Belligerents of the Syrian Civil War
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
Syrian Arab Republic and alliesEdit
Syrian Armed ForcesEdit
Before the uprising and war broke out, the Syrian Armed Forces were estimated at 325,000 regular troops and 280,000–300,000 reservists. Of the regular troops, 220,000 were 'army troops' and the rest in the navy, air force and air defense force. Following defections as early as June 2011, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimated that by July 2012, tens of thousands of soldiers had defected, and a Turkish official estimated 60,000.
National Defense ForceEdit
The Syrian NDF was formed out of pro-government militias. They receive their salaries and military equipment from the government, and in 2013 numbered around 100,000 troops. The force acts in an infantry role, directly fighting against rebels on the ground and running counter-insurgency operations in coordination with the army, who provides them with logistical and artillery support. The force has a 500-strong women's wing called "Lionesses of National Defense" which operates checkpoints. NDF members, like regular army soldiers, are allowed to loot the battlefields (but only if they participate in raids with the army), and can sell the loot for extra money. Sensing that they depend on the largely secular government, many of the militias of Syrian Christians (like Sootoro in Al-Hasakah) fight on the Syrian government's side and seek to defend their ancient towns, villages and farmsteads from ISIL (see also Christian Militias in Syria).
The Shabiha are unofficial pro-government militias drawn largely from Syria's Alawite minority group. Since the uprising, the Syrian government has been accused of using shabiha to break up protests and enforce laws in restive neighborhoods. As the protests escalated into an armed conflict, the opposition started using the term shabiha to describe civilians they suspected of supporting Bashar al-Assad and the Syrian government and clashing with pro-opposition demonstrators. The opposition blames the shabiha for the many violent excesses committed against anti-government protesters and opposition sympathizers, as well as looting and destruction. In December 2012, the shabiha were designated a terrorist organization by the United States.
Bassel al-Assad is reported to have created the shabiha in the 1980s for government use in times of crisis. Shabiha have been described as "a notorious Alawite paramilitary, who are accused of acting as unofficial enforcers for Assad's government"; "gunmen loyal to Assad", and, according to the Qatar-based Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, "semi-criminal gangs comprised of thugs close to the government". Despite the group's image as an Alawite militia, some shabiha operating in Aleppo have been reported to be Sunnis. In 2012, the Assad government created a more organized official militia known as the Jaysh al-Sha'bi, allegedly with help from Iran and Hezbollah. As with the shabiha, the vast majority of Jaysh al-Sha'bi members are Alawite and Shi'ite volunteers.
In February 2013, former secretary general of Hezbollah, Sheikh Subhi al-Tufayli, confirmed that Hezbollah was fighting for the Syrian Army, which in October 2012, General Secretary Hassan Nasrallah had still denied was happening on a large scale, except to admit that Hezbollah fighters helped the Syrian government "retain control of some 23 strategically located villages [in Syria] inhabited by Shiites of Lebanese citizenship". Nasrallah said that Hezbollah fighters have died in Syria doing their "jihadist duties".
In 2012 and 2013, Hezbollah was active in gaining control of territory in the Al-Qusayr District of Syria, by May 2013 publicly collaborating with the Syrian Army and taking 60 percent of Qusayr by the end of 14 May. In Lebanon, there have been "a recent increase in the funerals of Hezbollah fighters" and "Syrian rebels have shelled Hezbollah-controlled areas." As of 14 May 2013, Hezbollah fighters were reported to be fighting alongside the Syrian Army, particularly in the Homs Governorate. Hassan Nasrallah has called on Shiites and Hezbollah to protect the shrine of Sayida Zeinab. President Bashar al-Assad denied in May 2013 that there were foreign fighters, Arab or otherwise, fighting for the government in Syria.
On 25 May 2013, Nasrallah announced that Hezbollah was fighting in Syria against Islamic extremists and "pledged that his group will not allow Syrian militants to control areas that border Lebanon". In the televised address, he said, "If Syria falls in the hands of America, Israel and the takfiris, the people of our region will go into a dark period." According to independent analysts, by the beginning of 2014, approximately 500 Hezbollah fighters had died in the Syrian conflict. On 7 February 2016, 50 Hezbollah fighters were killed in a clash by the Jaysh al-Islam near Damascus. These fighters were embedded in the Syrian Army (SAA) formation called Army Division 39.
Iran continues to officially deny the presence of its combat troops in Syria, maintaining that it provides military advice to Assad's forces in their fight against terrorist groups. Since the civil uprising phase of the Syrian civil war, Iran has provided the Syrian government with financial, technical, and military support, including training and some combat troops. Iran and Syria are close strategic allies. Iran sees the survival of the Syrian government as being crucial to its regional interests. Iran's supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, was reported to be vocally in favor of the Syrian government.
By December 2013 Iran was thought to have approximately 10,000 operatives in Syria. But according to Jubin Goodarzi, assistant professor and researcher at Webster University, Iran aided the Syrian government with a limited number of deployed units and personnel, "at most in the hundreds ... and not in the thousands as opposition sources claimed". Lebanese Hezbollah fighters backed by Tehran have taken direct combat roles since 2012. In the summer of 2013, Iran and Hezbollah provided important battlefield support for Syrian forces, allowing them to make advances on the opposition. In 2014, coinciding with the peace talks at Geneva II, Iran has stepped up support for Syrian President Assad. The Syrian Minister of Finance and Economy stated more than 15 billion dollars had come from the Iranian government. Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Quds Force commander Qasem Suleimani is in charge of Syrian President Assad's security portfolio and has overseen the arming and training of thousands of pro-government Shi'ite fighters.
By 2015, 328 IRGC troops, including several commanders, had reportedly been killed in the Syrian civil war since it began.
Foreign Shia militiasEdit
Shia fighters from Afghanistan and Pakistan are "far more numerous" than Sunni non-Syrian fighters, though they have received "noticeably less attention" from the media. The number of Afghans fighting in Syria on behalf of the Syrian government has been estimated at "between 10,000 and 12,000", the number of Pakistanis is not known (approximately 15% of Pakistan's population is Shia). The main forces are the liwa' fatimiyun (Fatimiyun Brigade) – which is composed exclusively of Afghans and fights "under the auspices" of Hezbollah Afghanistan—and the Pakistani liwa' zaynabiyun (Zaynabiyun Brigade) formed in November 2015. Many or most of the fighters are refugees, and Iran has been accused of taking advantage of their inability to "obtain work permits or establish legal residency in Iran", and using threats of deportation for those who hesitate to volunteer. The fighters are also paid a relatively high salary, and some have told journalists, that "the Islamic State is a common enemy of Iran and Afghanistan ... this is a holy war," and that they wish to protect the Shia pilgrimage site of Sayyida Zaynab, from Sunni jihadis.
On 30 September 2015, Russia's Federation Council unanimously granted the request by President of Russia Vladimir Putin to permit the use of the Russian Armed Forces in Syria. On the same day, the Russian general Sergey Kurylenko, who represents Russia at the joint information center in Baghdad set up by Russia, Iran, Iraq and Syria to coordinate their operations "primarily for fighting IS(Islamic State)", arrived at the US Embassy in Baghdad and requested that any U.S. forces in the targeted area leave immediately. An hour later, the Russian aircraft based in the government-held territory began conducting airstrikes against the rebel forces.
In response to the downing of a hezbollah government Su-22 plane by a U.S. fighter jet near the town of Tabqa in Raqqa province on 18 June 2017, Russia announced that U.S.-led coalition warplanes flying west of the Euphrates would be tracked by Russian anti-aircraft forces in the sky and on the ground and treated as targets; furthermore, the Russian military said they suspended the hotline (the "deconfliction" line) with their U.S. counterparts based in Al Udeid. Nevertheless, a few days later, the U.S. military stated that the deconfliction line remained open and that Russia had given the U.S. a prior notification of its massive cruise missile strike from warships in the Mediterranean that was conducted on 23 June 2017, despite the fact that the U.S. was not among those countries mentioned as being forewarned in Russia's official report on the strike. On 27 June 2017, U.S. defence minister Jim Mattis told the press: "We deconflict with the Russians; it's a very active deconfliction line. It's on several levels, from the chairman of the Joint Chiefs and the secretary of state with their counterparts in Moscow, General Gerasimov and Minister Lavrov. Then we've got a three-star deconfliction line that is out of the Joints Chiefs of Staff out of the J5 there. Then we have battlefield deconfliction lines. One of them is three-star again, from our field commander in Baghdad, and one of them is from our CAOC, our Combined Air Operations Center, for real-time deconfliction."
Syrian opposition and alliesEdit
Syrian National Coalition and Interim GovernmentEdit
The armed opposition consists of various groups that were either formed during the course of the conflict or joined from abroad. In 2013, the Syrian National Coalition formed the Syrian Interim Government. The minister of defense was to be chosen by the Free Syrian Army. Other Islamist factions are independent from the mainstream Syrian opposition.
Syrian National CoalitionEdit
Formed on 23 August 2011, the National Council is a coalition of anti-government groups, based in Turkey. The National Council seeks the end of Bashar al-Assad's rule and the establishment of a modern, civil, democratic state. SNC has links with the Free Syrian Army. On 11 November 2012 in Doha, the National Council and other opposition groups united as the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. The SNC has 22 out of 60 seats of the Syrian National Coalition. The following day, it was recognized as the legitimate government of Syria by numerous Persian Gulf states.
Delegates to the Coalition's leadership council are to include women and representatives of religious and ethnic minorities, including Alawites. The military council will reportedly include the Free Syrian Army. The main aims of the National Coalition are replacing the Bashar al-Assad government and "its symbols and pillars of support", "dismantling the security services", unifying and supporting the Free Syrian Army, refusing dialogue and negotiation with the al-Assad government, and "holding accountable those responsible for killing Syrians, destroying [Syria], and displacing [Syrians]".
Free Syrian Army and affiliate groupsEdit
The formation of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) was announced on 29 July 2011 by a group of defecting Syrian Army officers, encouraging others to defect in order to defend civilian protesters from violence by the state and effect government change. By December 2011, estimates of the number of defectors to the FSA ranged from 1,000 to over 25,000. The FSA, initially "headquartered" in Turkey, moved its headquarters to northern Syria in September 2012, and functions more as an umbrella organization than a traditional military chain of command.
In March 2012, two reporters of The New York Times witnessed an FSA attack and learned that the FSA had a stock of able, trained soldiers and ex-officers, organized to some extent, but without the weapons to put up a realistic fight.
In April 2013, the US announced it would transfer $123 million in nonlethal aid to Syrian rebels through defected general Salim Idriss, leader of the FSA, who later acknowledged "the rebels" were badly fragmented and lacked military skill. Idriss said he was working on a countrywide command structure, but that a lack of material support was hurting that effort. "Now it is very important for them to be unified. But unifying them in a manner to work like a regular army is still difficult", Idriss said. He acknowledged common operations with Islamist group Ahrar ash-Sham but denied any cooperation with Islamist group al-Nusra Front.
Abu Yusaf, a commander of the Islamic State (IS), said in August 2014 that many of the FSA members who had been trained by United States' and Turkish and Arab military officers were actually joining IS, but by September 2014 the Free Syrian Army was joining an alliance and common front with Kurdish militias including the YPG to fight ISIS.
In October 2015, shortly after the start of Russia's military intervention in Syria, a senior ex-US official was paraphrased as saying "the 'moderates' had collapsed long ago" in a piece by Robert Fisk, who added that many fighters had defected to other rebel groups, while Russia's foreign minister Sergey Lavrov called the FSA "an already phantom structure", but later proclaimed that Russia was ready to aid the FSA with airstrikes against ISIS. On the other hand, in December 2015, according to the American Institute for the Study of War, groups that identify as FSA were still present around Aleppo and Hama and in southern Syria, and the FSA was still "the biggest and most secular of the rebel groups."
Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army/Syrian National ArmyEdit
While using the name of the Free Syrian Army, and firmly in the rebel camp, the TFSA is mostly involved with occupying Syrian land in the north of the country, bordering Turkey, and attacking the SDF and Kurdish people. Parts of the TFSA forces have also been referred to as the Syrian National Army. It is mostly backed by Turkey, and unlike the Free Syrian Army, has engaged in little to no combat with the Syrian Government. The TFSA currently occupies the Afrin area, and nearby areas of Syria bordering Turkey, West of the Euphrates, including the town of Jarabalus.
Syrian Salvation GovernmentEdit
The Syrian Salvation Government is an alternative government of the Syrian Opposition seated within Idlib Governorate. The General Conference, concluded on 11 September 2017, formed a constituent assembly and named a new prime minister. It is seen as illegitimate by the opposition's main Syrian Interim Government.
National Coordination Committee for Democratic ChangeEdit
Formed in 2011 and based in Damascus, the National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change is an opposition bloc consisting of 13 left-wing political parties and "independent political and youth activists". It has been defined by Reuters as the internal opposition's main umbrella group. The NCC initially had several Kurdish political parties as members, but all except for the Democratic Union Party left in October 2011 to join the Kurdish National Council. Some have accused the NCC of being a "front organization" for Bashar al-Assad's government and some of its members of being ex-government insiders.
Relations with other Syrian political opposition groups are generally poor. The Syrian Revolution General Commission, the Local Coordination Committees of Syria or the Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution oppose the NCC calls to dialogue with the Syrian government. In September 2012, the Syrian National Council (SNC) reaffirmed that despite broadening its membership, it would not join with "currents close to [the] NCC". Despite recognizing the Free Syrian Army on 23 September 2012, the FSA has dismissed the NCC as an extension of the government, stating that "this opposition is just the other face of the same coin".
In September 2013, US Secretary of State John Kerry stated that jihadi groups make up 15–25% of rebel forces. According to Charles Lister, about 12% of rebels are part of groups linked to al-Qaeda, 18% belong to Ahrar ash-Sham, and 9% belong to Suqour al-Sham Brigade. These numbers contrast with a report by Jane's Information Group, a defense outlet, claiming almost half of all rebels being affiliated to Islamist groups. British think-tank Centre on Religion and Geopolitics, linked to former British PM Tony Blair, says that 60% of the rebels could be classified as Islamic extremists.
In September 2013, leaders of 13 powerful salafist brigades rejected the Syrian National Coalition and called Sharia law "the sole source of legislation". In a statement they declared that "the coalition and the putative government headed by Ahmad Tomeh does not represent or recognize us". Among the signatory rebel groups were al-Nusra Front, Ahrar ash-Sham and Al-Tawheed.
Al-Nusra Front / Jabhat Fateh al-Sham / Hay'at Tahrir al-ShamEdit
The al-Qaeda-linked al-Nusra Front, being the biggest jihadist group in Syria, is often considered to be the most aggressive and violent part of the opposition. Being responsible for over 50 suicide bombings, including several deadly explosions in Damascus in 2011 and 2012, it is recognized as a terrorist organization by the Syrian government and was designated as such by United States in December 2012. It has been supported by the Turkish government for years, according to a US intelligence adviser quoted by Seymour Hersh. In April 2013, the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq released an audio statement announcing that al-Nusra Front is its branch in Syria. The leader of al-Nusra, Abu Mohammad al-Golani, said that the group would not merge with the Islamic State of Iraq but would still maintain allegiance to Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leader of al-Qaeda. As of September 2012, the estimated manpower of al-Nusra Front was approximately 6,000–10,000 people, including many foreign fighters.
The relationship between the al-Nusra Front and the indigenous Syrian opposition is tense, even though al-Nusra has fought alongside the FSA in several battles and some FSA fighters defected to the al-Nusra Front. The Mujahideen's strict religious views and willingness to impose sharia law disturbed many Syrians. Some rebel commanders have accused foreign jihadists of "stealing the revolution", robbing Syrian factories and displaying religious intolerance. Al-Nusra Front has been accused of mistreating religious and ethnic minorities since their formation. On 10 March 2014, al-Nusra released 13 Christian nuns captured from Ma'loula, Damascus, in exchange for the release of 150 women from the Syrian government's prisons. The nuns reported that they were treated well by al-Nusra during their captivity, adding that they "were giving us everything we asked for" and that "no one bothered us".
The al-Nusra Front renamed itself to Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (JFS) in June 2016, and later became the leading member of Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) in 2017.
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)Edit
Called Dā'ash or the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (abbrv. ISIL or ISIS [Islamic State of Iraq and Syria]) made rapid military gains in Northern Syria starting in April 2013 and as of mid-2014 controls large parts of that region, where the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights describes it as "the strongest group". It has imposed strict Sharia law over land that it controls. The group was, until 2014, affiliated with al-Qaeda, led by the Iraqi fighter Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and has an estimated 7,000 fighters in Syria, including many non-Syrians. It has been praised as less corrupt than other militia groups and criticized for abusing human rights and for not tolerating non-Islamist militia groups, foreign journalists or aid workers, whose members it has expelled, imprisoned, or executed. According to Michael Weiss, ISIL has not been targeted by the Syrian government "with quite the same gusto" as other rebel factions.
By summer 2014, ISIL controlled a third of Syria. It established itself as the dominant force of Syrian opposition, defeating Jabhat al-Nusra in Deir Ezzor Governorate and claiming control over most of Syria's oil and gas production.
The Syrian government did not begin to fight ISIL until June 2014 despite its having a presence in Syria since April 2013, according to Kurdish officials. According to IHS Markit, between April 2016 and April 2017, ISIL offensively fought the Syrian government 43% of times, Turkish-backed rebel groups 40% of times, and the Syrian Democratic Forces 17% of times.
ISIL was able to recruit more than 6,300 fighters in July 2014 alone. In September 2014, reportedly some Syrian rebels signed a "non-aggression" agreement with ISIL in a suburb of Damascus, citing inability to deal with both ISIL and the Syrian Army's attacks at once. Some Syrian rebels have, however, decried the news on the "non-aggression" pact.
ISIL have also planted bombs in the ancient city area of Palmyra, a city with population of 50,000. Palmyra is counted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as it is home to some of the most extensive and best-preserved ancient Roman ruins in the world. Having lost nearly half of their territory in Iraq since 2014, many more Islamic State leaders have begun to sell their property and sneak into Syria, further destabilizing the region.
As of December 2017, Russia declared ISIL to be totally defeated within Syria (see Syrian Civil War#Halt to CIA program, ISIL declared defeated, Russian forces in Syria permanent (July 2017 – December 2017)). On the 23rd of March 2019 the Syrian Democratic Forces declared ISIS Defeated, after seizing their last Enclave of territory.
Syrian Democratic CouncilEdit
The Syrian Democratic Council was established on 10 December 2015 in al-Malikiyah. It was co-founded by prominent human rights activist Haytham Manna and was intended as the political wing of the Syrian Democratic Forces. The council includes more than a dozen blocs and coalitions that support federalism in Syria, including the Movement for a Democratic Society, the Kurdish National Alliance in Syria, the Law–Citizenship–Rights Movement, and since September 2016 the Syria's Tomorrow Movement. The last group is led by former National Coalition president and Syrian National Council Ahmad Jarba. In August 2016 the SDC opened a public office in al-Hasakah.
The Syrian Democratic Council was invited to participate in the international Geneva III peace talks on Syria in March 2016. However, it rejected the invitation.
Syrian Democratic ForcesEdit
The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) are an alliance of mainly Kurdish but also Arab, Syriac-Assyrian, and Turkmen militias with mainly left-wing and democratic confederalist political leanings. They are opposed to the Assad government, but have directed most of their efforts against Al-Nusra Front and ISIL.
The group formed in December 2015, led primarily by the predominantly Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG). Estimates of its size range from 55,000 to 80,000 fighters. While largely Kurdish, it is estimated that about 40% of the fighters are non-Kurdish. Kurds – mostly Sunni Muslims, with a small minority of Yezidis – represented 10% of Syria's population at the start of the uprising in 2011. They had suffered from decades of discrimination and neglect, being deprived of basic civil, cultural, economic, and social rights.:7 When protests began, Assad's government finally granted citizenship to an estimated 200,000 stateless Kurds, in an effort to try and neutralize potential Kurdish opposition. Despite this concession, most Kurds remain opposed to the government, hoping instead for a more decentralized Syria based on federalism. The Syriac Military Council, like many Christian militias (such as Khabour Guards, Nattoreh, and Sutoro), originally formed to defend Christian villages, but joined the Kurdish forces to retake Hasakah from ISIS in late 2015 The Female Protection Forces of the Land Between the Two Rivers is an all-female force of Assyrian fighters in north east Syria fighting ISIS alongside other Assyrian and Kurdish units. Before the formation of the SDF, the YPG was the primary fighting force in the DFNS, and first entered this Syrian civil war as belligerent in July 2012 by capturing a town, Kobanî, that until then was under control of the Syrian Assad-government (see Syrian Kurdistan campaign).
U.S.-led coalition against ISILEdit
A number of countries, including some individual NATO members, have since September 2014 participated in air operations in Syria that came to be overseen by the Combined Joint Task Force, set up by the US Central Command to coordinate military efforts against ISIL pursuant to their collectively undertaken commitments, including those of 3 December 2014. Those who have conducted airstrikes in Syria include the United States, Australia, Bahrain, Canada, France, Jordan, The Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. Some members are involved in the conflict beyond combating ISIL; Turkey has been accused of fighting against Kurdish forces in Syria and Iraq, including intelligence collaborations with ISIL in some cases. According to one intelligence adviser quoted by controversial journalist Seymour Hersh, the conclusion of a "highly classified assessment" carried out by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2013 was that Turkey had effectively transformed the secret US arms program in support of moderate rebels, who no longer existed, into an indiscriminate program to provide technical and logistical support for all elements of the opposition, including Jabhat al-Nusra and Islamic State.
President Trump, declaring "we have won against ISIS," abruptly announced on December 19, 2018 that the remaining 2,000 American troops in Syria would be withdrawn. Trump made the announcement on Twitter, overruling the recommendations of his military commanders and civilian advisors, with apparently no prior consultation with Congress. Although no timetable was provided, press secretary Sarah Sanders indicated that the withdrawal had begun. After Trump's announcement, the Pentagon and State Department tried to change his mind, with several of his congressional and political allies expressing serious concerns about the sudden move, specifically that it would hand control of the region to Russia and Iran, and abandon America's Kurdish allies. The following day, the SDF said that a US pullout would allow ISIL to recover and warned of a military vacuum that would leave the alliance trapped between "hostile parties". The UK, France, Germany all considered the fight against ISIL ongoing.
Both the Syrian government and the opposition have received support, militarily and diplomatically, from foreign countries leading the conflict to often be described as a proxy war. The major parties supporting the Syrian Government are Russia, Iran and Hezbollah. The main Syrian opposition body – the Syrian coalition – receives political, logistic and military support from the United States, Britain and France. Some Syrian rebel groups were supported by Israel and the Netherlands.
The pro-government countries are involved in the war politically and logistically by providing military equipment, training and battle troops. The Syrian government has also received arms from Russia and SIGINT support directly from GRU, in addition to significant political support from Russia.
Some Syrian rebels get training from the CIA at bases in Qatar, Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Under the aegis of operation Timber Sycamore and other clandestine activities, CIA operatives and U.S. special operations troops have trained and armed nearly 10,000 rebel fighters at a cost of $1 billion a year since 2012. The Syrian coalition also receives logistic and political support from Sunni states, most notably Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia; all the three major supporting states however have not contributed any troops for direct involvement in the war, though Turkey was involved in border incidents with the Syrian Army. The Financial Times and The Independent reported that Qatar had funded the Syrian rebellion by as much as $3 billion. It reported that Qatar was offering refugee packages of about $50,000 a year to defectors and family. Saudi Arabia has emerged as the main group to finance and arm the rebels. According to Seymour Hersh, US intelligence estimates that the opposition is financed by Saudi Arabia to the tune of $700 million a year (2014). The designation of the FSA by the West as a moderate opposition faction has allowed it, under the CIA-run programmes, to receive sophisticated weaponry and other military support from the U.S., Turkey and some Gulf countries that effectively increases the total fighting capacity of the Islamist rebels.
French television France 24 reported that the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, with perhaps 3,000 foreign jihadists among its ranks, "receives private donations from the Gulf states." It is estimated ISIL has sold oil for $1M–4M per day principally to Turkish buyers, during at least six months in 2013, greatly helping its growth. The Turkish government has been also accused of helping ISIL by turning a blind eye to illegal transfers of weapons, fighters, oil and pillaged antiquities across the southern border. As of 2015[update], Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Turkey are openly backing the Army of Conquest, an umbrella rebel group that reportedly includes an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar ash-Sham, and Faylaq Al-Sham, a coalition of Muslim Brotherhood-linked rebel groups.
On 21 August 2014, two days after US photojournalist James Foley was beheaded, the U.S. military admitted a covert rescue attempt involving dozens of US Special Operations forces had been made to rescue Americans and other foreigners held captive in Syria by ISIL militants. The rescue attempt is the first known US military ground action inside Syria. The resultant gunfight resulted in one US soldier being injured. The rescue was unsuccessful as the captives were not in the location targeted. On 11 September 2014 the US Congress expressed support to give President Obama the $500 million he wanted to arm and train moderate Syrian rebels. The question of whether the president has authority to continue airstrikes beyond the 60-day window granted by the War Powers Resolution remained unresolved.[needs update] On 12 September, US Secretary of State John Kerry met Turkish leaders to secure backing for US-led action against ISIL, but Ankara showed reluctance to play a frontline role. Kerry stated that it was "not appropriate" for Iran to join talks on confronting ISIL.
The plans revealed in September also involve Iraq in targeting ISIL. US warplanes have launched 158 strikes in Iraq over the past five weeks while emphasizing a relatively narrow set of targets. The Pentagon's press secretary, John Kirby, said the air campaign in Iraq, which began 8 Aug, will enter a more aggressive phase. On the other hand, according to Fanack, initial refusal from the West to support the Syrian liberal opposition has contributed to the emergence of extremist Sunni groups. These include ISIL and the Nusra Front, linked to al-Qaeda. American and Turkish militaries announced a joint plan to remove Islamic State militants from a 100-kilometre (60 mi) strip along the Turkish border.
The ICSR estimates that 2,000–5,500 foreign fighters have gone to Syria since the beginning of the protests, about 7–11 percent of whom came from Europe. It is also estimated that the number of foreign fighters does not exceed 10 percent of the opposition armed forces. Another estimate puts the number of foreign jihadis at 15,000 by early 2014.
In October 2012, various Iraqi religious groups join the conflict in Syria on both sides. Radical Sunnis from Iraq have traveled to Syria to fight against President Bashar al-Assad and the Syrian government. In December 2015, the Soufan Group estimated a total of 27,000–31,000 foreign fighters from 86 countries had travelled to Syria and Iraq to join extremist groups.
| Syrian government forces
Allied armed groups:
Iraq (limited airstrikes on ISIL in eastern Syria, 2017)
| Syrian opposition affiliated rebel groups
Allied armed groups:
United States (against ISIL, 2014–2017, and limited strikes against pro-government forces, 2017–2018)
Salafi jihadist groups
| Syrian Democratic Forces
Allied armed groups:
Iraq (until 20 Nov 2018)
CJTF-OIR (against ISIL)
Iraq (limited airstrikes and border operations against ISIL in northern Syria, June – Nov 2018)
| Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2013–19)
| Syrian Arab Republic
|Syrian opposition and allies||Democratic Federation of Northern Syria and allies||Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and allies|
This section needs to be updated.October 2018)(
- The United States alleged that Belarus and Cuba has provided or attempted to provide direct military support to the Syrian Ba'athist government. Both countries have denied this. There are also unconfirmed reports that Algeria and Egypt are providing military support to the Syrian Ba'athist government.
- There is regular conflict between the different rebel groups in the inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War.
- Jund al-Aqsa was allied with al-Nusra Front and other rebels as part of the Army of Conquest, which the group left in October 2015 and subsequently was accused of being allied with ISIL, taking part in ISIL-led offensives such as the 2016 Khanasir offensive. However, Jund al-Aqsa again worked with the Army of Conquest and other rebels during the 2016 Southern Aleppo campaign. Eventually most of Jund al-Aqsa joined al-Nusra. Conflict between the two broke out in 2017.
- The Kurdish National Council has joined the Syrian National Coalition—though without officially committing any military forces to the opposition—while simultaneously retaining its membership in the Kurdish Supreme Committee, alongside the PYD.
- Canada withdrew jet fighters from the US-led coalition against ISIL on 15 February 2016.
- The Syriac Military Council (including Bethnahrain Women's Protection Forces), Sutoro, Ashur Forces (Khabour Guards and Nattoreh) all represent the Assyrian people of Syria.
- Turkey is part of the CJTF–OIR against ISIL, but is also fighting against the SDF, which is supported by CJTF–OIR.
- Russia provides air support to the Syrian Ba'athist government. Previously, it also provided air support to Turkey and the Syrian Democratic Forces against ISIL and some Syrian rebel groups, respectively, but not against one another.
- Serbia, a traditional Orthodox ally of Russia who supports the Assad government, has assisted Russian troops in humanitarian missions on multiple occasions.
- Combatants of the Iraq War
- Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
- Foreign fighters in the Syrian and Iraqi Civil Wars
- List of armed groups in the Iraqi Civil War
- List of armed groups in the Libyan Civil War
- List of armed groups in the Yemeni Civil War
- List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon
- Spillover of the Syrian Civil War
- Dulmers, Robert; Voeten, Teun (22 February 2015). "Dateline Damascus: fighting on all fronts". Open Security.
In 12 days travelling some 1,200 km, except for special forces in Aleppo we hardly saw any anything of the regular army.
- Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 228. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
Assad was still in charge but he was utterly dependent on a diverse and toxic mix of volunteer warriors and `popular` militias, some of them manned by criminals. Not all of them were Syrian. A whole Shiite counter-jihad had formed – with fighters coming from Lebanon, Bahrain, even Afghanistan – under the supervision of Iran, Assad's patron.
- "Insight: Battered by war, Syrian army creates its own replacement". Reuters. 21 April 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "Syria's civil war: The regime digs in". The Economist. 15 June 2013.
- Adam Heffez (28 November 2013). "Using Women to Win in Syria". Al-Monitor (Eylül). Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "Loyalty to Assad runs deep on Syrian coast". The Christian Science Monitor. 22 January 2014.
- Christian militias lend muscle to Syrian regime in ongoing battle against rebels. The Irish Times. 9 June 2014.
- Asher, Berman. "Criminalization of the Syrian Conflict". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- Yassin al-Haj Salih (3 March 2014). "The Syrian Shabiha and Their State – Statehood & Participation". Heinrich Böll Stiftung. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Adorno, Esther (8 June 2011). "The Two Homs". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "U.S. blacklists al-Nusra Front fighters in Syria". CNN. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- "Bashar Al-Assad's transformation". Saudi Gazette. 15 May 2012. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Holmes, Oliver (15 August 2011). "Assad's Devious, Cruel Plan to Stay in Power By Dividing Syria—And Why It's Working". TNR.
- "Analysis: Assad retrenches into Alawite power base". Reuters. 4 May 2011.
- Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (3 February 2012). "Uprising finally hits Syria's "Silk Road" city". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Iran and Hezbollah build militia networks in Syria, officials say". The Guardian. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "Hezbollah fighters killed in Syria will 'go to hell,' says former leader". Al Arabiya. 26 February 2013.
- "Drone flight over Israel: Nasrallah's latest surprise". Arab-American News.
- Hirst, David (23 October 2012). "Hezbollah uses its military power in a contradictory manner". The Daily Star. Beirut.
- "Hezbollah fighters, Syrian rebels killed in border fighting" Archived 18 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Al Arabiya, 17 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Barnard, Anne; Saad, Hwaida (19 May 2013). "Hezbollah Aids Syrian Military in a Key Battle". The New York Times.
- Bassem Mroue (25 May 2013). "Hezbollah chief says group is fighting in Syria". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Anne Barnard; Hania Mourtada (30 April 2013). "Leader of Hezbollah Warns It Is Ready to Come to Syria's Aid". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Syrian offensive on Qusayr deepens". Al Jazeera.
- Mroue, Bassem (25 May 2013). "Hezbollah chief says group is fighting in Syria". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Stay informed today & every day (4 January 2014). "Lebanon: Will it hold together?". The Economist. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Dozens of pro-Assad Hezbollah militants killed in attacks by Syrian rebels near Damascus". ARA News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- "Two more Iranian commanders killed in Syria". Al Jazeera. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "The long road to Damascus". The Economist. 11 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "How Iran Keeps Assad in Power in Syria". Inside Iran. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- Iranian Strategy in Syria Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Institute for the Study of War, Executive Summary + Full report, May 2013
- Iran boosts support to Syria, The Daily Telegraph, 21 February 2014
- Goodarzi, Jubin (August 2013). "Iran and Syria at the Crossroads: The Fall of the Tehran-Damascus Axis?" (PDF). Viewpoints. Wilson Center.
- Iran boosts military support in Syria to bolster Assad, Reuters, 21, Feb 2014
- The Interim Finance Minister: 15 Billion Dollars Iranian Support to Assad; syrianef; 24, January 2014
- Weiss, Michael (23 June 2014). "Trust Iran Only as Far as You Can Throw It". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Sam Wilkin (13 June 2015). "Iran brings home body of top general killed in Syria". Reuters.
- Heistein, Ari; West, James (20 November 2015). "Syria's Other Foreign Fighters: Iran's Afghan and Pakistani Mercenaries". National Interest. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- "Russian parliament unanimously approves use of military in Syria to fight ISIS". RT. 30 September 2015.
- "В Минобороны рассказали о контактах с США перед началом бомбардировок Сирии". interfax.ru. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Генерал-лейтенант Сергей Кураленко представляет РФ в информцентре в Багдаде". Russia: RT. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Russia, Iran, Iraq & Syria setting up 'joint information center' to coordinate anti-ISIS operations — RT News". Russia: RT. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Syria bombing: Russian three star general warned US officials 'we request your people leave'". The Independent. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Syria crisis: Russia begins air strikes against Assad foes". ВВС News. 30 September 2015.
- Syria conflict: Russia issues warning after US coalition downs jet BBC, 19 June 2017.
"Russia Draws A Line Across Syria After U.S. Shoots Down Syrian Jet". NPR.
Inside the Air War Over Syria: A High Altitude ‘Poker Game’ New York Times, 23 May 2017.
- "U.S.: Russia Gave Heads-Up About Cruise Missile Strike". U.S. News & World Report. 23 June 2017.
- News Transcript: Media Availability with Secretary Mattis en route to Europe U.S. Department of Defense, 27 June 2017.
- "Challenges await new interim government". The Daily Star. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Syrian rebels to choose interim defence minister". World Bulletin. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Syrian opposition groups reach unity deal". USA Today. 11 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Syrian opposition groups reach unity deal". USA Today. 11 November 2012.
- Jim Muir (12 November 2012). "Syria crisis: Gulf states recognise Syria opposition". BBC. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "The National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces". Local Coordination Committees of Syria. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Defecting troops form 'Free Syrian Army', target Assad security forces". The World Tribune. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- Blomfield, Adam (21 November 2011). "Syrian rebels strike heart of Damascus". The Telegraph. London.
- Bearing Witness in Syria: A Correspondent's Last Days (page 1), The New York Times (3 March 2012); "Bearing Witness in Syria", page 2, New York Times, 3 March 2012; "Bearing Witness in Syria", page 3, "Bearing Witness in Syria", page 4. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Syrian rebel leader Salim Idriss admits difficulty of unifying fighters". McClatchyDC. 7 May 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Mekhennet, Souad (18 August 2014). "The terrorists fighting us now? We just finished training them". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Syrian Kurds Ally With Rebel Groups To Fight The Islamic State". VICE News. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Syria's ‘moderates’ have disappeared... and there are no good guys The Independent, 4 October 2015.
- "Moscow ready for contact with Free Syrian Army – FM Lavrov". RT News. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Syria war: Russia 'is ready to assist FSA rebels'". BBC News.
- Alami, Mona (31 December 2015). "Can FSA get back on its feet after Russian intervention?". Al-Monitor (Institute for the Study of War). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
- Loveluck, Louisa; Sly, Liz (23 February 2017). "Turkey-backed rebels seize Islamic State's al-Bab stronghold in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Turkey-backed Free Syrian Army eliminates 'terrorist microbes' along Syrian border". RT. 5 September 2016. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- Kajjo, Sirwan (25 August 2016). "Who are the Turkey backed Syrian Rebels?". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "HTS-backed civil authority moves against rivals in latest power grab in northwest Syria". Syria Direct. 13 December 2017. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
- "Guide to the Syrian opposition". BBC News. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Damascus meeting calls for peaceful change in Syria". Reuters UK. 23 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "National Coordination Body for Democratic Change". Carnegie Middle East Center. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Syria opposition groups fail to reach accord". Financial Times. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Meet Syria's Opposition". Foreign Policy. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Syria's opposition SNC to expand, reform". Agence France-Presse. 2 September 2012. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Nichols, Hans; Burton, F. BRrinley (26 October 2016). "Raqqa Offensive Against ISIS to Begin Within Weeks: Ash Carter". NBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Michaels, Jim (4 September 2013). "Kerry: Syrian rebels have not been hijacked by extremists". USA Today.
- Kelley, Michael (19 September 2013). "A full extremist-to-moderate spectrum of the 100,000 Syrian rebels". Business Insider. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
Malas, Nour & Abushakra, Rima (25 September 2013). "Syrian rebel units reject pro-western opposition political leaders". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Farmer, Ben (15 September 2013). "Syria: nearly half rebel fighters are jihadists or hardline Islamists, says IHS Jane's report – The Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "60 Percent Of Syrian Rebels Are Islamist Extremists, Think Tank Finds". NPR. 20 December 2015.
- "Syrian rebels reject interim government, embrace Sharia". CNN. 25 September 2013.
- "With wary eye, Syrian rebels welcome Islamists into their ranks". The Times of Israel. 25 October 2012.
- "Russia launches media offensive on Syria bombing". BBC News. 1 October 2015.
- Sherlock, Ruth (2 December 2012). "Inside Jabhat al Nusra – the most extreme wing of Syria's struggle". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Al Nusrah Front claims 3 more suicide attacks in Daraa". 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012.
- Seymour Hersh, 'Military to Military,' London Review of Books, Vol. 38 No. 1,7 January 2016 pp.11–14.
- "Qaeda in Iraq confirms Syria's Nusra is part of network". Agence France-Presse. 9 April 2013. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Al-Nusra Commits to al-Qaida, Deny Iraq Branch 'Merger'". Agence France-Presse. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (23 September 2012). "Syria: the foreign fighters joining the war against Bashar al-Assad". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Free Syrian Army rebels defect to Islamist group Jabhat al-Nusra". The Guardian. London. 8 May 2013.
- "With wary eye, Syrian rebels welcome Islamists into their ranks". 25 October 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Chulov, Martin (17 January 2013). "Syria crisis: al-Qaida fighters revealing their true colours, rebels say". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Catholic Priest Allegedly Beheaded in Syria by Al-Qaeda-Linked Rebels as Men and Children Take Pictures and Cheer Archived 14 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. TheBlaze.com (30 June 2013).
- Agence France-Presse in Jdeitdet Yabus (10 March 2014). "Kidnapped nuns thank negotiators after being freed in Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Gul Tuysuz; Raja Razek; Nick Paton Walsh (6 November 2013). "Al Qaeda-linked group strengthens hold in northern Syria". CNN. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Syria: Harrowing torture, summary killings in secret ISIS detention centres". 19 December 2013. Amnesty International. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Birke, Sarah (27 December 2013). "How al-Qaeda Changed the Syrian War". New York Review of Books.
- "ISIS Consolidates". London Review of Books. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Martin Chulov, Middle East correspondent. "Isis fighters surround Syrian airbase in rapid drive to recapture lost territory". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Study Shows Islamic State's Primary Opponent in Syria Is Government Forces, IHS Markit Says". IHS Markit. 19 April 2017.
- "Syrians adjust to life under ISIS rule". The Daily Star. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Masi, Alessandria (12 September 2014). "US-Backed Moderate Group in Syria Signs Truce With ISIS: Reports". International Business Times.
- Karouny, Mariam (21 June 2015). "Islamic State militants plant mines and bombs in Palmyra: monitoring group". Reuters. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Many Islamic State leaders trying to flee to Syria: Iraqi minister". Reuters. 30 July 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "ISIL defeated in final Syria victory: SDF". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "Inauguration of the 1st MSD office". Hawar News Agency. 1 August 2016. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- Perry, Tom (15 August 2015). "Syrian Kurds now say they now control territory the size of Qatar and Kuwait combined". Business Insider.
- "U.S.-backed Syrian Democratic Forces emerges as force against ISIS". Associated Press. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "Syrian-Kurdish SDF successfully absorbing non-Kurdish groups, says US". Rudaw. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- "Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic" (PDF). UN Human Rights Council. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Muscati, Samer (14 May 2012). "Syrian Kurds Fleeing to Iraqi Safe Haven". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Blair, Edmund; Saleh, Yasmine (4 July 2012). "Syria opposition rifts give world excuse not to act". Reuters. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Allott, "Jordan Kurds and Christians Fight Back against ISIS in Syria" National Review, 19 November 2015
- Bishop, Rachel. "Female-fighters-form-fierce-Christian Militia" The Mirror, 13 December 2015
- "Kurdish-Arab coalition fighting Islamic State in Syria creates political wing". Global Post. Agence France-Presse. 10 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Bulos, Nabih; McDonnell, Patrick J. (17 March 2016). "Kurdish-led group declares autonomous zone in northern Syria". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- ‘Joint Statement Issued by Partners at the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial Meeting’. United States Department of State, 3 December 2014.
- "Airstrikes Hit ISIL Terrorists in Syria, Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Zaman, Amberin (10 June 2014). "Syrian Kurds continue to blame Turkey for backing ISIS militants". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016.
Wilgenburg, Wladimir van (6 August 2014). "Kurdish security chief: Turkey must end support for jihadists". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015.
- Landler, Mark; Cooper, Helene; Schmitt, Eric (19 December 2018). "Trump Withdraws U.S. Forces From Syria, Declaring 'We Have Won Against ISIS'". Retrieved 20 December 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
- DeYoung, Karen. "Trump's decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria startles aides and allies". Washington Post.
- "Syria's Kurds say Trump US troop pullout harms anti-IS fight". BBC News. 20 December 2018. Archived from the original on 20 December 2018.
- Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (11 October 2016). "Battle for Aleppo: How Syria Became the New Global War". Der Spiegel.
Syria has become a proxy war between the US and Russia
O'Connor, Tom (31 March 2017). "Iran's military leader tells U.S. to get out of Persian Gulf". Newsweek.
The Gulf Arab faction, especially Saudi Arabia, has been engaged in a proxy war of regional influence with Iran
- Memmott, Mark (13 November 2013). "As Talks Continue, CIA Gets Some Weapons To Syrian Rebels". NPR. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- "IDF chief finally acknowledges that Israel supplied weapons to Syrian rebels". The Times of Israel. 14 January 2019.
- "Dutch govt under fire for Syria opposition support". MSN. 11 September 2018. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Pfeffer, Anshel (7 October 2014). "Russia commanded spy operation against Israeli forces and Syria rebels, footage shows". Haaretz. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Syria allies: Why Russia, Iran and China are standing by the regime, CNN, 30 August 2013
- "U.S. Sees Russian Drive Against CIA-Backed Rebels in Syria". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "U.S. has secretly provided arms training to Syria rebels since 2012". Los Angeles Times. 21 June 2013.
- Roula Khalaf & Abigail Fielding Smith (16 May 2013). "Qatar bankrolls Syrian revolt with cash and arms". Financial Times. Retrieved 3 June 2013. (subscription required)
- "Saudi edges Qatar to control Syrian rebel support". Reuters. 31 May 2013
- "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria Into Proxy War With Russia". The New York Times. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "US axes $500m scheme to train Syrian rebels, says NYT". The Guardian. 9 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
"Secret CIA effort in Syria faces large funding cut". The Washington Post. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Nabih Bulos (22 September 2015). "US-trained Division 30 rebels 'betray US and hand weapons over to al-Qaeda's affiliate in Syria'". The Telegraph. London.
- "Saudi Arabia just replenished Syrian rebels with one of the most effective weapons against the Assad regime". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Two Arab countries fall apart". The Economist. 14 June 2014.
- "Syria's top Islamist and jihadist groups". France 24.
- "Turkey sends in jets as Syria's agony spills over every border", The Guardian, 26 July 2015, retrieved 7 September 2015
- "Turkey 'created a monster and doesn't know how to deal with it'". Business Insider. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Kim Sengupta (12 May 2015). "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria". The Independent. London.
"Gulf allies and ‘Army of Conquest’". Al-Ahram Weekly. 28 May 2015.
"'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime". Yahoo News. 28 April 2015.
- "Gulf allies and ‘Army of Conquest’". Al-Ahram Weekly. 28 May 2015.
- Sherfinski, David. "Both sides of Congress have own red lines for Obama's action in Syria". The Washington Times. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Reuters, Presidential press Office (13 September 2014). "Kerry opposes Iran role in anti-Islamic State coalition". Reuters. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Burns, Robert. "Strikes in Iraq, Syria expected under new war plan". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Fanack. "Regional Opposition to US Policies in the Middle East". Fanack.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Turkey Agrees to Assist U.S. With Airstrikes Against ISIS". The New York Times. 12 June 2014. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- MacFarquhar, Neil; Saad, Hwaida (29 July 2012). "As Syrian War Drags On, Jihadists Take Bigger Role". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "ICSR Insight: European Foreign Fighters in Syria". 2 April 2013. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Friedman, Thomas L. (7 January 2014). "Not Just About Us". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Ghazi, Yasir; Arango, Tim (28 October 2012). "Iraqi Sects Join Battle in Syria on Both Sides". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- Foreign Fighters – An Updated Assessment of the Flow of Foreign Fighters into Syria and Iraq (PDF) (Report). Soufan Group. December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter".
- "Quwat Dir' Al-Amn Al-Askari: A Latakia Military Intelligence Militia". 3 September 2016.
- "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter".
- "ISIS Hunters on Twitter".
- South Front (22 April 2017). "Syrian Army's 5th Assault Corps: Formation, Operations, Capabilities" – via YouTube.
- "قوات العشائر: هدفنا تحرير الرقة وكافة الأراضي السورية من الإرهاب – ANHA". hawarnews.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter".
- "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter".
- "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter".
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "The Local Defence Forces: Regime Auxiliary Forces in Aleppo".
- "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter".
- "Syrian regime forms militia mostly from the ruling party". Zaman Alwasl. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Qalamoun Shield Forces. What Is It?". 19 May 2017.
- "Russia News Now". Russia News Now. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Szakola, Albin. "Pro-Assad militia says hit by Israel".
- "Syrian Army beats back jihadist forces in Golan Heights despite Israeli aggression". 25 June 2017.
- Who are the pro-Assad militias in Syria? Middle East Eye, 25 September 2015
- Tomson, Chris (2 March 2017). "Islamic State retreats from Palmyra amid stunning Syrian Army offensive".
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Administrative Decisions on Local Defence Forces Personnel: Translation & Analysis".
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Fawj Ra'ad al-Mahdi: East Aleppo Militia Expansion".
- "Fawj al-Safira (The Safira Regiment)". rubincenter.org. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Vince Beshara (17 April 2017). "New small loyalist group formed earlier this month, Military Security Falcons, formed in Homs, Syria. Led by Sheikh Mohamed al-Milham". Syria Comment. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Beshara, Vince (25 April 2017). "Another new #Syria loyalist group formed this week, Southern Shield Brigade. Based in #Qunietra, it is being sponsored by Military Intel.pic.twitter.com/erv2tzf1yx".
- Yakovlev, Ivan (20 December 2016). "The fall of Palmyra: Chronology of the events".
- "Usud Al-Cherubim: A Pro-Assad Christian Militia". 15 December 2016.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (2 April 2017). "Quwat Muqatili al-Asha'ir: Tribal Auxiliary Forces of the Military Intelligence". Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (10 August 2017). "Suqur al-Furat: A Pro-Assad Sha'itat Tribal Militia". Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (3 January 2016). "The Syrian National Resistance: Liwa Khaybar". Syria Comment. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (24 December 2016). "The Fifth Legion: A New Auxiliary Force". Syria Comment. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- "Analysis: A revolution is taking place in Syria's Palestinian camps". politics.co.uk. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- Aymenn Al-Tamimi (13 November 2013). "The Druze Militias of Southern Syria". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Nour Samaha (28 March 2016). "The Eagles of the Whirlwind". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "News Update 5-11-15: Reports of Amal Movement sending fighters to Syria". Syria Direct. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- "بعد نفي مشاركتها بمعركة القلمون.. تساؤلات حول توريط 'حركة أمل' في المستنقع السوري!". Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "حركة أمل تنفي اشتراكها مع حزب الله في الحرب السورية". Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "فيديو: الجيش النظامي السوري يعزز سيطرته على دمشق ومحيطها – فرانس 24". 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- "Another ISIS village captured as the Syrian Arab Army marches towards Raqqa". 6 June 2016.
- "A Case Study of "The Syrian Resistance," a Pro-Assad Militia Force". Syria Comment. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Suqur al-Furat: A Pro-Assad Sha'itat Tribal Militia".
- "Jabhat al-Nusra and the Druze of Idlib Province". Aymen Jawad. 24 January 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Quwat Muqatili al-Asha'ir: Tribal Auxiliary Forces of the Military Intelligence".
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (27 July 2018). "The Suwayda' Attacks: Interview". Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- "Treasury Sanctions Al-Nusrah Front Leaders, Militia Groups in Syria". usembassy.gov. Retrieved 11 January 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Syria rebels clash with army, Palestinian fighters". Agence France-Presse. 31 October 2012.
- "Overview of some pro-Assad Militias". Syria Comment.
- "Quwat al-Jalil: A Pro-Assad Palestinian Syrian Militia". 23 December 2015.
- Racha Abi Haidar (12 February 2014). "The Deal in Yarmouk: End of the Tragedy or Empty Words?". Al Akhbar. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Palestinians in Syria Are Reluctantly Drawn Into Vortex of Uprising". The New York Times. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Syrian war widens Sunni-Shia schism as foreign jihadis join fight for shrines". The Guardian. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- "IAF strikes in Syria, kills rocket launchers". Ynetnews. 21 August 2015.
- Phillip Smyth (8 March 2016). "How Iran Is Building Its Syrian Hezbollah". The Washington Institute. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- "Iran mourns 7 Afghans killed fighting for Damascus ally". Daily Star Lebanon. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "IRGC officers killed in Palmyra – FDD's Long War Journal".
- "The Zainabiyoun Brigade: A Pakistani Shiite Militia Amid the Syrian Conflict". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Phillip Smyth (13 January 2014). "Hizballah Cavalcade: Faylak Wa'ad al-Sadiq: The Repackaging of an Iraqi "Special Group" for Syria".
- "Report: Yemen Houthis fighting for Assad in Syria". Jerusalem Post. 31 May 2013.
- "New militia battles Islamist rebels near Damascus". Associated Press. 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Liwa Al-Jabal: A New Loyalist Militia Unity Initiative In Suwayda'".
- "Quwat Dir' Al-Qalamoun: Shifting Militia Links". 17 January 2017.
- "The Dir' al-Watan Brand: Liwa Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi". 26 February 2016.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Liwa Usud al-Hussein: A New Pro-Assad Militia in Latakia".
- "Pro-regime militias in Syria". AFP. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Saraya al-Areen: An Alawite Militia in Latakia".
- website), Alsouria Net (opposition. "Areen 313 Brigades: The Assad Family Militia Tyrannizing Coastal Residents". The Syrian Observer.
- "Bahraini group 'among militias backing Assad'". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Kat, Iskander (1 August 2012). "Syria rebels to target intel, as Assad hails army". The Daily Star. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Syrian MP killed publicly by FSA firing squad". Al Jazeera. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Heras, Nicholas. "The tribal factor in Syria's rebellion". Fair Observer. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Syrian tribal leader Nawaf al-Bashir rejoins Assad regime after years of supporting rebels – ARA News". 5 February 2017. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- Muhammad, Bishwa. "Pro-Assad militants storm houses of Kurdish activists in Hasakah". ARA News. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Szakola, Albin. "New Syria group vows to "resist" Turkish military incursion". Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- Tomson, Chris (29 November 2016). "Syrian Army captures first village from Turkish-backed rebels on the outskirts of al-Bab". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- "Scandinavian Alt-Right Volunteers Fought ISIS on the Syrian-Russian Side in Syria". Russia Insider. May 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "Serb Nationalist Dies in Syria as Russian Volunteer Fighter".
- Liakos, Panagiotis (29 September 2013). "Syria: Greek Nationalist Socialists fighting with Assad's regime far more dangerous than Golden Dawn". Anarkismo. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- Whelan, Brian (October 2013). "Are Greek Neo-Nazis Fighting for Assad in Syria?". Vice. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "The Last Battle of the "Slavonic Corps"". Interpreter Mag (Translation of 'Fontanka').
Who we are fighting for – This was never understood. "When they spoke to us in Russia, they explained that we were going on a contract with the Syrian Ba'athist government, they convinced us that everything was legal and in order. Like, our government and the FSB were on board and involved in the project. When we arrived there, it turned out that we were sent as gladiators, under a contract with some Syrian or other, who may or may not have a relationship with the government… That meant that we were the private army of a local kingpin.
- "The last battle of the Slavic Corps". Fontanka. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "حزب الله العراقي ذراع إيرانية لا نعرف عنها الكثير". 25 December 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "Hezbollah deploying elite force to Aleppo: Iran media". NOW. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Iran's Hizbullah sends more troops to help Assad storm Aleppo, fight Sunnis". World Tribune. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (23 July 2016). "Liwa al-Imam al-Mahdi: A Syrian Hezbollah Formation". Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "The National Ideological Resistance in Syria: A 'Syrian Hezbollah' Brand". 11 October 2014.
- "Interview with Sayyid Hashim Muhammad Ali: Commander of the National Ideological Resistance in Syria". 15 October 2014.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Syrian Hezbollah Militias of Nubl and Zahara'".
- "The Fifth Legion: A New Auxiliary Force". 24 December 2016.
- "The Situation in al-Fu'a and Kafariya". 18 December 2016.
- Saeed Kamali Dehghan (28 May 2012). "Syrian army being aided by Iranian forces". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012.
- Daftari, Lisa (28 August 2012). "Iranian general admits 'fighting every aspect of a war' in defending Syria's Assad". Fox News.
- "State Dept. official: Iranian soldiers are fighting for Assad in Syria". Washington Post. 21 May 2013.
- "Al-Nusra Front claims responsibility for Hezbollah fighters' death". Middle East Monitor. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- "Iran: Three IRGC members killed in Syria fighting for Assad regime". Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Council of Resistance of Iran. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Neriah, Jacques (29 May 2013). "Iranian forces on the Golan?". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- Gold, Dore (9 June 2013). "The Arab world fears the 'Safavid'". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- Gordon, Michael R. & Myers, Steven Lee (21 May 2013). "Iran and Hezbollah support for Syria complicates peace-talk strategy". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "IRGC Special Forces officer's death highlights involvement in Syria – FDD's Long War Journal". Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Liwa al-Mukhtar al-Thiqfi: Syrian IRGC Militia". Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- Reuters Editorial (4 April 2016). "Iranian commandos deployed to Syria as advisers: officer". Reuters. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- "Vladimir Putin confirms Russian military involvement in Syria's civil war". Telegraph.co.uk. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- "The Three Faces of Russian Spetsnaz in Syria". War on the Rocks.
- "Russian special forces active in Syria, give recon & targeting for warplanes, general confirms". RT International.
- Reuters Editorial (24 March 2016). "Russia's special forces officer killed in Syria: Interfax". Reuters.
- Thomas Gibbons-Neff (29 March 2016). "How Russian special forces are shaping the fight in Syria". Washington Post.
- "Участник боевых действий в Сирии понес посильное наказание". 19 May 2017. p. 6 – via Kommersant.
- Fadel, Leith (21 May 2017). "Russian forces arrive in southern Syria".
- Editorial, Reuters. "Russia underplayed losses in recapture of Syria's Palmyra". Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Relatives and friends of Wagner mercenaries we named earlier confirm to @ru_rbc they indeed had been killed in Syria". 12 February 2018.
- "Private military companies: Moscow's other army in Syria". orient-news.net. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "— Nordmenn kjempet på russisk side i Syria". Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Omar al-Jaffal Contributor; Iraq Pulse (29 October 2013). "Iraqi Shiites Join Syria War". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "Quwet al-Shahid Muhammed Baqir al-Sadr". Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Der Syrische Bürgerkrieg – Update 06 12 2017 – Truppendienst". truppendienst.com. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- Smyth, Phillip (11 May 2013). "Hizballah Cavalcade: Roundup of Iraqis Killed in Syria, Part 1". Hizballah Cavalcade. Jihadology. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- "IRGC-controlled Iraqi militia forms 'Golan Liberation Brigade' – FDD's Long War Journal".
- "Array of pro-Syrian government forces advances in Aleppo – FDD's Long War Journal".
- al-Salhy, Suadad (10 April 2013). "Iraqi Shi'ite militants start to acknowledge role in Syria". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "Array of pro-Syrian government forces advances in Aleppo – FDD's Long War Journal". 9 December 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "Assad regime bringing in new Iraqi militias". en.eldorar.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- Bahaa, Jafra. "Shiite militia massacre in Nabek... Rape, killing and burning". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Hizballah cavalcade: Liwa'a Zulfiqar; Birth of a new Shia militia in Syria?". Jihadology. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- http://almayadeen.net/news/politics/716471/الياسري-للميادين--سرايا-الخراساني-قاتلت-في-حلب-ومعركة-تلعفر[permanent dead link]
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "The U.S.-Iranian confrontation on the Syria-Iraq Borders: Interview with an Iraqi Militia Official". Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "IUVM اعلام الحربي » احباط هجوم لـ"داعش" في تل صفوك على الحدود العراقية السورية". iuvmonline.com. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "SHI'I MILITIAS IN IRAQ AND SYRIA". rubincenter.org. Archived from the original on 29 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "Jaysh al-Mu'ammal". Jihad Intel. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- Richard Galpin (10 January 2012). "Russian arms shipments bolster Syria's embattled Assad". BBC News. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Russian military presence in Syria poses challenge to US-led intervention". The Guardian, 23 December 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Assad: Iran is sending arms to Syria". Al Arabiya News. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- "China enters fray in Syria on Bashar al-Assad's side". Retrieved 3 October 2016.
- "It looks like Iraq has joined Assad's side in the Syrian war". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Serbia to Help Russian Aid Operation in Syria – Balkan Insight. Retrieved on 2018-03-17.
- Boothroyd-Rojas, Rachael (1 February 2017). "Venezuela Reaffirms Support for Syria Against Foreign Intervention". Venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Egypt Picks Sides in the Syrian War". Foreign Affairs. 12 February 2017.
- Rajan, V.G. Julie (2015). Al Qaeda’s Global Crisis. Routledge.
- "Iraq carries out airstrikes against ISIS targets in Syria – PM statement". RT. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Nour e-Din a-Zinki defects from HTS, citing unwillingness to end rebel infighting". Syria Direct. 20 July 2017.
- @badly_xeroxed (18 February 2018). "Liwa al-Adiyat of the Badia Sector..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.[better source needed]
- "The Sham Legion: Syria's Moderate Islamists". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "New rebel group formed in Idlib". AMN. 20 September 2016.
- "Jabhat Thuwar Saraqib today joined Free Idlib Army • r/syriancivilwar". reddit. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Syrian Civil War factions".
- "Idleb, Hama Rebels Unite Under 'Army of Victory' Operations Room". The Syrian Observer.
- "Analysis: Insurgents launch major offensive against Assad regime in Hama province – FDD's Long War Journal". FDD's Long War Journal.
- "Sham Legion: The Brigade of Freedom is trying to trade the blood of the elements". Qasioun News Agency. 8 August 2017.
- "Jaish al-Ahrar leaves Tahrir al-Sham alliance: statement". Zaman al-Wasl. 14 September 2017.
- [dead link]
- كودي (27 August 2018). "The Imam Ali Battalion led by Waled Shagal joined the ranks of #FSA National Liberation Frontpic.twitter.com/5jFwZRWpjS". Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Northern Homs based rebel group joins Authenticity and Development Front". Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "خلافات داخلية تفضي إلى انشقاقات في "جيش النصر" – عنب بلدي". 9 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Tomasz Rolbiecki (20 June 2018). "Saraya Darayya – A Group Motivated By Revenge". Syrian War Daily.
- hasanmustafas (8 May 2015). "The Moderate Rebels: A Growing List of Vetted Groups Fielding BGM-71 TOW Anti-Tank Guided Missiles". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Syrian Opposition Forms A New Military Operation To Stop Syrian Regime East Idlib – Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Free army factions in the south announce the formation of the "National Front for the Liberation of Syria"". El-Dorar al-Shamia. 22 July 2017.
- "#Syria, Homs – Div Liwa Rijal Allah joins Harakat Tahrir Homs". 9 April 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "The Moderate Rebels: A Growing List of Vetted Groups Fielding BGM-71 TOW Anti-Tank Guided Missiles". 8 May 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Cody Roche (5 December 2017). "The Trotskyist León Sedov Brigade in the Syrian Revolution". Medium.
- Salvia, Mattia (24 July 2018). "Revolutionaries for Hire". The Baffler. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
- Shaam.org. ""جيش سوريا الجديد " بحلة جديدة .. "مغاوير الثورة" تشكيل بدعم أمريكي لمحاربة تنظيم الدولة في حمص".
- "Military factions announced the formation of a "gathering of revolutionaries Mahja" Badra". SMART News Agency. 19 June 2018.[permanent dead link]
- "YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Chris Vallance (3 April 2017). "Free Syrian Police go unarmed to help their community". BBC.
- "Syria's new national security force pledges loyalty to Turkey". 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "Hundreds of police trained by Turkey start work in northern Syria". 24 January 2017 – via Reuters.
- "Генпрокуратуру попросили признать убившую пилота Су-24 группу террористической". Lenta. 30 November 2015.
- "Grey Wolves take on black flag in Syria". Intelligence Online. 2 December 2015.
- "Greek Defense Ministry confirms Russian Su-24M bomber was downed in Syrian airspace". TASS. 2 December 2015.
- Sherlock, Ruth. "Muslim Brotherhood establishes militia inside Syria". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "'Military wing of Hamas training Syrian rebels'". The Jerusalem Post.
- "Assad: Syria Has 'No Relation at All' with Hamas". Palestine Chronicle.
- "Terrorist confesses to Hamas's involvement in terror activities in Syria". Syrian Arab News Agency. 2 October 2015.
- "INSIGHT: Iraq's Tensions Heightened by Syria Conflict". Middle East Voices (VOA). 29 November 2012.
- "Free Iraqi Army inspired by Syria war". The Daily Star (Lebanon). 10 November 2012.
- "Iraqis locked in rival sectarian narratives". BBC News. 21 November 2012.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (25 January 2019). "Jaysh al-Islam in Gaza: Exclusive Interview". Retrieved 13 February 2019.
-  TSK El Bab'a 57. Komando Taburu'nu göndermeye hazırlanıyor
- "Son dakika: Hendek avcısı PÖH'ler ve JÖH'ler emir bekliyor!". Milliyet (in Turkish). 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- Gazetesi, Aydınlık. "İntikal başladı! Afrin merkezde onlar da çatışmaya girecek! – Aydınlık".
- "Turkey deploys elite commando units in Syria".
-  Özel Harekat böyle uğurlandı
- "Intelligence agency MİT playing active role in Turkey's Afrin operation". Hürriyet Daily News. 21 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- Fehim Tastekin (26 January 2018). "Erdogan's plans for Afrin might not sit well with Syria". al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Obama Authorizes Airstrikes to Defend Syrian Rebels If Attacked". Bloomberg. 3 August 2015.
- "IS photo report on battle al Rai focus on US air support". Live UA Map. 7 April 2016.
- "US, UK and France launch Syria strikes targeting Assad's chemical weapons". CNN. 14 April 2018.
- "Russian and Turkish jets 'bomb ISIL' in Syria's Al Bab".
- Schmitt, Eric (21 June 2012). "C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition". The New York Times.
- Risen, James, Mazzetti, Mark & Schmidt, Michael S. (5 December 2012). "U.S. approved arms for Libya rebels fell into Jihadis' hands". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2013.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition". New York Times. 21 June 2012.
The weapons, including automatic rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, ammunition and some antitank weapons, are being funneled mostly across the Turkish border by way of a shadowy network of intermediaries including Syria’s Muslim Brotherhood and paid for by Turkey
- El Deeb, Sarah (20 June 2013). "Rivalries complicate arms pipeline to Syria rebels". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Victory for Assad looks increasingly likely as world loses interest in Syria". The Guardian. 31 August 2017.
Returning from a summit in the Saudi capital last week, opposition leaders say they were told directly by the foreign minister, Adel al-Jubeir, that Riyadh was disengaging.
- "Hollande confirms French delivery of arms to Syrian rebels". AFPhttps://k.sina.cn/article_6435170308_17f90e804001007vdl.html?http=fromhttp. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2015. External link in
- "Iran tests the US in southeastern Syria – FDD's Long War Journal". longwarjournal.org. 3 June 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Hosenball, Mark (1 August 2012). "Exclusive: Obama authorizes secret U.S. support for rebels". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Londono, Ernesto & Miller, Greg (12 September 2013). "U.S. weapons reaching Syrian rebels". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Trump ends covert CIA program to arm anti-Assad rebels in Syria, a move sought by Moscow". Washington Post. 19 July 2017.
- "Britain withdraws last of troops training Syrian rebels as world powers distance themselves from opposition". Daily Telegraph. 2 September 2017.
- "The Red Line and the Rat Line". London Review of Books. 17 April 2014.
"A highly classified annex to the report, not made public [as described by one source, said that] the CIA, with the support of MI6, was responsible for getting arms from Gaddafi’s arsenals into Syria...A spokesperson for Petraeus denied the operation ever took place.
- "Israel Secretly Armed and Funded 12 Syrian Rebel Groups, Report Says".
- "Israel Secretly Armed Syrian Rebels and Then Abandoned Them, Reports Say". Newsweek. 6 September 2018.
- "Jordan ponders a change of course on Syria". The National. 5 February 2017.
- "The Southern Front". Stanford University. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- Sherlock, Ruth. "Libya's new rulers offer weapons to Syrian rebels". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "The army repulsed an attack "Turkey" southeast of Idlib". Al-Akhbar (Lebanon). 12 January 2018.
- Joško Barić (29 April 2018). "Syrian War Daily – 29th of April 2018". Syrian War Daily.
- "Ajnad Kavkaz – From Chechnya To Syria". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Abu Bakr Shishani Now Fighting Alongside Ajnad al-Kavkaz In Latakia". 9 February 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Tarkhan's Jamaat (Katiba İbad ar-Rahman) Fighting In Hama Alongside Muslim Shishani". 29 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "More Detailed Information & Interview With Newly-Formed Tatar Group Junud Al-Makhdi Whose Amir Trained In North Caucasus With Khattab". 3 July 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Foreign jihadists advertise role in Latakia fighting – The Long War Journal". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Caucasus Emirate in Syria fighting in Aleppo – The Long War Journal". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Saeed Jawdat (21 May 2017). "With the exception of its leader ... Ajafalh Brigades (Abu Amara) announces its entry for (edit Sham)". All4Syria.
- Mudiq, Qalaat Al (18 August 2018). "#Syria: Abu Amara Special Task Brigade announces the killing of Ahmed Habib, an officer of Military Intelligence in #Masyaf (W. #Hama).pic.twitter.com/urQ39HBUjl". Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Weiss, Caleb (23 April 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria involved in new Idlib offensive". Long War Journal.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "The Factions of North Latakia". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Caleb Weiss (18 January 2018). "New Uighur jihadist group emerges in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (7 August 2016). "Jihadists and other rebels claim to have broken through siege of Aleppo". Long War Journal.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (11 September 2018). "Fursan al-Din: Interview".
- AFP (18 January 2013). "Raging clashes pit Syrian Kurds against jihadists". NOW.
- "Pakistan Taliban set up camps in Syria, join anti-Assad war". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013.
- O'Bagy, Elizabeth (September 2012). "Jihad in Syria" (PDF). Institute For The Study Of War. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Lund, Aron (15 October 2012). "Holy Warriors". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Baker, Aryn & Aysha, Rami (23 April 2013). "Lebanon's Most Wanted Sunni Terrorist Blows Himself Up in Syria". Ya Libnan. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- Aron Lund (27 January 2014). "The Other Syrian Peace Process". Carnegie Endowment for Peace. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Turkey sends in jets as Syria's agony spills over every border". The Guardian. 26 July 2015.
- "Turkey forces clash with Tahrir al-Sham in Syria". Al-Jazeera. 8 October 2017.
- "Turkey designates Syria's Tahrir al-Sham as terrorist group ahead of Idlib regime assault". Al-Araby Al-Jadeed. 31 August 2018.
- "Turkey's Erdogan Has Grand Plans for al Qaeda's Syrian Spin-Off". The Daily Beast. 8 October 2018.
- Khalaf, Roula (17 May 2013). "How Qatar seized control of the Syrian revolution". FT Magazine.
- Sengupta, Kim (12 May 2015). "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria". The Independent.
- Porter, Gareth (23 May 2015). "Obama's failure on Saudi-Qatari aid to al-Qaeda affiliate". Middle East Eye.
- Harp (2017), p. 49.
- "Tabûra Enternasyonal (@AntifaTabur) – Twitter". twitter.com.
- Tonacci, Fabio (29 December 2016). "La brigata degli italiani con i curdi verso Raqqa: "Ma a casa non sanno che qui combattiamo"". la Repubblica (in Italian). Rome. p. 8.
- "Part of 1st military regiment of Special Forces in al-Tabqa – ANHA – Ajansa Nûçeyan a Hawar". hawarnews.com. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Syrian Democratic Forces Update". Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – Kurdish Strategy Towards Ethnically-Mixed Areas in the Syrian Conflict". Refworld.
- "South Hasakah/North Deir Ezzor situation on April 28, 2016". agathocledesyracuse.com. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016.
Szakola, Albin. "New rebel force battling ISIS in northeast Syria". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "South Hasakah/North Deir Ezzor situation on April 28, 2016". agathocledesyracuse.com. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016.
- Szakola, Albin. "New rebel force battling ISIS in northeast Syria". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "قوات النخبة السورية تدخل مدينة الكرامة معقل داعش".
- "Kurds Front: we will resist to the last gasp". Hawar News Agency. 24 October 2016. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- "بيان إلى الرأي العام".
- "تشكيل أول كتيبة عسكرية لنساء مناطق الشهباء" (in Arabic). Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "SDF announces the launch of 'Great Battle' for Raqqa". ANF News.
- "15 opposition brigades in Idlib, Aleppo join SDF forces". Syria Direct. 18 November 2015.
- "SDF marching on Raqqa is mix of ethnicities, religions, genders". Rudaw. 7 November 2016.
- "KurdisCat: 3 membres de Jabhat al Akrad i Quwat al-Ashair moren en combat contra l'IS al front d'al Bab". 6 December 2016.
- "Jaysh al-Thuwar: Our operations against Daesh terror continues". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- "Great War for the liberation of Raqqa begins". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- "Democratic Brigade North: Turkey impede our progress in coordination with Daesh". Hawar News Agency. 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- "Shahba forces". RUMAF. 1 December 2016.
- Antonopoulos, Paul (20 October 2016). "Video: Thuwar Raqqa announce a women's battalion to fight ISIS". al-Masdar News.
- "#Syria-Raqqa suspicious factions with the PYD". 7 September 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 May 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Fighters from all al-Raqqa clans participate in the liberation camiagn". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- "Who is taking part in Ghadab al-Firat campaign?". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Fursan al-Jazîra Brigades join SDF ranks". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- @Syria_Rebel_Obs (6 November 2016). "EXCLUSIVE SRO – Former leader of the main #Tabqa #FSA factions, Liwa Owais al-Qarni, entered Northern Federation days ago" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "بعد تبنيه خارطة "روج آفا".. حسام العواك يعلن استقالته من "قسد" – شبكة بلدي الإعلامية". Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Hundreds of Syrian rebels join the pro-Kurdish SDF alliance". ARA News. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- "Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". ANF. 13 October 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- "What platoons are participating in freeing Raqqa campaign?". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- manbij militry council (27 November 2017). "مشاهد من مناسبة أفتتاح الفوج الأول بمنبج 27/11/2017". Retrieved 24 February 2018 – via YouTube.
- "Pro-SDF Groups Set Up Jarablus Military Council, Warn Turkish-Backed Groups from Taking City". 22 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Bethnahrin Women Protection Forces Founded against ISIS". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "Assyrian Female Fighters Joined Battlefronts Against ISIS in Northeastern Syria". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- SyriacMilitaryMFS (29 October 2018). "#Syriac Military Council, MFS also is sending special forces as reinforcements with the SDF amid ongoing hard battle against ISIS in the various fronts in the Deir ez Zor region for the total liberation of the area and safety of the population with @coalition & @CENTCOM.pic.twitter.com/qbQlPVeZnZ". Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "SDF creates female Arab battalion in eastern Syria to fight patriarchy and ISIS". ARA News. 11 July 2017.
- "First YCR battalion formed in Efrîn". ANF News.
- "400 Sheitat tribesmen joined U.S.-backed alliance to fight ISIS: sources". Syria News. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "Kurdish-led SDF attracts more Arab fighters in Syria's Deir ez-Zor amid growing anti-ISIS campaign". ARA News. 24 June 2016.
- "Objectives of New SDF-Led militias in the city of Afrin". Al-Dorar al-Shamia. 15 August 2017.
- "A leader in the "Idlib revolutionaries" to Kurd Street network: the problems of tenderness behind Turkey .. The arrival of the Arab delegation to Kobani is to support border guards". Kurd Street. 2 June 2018.
- "Afrin Liberation Forces carried out 2 operations in Afrin – ANHA – Ajansa Nûçeyan a Hawar". hawarnews.com. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "The Battle for Syria's Al-Hasakah Province – Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- "The Ajeel tribe in Raqqa announces its support for the SDF, sends hundreds of fighters to join SDF ranks, and denies allegations that it is opposed to the SDF". Hawar News Agency. 31 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- Heras, Nicholas. "The battle for Syria's al-Hasakah province". Combating Terrorism Center. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Military council created for liberation of al-Bab". Rudaw. 14 August 2016.
- "Inspired by Kurdish units, al-Bab Military Council creates all-female battalion". ARA News. 1 November 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "ANF – Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Next phase of SDF Raqqa operation sees alliance with Deir ez-Zur Military Council". Rudaw. 17 February 2017.
- Glioti, Andrea (7 May 2013). "Kurdish group gaining autonomy in northern Syria". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "Second HAT course members graduate". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- Force-OIR (Iraq/Syria), Special Ops Joint Task (15 October 2018). "A Manbij Military Council Quick Reaction Force member role plays as a casualty treated during a medical skills assessment in #Manbij, #Syria. The #MMC-QRF works with @Coalition advisors to enhance their medical skills. @shervanderwish @cjtfoirpic.twitter.com/fJ4Ijjo5xY". Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Anti-IS coalition trains policemen for Syria's Raqqa".
- O. I. R. Spokesman. "Raqqah Internal Security Force troops help one other adjust protective vests & fit helmets during the 2nd week of Quick Reaction Force training. The 3K-strong RISF are responsible for securing Raqqah, Tabqah & surrounding areas from any ISIS resurgence #defeatDaeshpic.twitter.com/xL2YyPDx0E". Twitter. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Internal Security Forces in Deir ez-Zor graduated new course - ANHA - Ajansa Nûçeyan a Hawar". hawarnews.com. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Die Welt: Die Christen in Syrien ziehen in die Schlacht". Die Welt (in German). 23 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Rudaw (6 April 2015). "Rojava defense force draws thousands of recruits". Rudaw. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Third batch of Special Forces consisting of 60 fighters graduate in the Self Defence Forces of Rojava, Efrîn canton.@Liveuamappic.twitter.com/OXxQuMrT4x". Twitter. Rojava News. 23 May 2017.
- "Rojava Dispatch Six: Innovations, the Formation of the Hêza Parastina Cewherî (HPC)". Modern Slavery.
- "Coalition and SDF are training a 30,000-strong Syrian border force". The Defense Post. 13 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- País, Ediciones El (7 July 2015). "Two Spaniards arrested on return from fighting ISIS in Syria". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "New Leftist 'Freedom Brigade' to Join Kurdish Forces in Rojava". telesurtv.net. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Demir, Arzu (28 January 2015). "Preparations for international brigade in Rojava". Firat News Agency. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "MLKP fighter: We will be at the front until Sinjar is liberated". Firat News Agency. 29 December 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Alper Çakas Enternasyonalist Özgürlük Taburu kuruldu" (in Turkish). Hawar News Agency. 29 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 June 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- "Anarquistas en Rojava". Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Anarquistas ecologistas en Rojava" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- Rodríguez, Jorge A. (7 July 2015). "Detenidos dos comunistas españoles que lucharon contra el Estado Islámico".
- "Greek anarchists vow to implement warfare methods they learned from PYD terrorists in Syria".
- Moore, Jack (25 July 2017). "FIRST LGBT UNIT CREATED TO FIGHT ISIS IN SYRIA. ITS NAME? THE QUEER INSURRECTION". Newsweek. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- Kentish, Ben (25 July 2017). "'The Queer Insurrection': Coalition forces fighting Isis in Syria form first LGBT unit". The Independent. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Depuis la Syrie, le soutien de la "brigade Krasucki" aux salariés d'Air France".
- Anarşîst, Tekoşîna (11 January 2019). "We have been active in the final push against ISIS. TA has been attaching to a local YPG unit and doing rotations with them to the front. Tomorrow another group of our hevals will again go to DeirZor. We wish them the best of luck! Serkeftin!pic.twitter.com/BaClx5PpgQ". Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Did Kurdistan's Counter-Terrorist Group assault the Tabqa Dam in Syria? – SOFREP". 23 March 2017.
- "SDF, Iraqis Defend Syrian Border Town from IS". Voice of America. 29 June 2018.
- Irish, John (13 November 2013). "Syrian Kurdish leader claims military gains against Islamists". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- "France will keep delivering arms to Kurdish Syrian rebels to fight Islamic State group". Fox News. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014.
- "US to arm Syrian Kurds, rebel groups fighting IS – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "Rusya YPG'ye silah indirdi". Sabah. 30 November 2015.
- "Russia resumes dropping ammunition to PYD". Yeni Safak. 2 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Are the PKK and Cairo new allies?". Rudaw. 27 June 2016.
Cairo allegedly gave the PKK delegation funds and weapons after the second meeting, the report adds.
- "Saudi Arabia, UAE send troops to support Kurds in Syria". Middle East Monitor. 22 November 2018.
the forces will be stationed with US-led coalition troops and will support its tasks with ... heavy and light weapons.
- "U.S. Seeks Arab Force and Funding for Syria". Wall Street Journal. 16 April 2018.
Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. helped pay the stipends for the Syrian fighters the U.S. is supporting
- "Saudi Arabia in talks with YPG to form new force". Daily Sabah. 30 May 2018.
- "Soldati italiani in Siria? Arriva la smentita, ma..." (in Italian). Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- Coleman, Luke (5 March 2015). "Assad: We Armed Kurds Before International Coalition". basnews.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015.
- "Syrian President Bashar al-Assad accused of arming Kurdish separatists for attacks against Turkish government". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012.
- "Assad regime says it will continue to provide weaponry, money to Kurds". DailySabah. 20 April 2015.
- "Syria regime, Kurds join to fight IS in Hasakeh". Yahoo News. 20 July 2015.
- "Esad yönetimi ve Kürtler birbirine nasıl bakıyor?". BBC Türkçe. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "Rojava: PYD-Führer für Bündnis mit Assad". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "Airstrikes 'Successful' Against ISIS Targets in Syria, US Military Says". American Broadcasting Company.
- "A breakdown of some of the gear U.S. Special Operations forces are using in Syria". Washington Post. 25 April 2016.
- "US special forces carry out secret ground raid against Isil in Syria, 'killing at least 25 jihadists'". Telegraph. 2017.
- "UK launches first Syria air strikes". BBC News.
- "British SAS soldier killed by IS in Syria named as Sergeant Matt Tonroe".
- "France launches new wave of air strikes on IS group targets in Syria's Raqqa". France 24.
- "Netherlands to Extend Airstrikes Against Islamic State Into Syria". Wall Street Journal. 29 January 2016.
- Barkin, Noah (26 November 2015). "Germany will send Tornado jets to Syria, lawmaker confirms". Reuters.
- "You are being redirected..." nrttv.com.
- "Jordan hits ISIL targets in southern Syria". Al-Jazeera. 5 February 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia, UAE send troops to support Kurds in Syria". Middle East Monitor. 22 November 2018.
- "The UAE has it in for the Muslim Brotherhood". Al-Araby Al-Jadeed. 22 February 2017.
Along with their American counterparts, Emirati special forces are said to be training elements of the opposition. They constitute a kind of Arab guarantee among the Syrian Democratic Forces – an umbrella group dominated by the Kurds of the PYD, on whom the US are relying to fight IS on the ground.
- "UAE, Kurds Standing against US, Turkey in Syria". Farsnews. 22 February 2017.
- "The U.S. bombing of Syria implicates many of Trump's business interests". Vox. 16 April 2018.
- Omar Sattar (11 May 2018). "Iraqi air force targets IS sites in Syria ahead of elections". Al-Monitor.
- "ISIS mission: Canadian air strikes in Syria expected in 'short order'". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2 April 2015.
- "Denmark tells U.N. it has trained radar on Syria". Reuters. 18 January 2016.
- "Denmark to expand military mission against Islamic State into Syria". Reuters. 4 March 2016.
- "Belgium's Anti-ISIS Airstrikes Expand From Iraq Into Syria". New York Times. 13 May 2016.
- Coorey, Phillip. "Australia to take 12,000 refugees, boost aid and bomb Syria". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "Australia to end air strikes in Iraq and Syria, bring Super Hornets home". Reuters. 21 December 2017.
- "Activists and a rebel commander say Kurdish fighters have launched an attack in northern Syria under the cover of Russian airstrikes to try and capture a military air base held by insurgents". US News. 10 February 2016.
- "Russia cooperates with PYD against ISIL". Today's Zaman. 9 October 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015.
- "Russian support for PKK's Syrian arm PYD". Anadolu Agency.
- "Kurds attack Turkish-backed Syrian opposition forces with Russian help". i24 News. 28 November 2015.
- "YPG advances near Turkey's border". Rudaw Media Network. 28 November 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
- Wood, L. Todd (8 February 2016). "Russia supporting Kurdish groups in Syria to Turkey's detriment". Washington Times.
- "Far from Raqqa and Fallujah, Syria rebels open new front against ISIL in the south". The National. 29 May 2016.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra, IS clash in Daraa". Al Monitor. 16 December 2014. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- "Al-Nusra overtakes Hazm in Aleppo countryside". Al Monitor. 3 March 2015. Archived from the original on 6 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "ISIS and Syria's Southern Front". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "Islamic State raises flags over towns in Daraa after fierce battles". Middle East Eye.
- ""جيش الجهاد".. هل هو خلايا نائمة لـ"داعش" في درعا والقنيطرة؟". Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Dokumacılar grubu nedir?". medya365.com. 23 July 2015. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015.
- "Suruç'u Kana Bulayan Bombacının da Emniyette Kaydı Varmış!". Haberler.com. 23 July 2015.
- "Search for the dead begins in Idlib after Islamic State-linked brigade leaves for Raqqa".
- Weiss, Michael; Hassan, Hassan (29 March 2016). "ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror (Updated Edition)". Simon and Schuster – via Google Books.
- "Liwa Dawud – Today in Syria". malcolmxtreme.wordpress.com.
- "Top Cuban general, key forces in Syria to aid Assad, Russia, sources say". Fox News. 14 October 2015.
- "Cuba denies it has sent troops to Syria to help Assad". Reuters. 18 October 2018.
- "Belarus denies US allegations on selling arms to Syria". Breaking News Network. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Hussain, Ghaffar. "After the Arab Spring: Algeria's standing in a new world". The Commentator. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Syrian Kurds, rebels find common enemy in ISIS". Al Monitor. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "PYD Leader Skeptical of Kurdish Agreement With Syrian Opposition". Rudaw.net. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "Canadian Armed Forces cease airstrike operations in Iraq and Syria". Government of Canada. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- "Turkey shells Kurdish positions in Syria for 2nd day". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Turkish forces shell Syrian air base captured by Kurds". Reuters. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (15 November 2016). "Aleppo airstrikes restart as Russia announces major Syria offensive" – via The Guardian.
- "Syrian Kurds use Russian and US support to make rapid advances".