present   Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon[23]
2014–present   Thailand Prayut Chan-o-cha[41]
2010–present[42]   Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[43][44][45]
2006–present   Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow[23]
1986–present   Uganda Yoweri Museveni[46]
1971–present   United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates[47]
2016–present   Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev[48]
2011–present   Vietnam Trương Tấn Sang[23]
2012–present   Yemen Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi[49]

Authoritarian regimes supported in the pastEdit

 
President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama with Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow of Turkmenistan, September 2009, one of the most repressive regimes in the world,[50] supported with millions of dollars in military aid.[51]
Middle East special envoy Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983.
 
The general Marcos Pérez Jiménez receive the "Legion of Merit" in Caracas (February 13, 1954) by US ambassador Fletcher Warren
 
Presidents Emílio G. Médici (left) and Richard Nixon, December 1971. A hardliner, Médici sponsored the greatest human rights abuses of Brazil's military regime. During his government, persecution and torture of dissidents, harassment against journalists and press censorship became ubiquitous. A 2014 report by Brazil's National Truth Commission states that the United States of America was involved with teaching the Brazilian military regime torture techniques.[52]
 
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger shaking hands with Augusto Pinochet in 1976.
Date of support Country Regime Notes
1876–1911   Mexico Porfirio Díaz[53] During the Porfiriato, tensions between the U.S. and Mexico were high.
1929–2000   Mexico Institutional Revolutionary Party[54]
1898–1920   Guatemala Manuel Estrada Cabrera[55]
1931–1944   Guatemala Jorge Ubico[55]
1932–1944   El Salvador Maximiliano Hernández Martínez[56]
1933–1949   Honduras Tiburcio Carías Andino[57]
1953–1957   Colombia Rojas Pinilla[58]
1948–1958   Venezuela Marcos Pérez Jiménez[59]
1908–1935   Venezuela Juan Vicente Gómez[60]
1952–1959   Cuba Fulgencio Batista[61]
1930–1961   Dominican Republic Rafael Trujillo[62] Later overthrown with at least some aid from the CIA.[63]
1966–1985   Guyana Forbes Burnham[64][65]
1954–1986   Guatemala Successive Military Governments [66][67][68]
1978–1982   Honduras Policarpo Paz García[69][70]
1979–1982   El Salvador Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador[71]
1963–1967   Ecuador Junta del 63[72]
1964–1969   Bolivia Rene Barrientos[73][74] See also: Ñancahuazú Guerrilla
1971–1978   Bolivia Hugo Banzer[75]
1973–1985   Uruguay Civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay[76][77]
1976–1983   Argentina National Reorganization Process[78][79]
1964–1985   Brazil Brazilian military government[52][80]
1936–1979   Nicaragua Somoza family[81]
1957–1971   Haiti François Duvalier[82]
1971–1986   Haiti Jean-Claude Duvalier[82]
1968–1981   Panama Omar Torrijos[83]
1983–1989   Panama Manuel Noriega[83] Later overthrown by U.S. in Operation Just Cause in 1989.
1954–1989   Paraguay Alfredo Stroessner[84][85]
1973–1990   Chile Augusto Pinochet[86][87]
1990–2000   Peru Alberto Fujimori[88]
1948–1960   South Korea[89] Syngman Rhee
1958–1969   Pakistan Ayub Khan See also: Pakistan–United States relations during the Cold War era.
1961–1979   South Korea Park Chung-hee[90]
1979–1988   South Korea Chun Doo-hwan[91]
1955–1963   South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem[92] Later assassinated in a U.S.-backed coup. See also: Cable 243, Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem.
1965–1975   South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu[93] Vietnam War
1970–1975   Khmer Republic Lon Nol[94]
1969–1971   Pakistan Yahya Khan[95][96][97]
1953–1979   Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi[98][99] See also: 1953 Iranian coup d'état.
1965–1986   Philippines Ferdinand Marcos[100][101]
1978–1988   Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq[102]
1963–1968   Iraq Ali Salih al-Sa'di, Abdul Salam Arif, Abdul Rahman Arif[103] See: Ramadan Revolution
1982–1990   Iraq Saddam Hussein[104] Later seen as an enemy of the U.S. in the Gulf War and deposed in the Iraq War. See: United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war.
1967–1998   Indonesia Suharto[105][106][107][108] See also: Allen Lawrence Pope, Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966.
1949–1953   Syria al-Za'im-Shishkali-al-Hinnawi Junta[109][110][111] See: Husni al-Za'im, Adib Shishakli, Sami al-Hinnawi.
1999–2008   Pakistan Pervez Musharraf[112]
1990–2016   Uzbekistan Islam Karimov[23]
1990–2005   Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev[113]
1978–2012   North Yemen
  Yemen
Ali Abdullah Saleh[114]
1971–1985   Sudan Gaafar Nimeiry[115]
1978–1991   Somalia Siad Barre[116]
1930–1974   Ethiopia Haile Selassie[117]
1980–1990   Liberia Samuel Doe[118]
1965–1997   Democratic Republic of the Congo
  Zaire
Mobutu Sese Seko[119][120]
1982–1990   Chad Hissène Habré[121]
1981–2011   Egypt Hosni Mubarak[122]
2012–2013   Egypt Mohamed Morsi[123]
1948–1994   South Africa Apartheid[124][125]
1987–2011   Tunisia Zine El Abidine Ben Ali[126]
1953–1975   Spain Francisco Franco[127] Originally opposed because of fascist leanings. See: Francoist Spain.
1941–1974   Portugal António de Oliveira Salazar[128] See Estado Novo (Portugal)
1941–1945   Soviet Union Joseph Stalin[129] Later considered an enemy of the US. See Cold War.
1948–1980   Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito[130] See Informbiro period.
1967–1974   Greece Greek military junta[131]
1980–1989   Turkey Turkish military junta[132]
1969–1989   Romania Nicolae Ceaușescu[133]
1941–1975   Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek[134]
1948–1957   Thailand Plaek Phibunsongkhram[135]
1963–1973   Thailand Thanom Kittikachorn[136]
1958–1963   Thailand Sarit Thanarat[137]
1987–1999   Fiji Sitiveni Rabuka[138]

MapEdit

 
Years of support of authoritarian regimes by the United States.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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Further readingEdit