Open main menu

List of ant genera

  (Redirected from List of ant genera (alphabetical))

Ants (family Formicidae in the order Hymenoptera) are the most species-rich of all social insects, with more than 12,000 described species and many others awaiting description.[1] Formicidae is divided into 21 subfamilies, of which 17 are extant and four subfamilies are extinct, described from fossils. In total more than 300 genera have been described.[2] Ants have come to occupy virtually all major terrestrial habitats, with the exception of tundra and cold ever-wet forests. They display a wide range of social behaviors, foraging habits and associations with other organisms, which has generated scientific and public interest.[1]

The following is a list of worldwide ant genera organised by subfamily.

KeyEdit

Genus name The scientific name of the genus.
Binomial authority The binomial authority—the person who first described the species using an available scientific name.
Classified The year the genus was formally described and classified.
No. of species The number of species, both extant and extinct, that are members of the genus.
Type species The type species that was designated by the original author, unless noted otherwise. Extinct taxa are indicated by a †.
Example image An image (if available) of a species who is a member of the genus.
References Most citations provided are the first publications that describe the genus; additional citations are added if the original source does not contain all provided information.

SubfamiliesEdit

AgroecomyrmecinaeEdit

The subfamily Agroecomyrmecinae represents two extant genera and two fossil genera, once widespread in both hemispheres during the early Tertiary.[3][4] The subfamily was originally classified as Agroecomyrmecini, a Myrmicinae tribe until English myrmecologist Barry Bolton raised the tribe to subfamily status in 2003.[5][6] Most specimens collected are from Central America and Mexico, although one type specimen of an Agroecomyrmecinae species was collected from Ghana.[7]

Subfamily Agroecomyrmecinae Carpenter, 1930 – four genera, five species[3]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Agroecomyrmex Wheeler 1910 1 Myrmica duisburgi  
Agroecomyrmex duisburgi
[8][9]
Ankylomyrma Bolton 1973 1 Ankylomyrma coronacantha  
Ankylomyrma coronacantha
[10]
Eulithomyrmex Carpenter 1935 2 Lithomyrmex rugosus  
Eulithomyrmex rugosus
[11]
Tatuidris Brown & Kempf 1968 1 Tatuidris tatusia  
Tatuidris tatusia
[4]

AmblyoponinaeEdit

The subfamily Amblyoponinae represents nine extant genera and one fossil genus. Established by Swiss myrmecologist Auguste Forel in 1893, these ants are specialist predators, distributed worldwide in the tropics.[12][13][14]

Subfamily Amblyoponinae Forel, 1893 – 10 genera, 146 species[15]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Adetomyrma Ward 1994 9 Adetomyrma venatrix  
Adetomyrma venatrix
[16]
Amblyopone Erichson 1842 10 Amblyopone australis  
Amblyopone australis
[17]
Casaleia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 4 Protamblyopone inversa  
Casaleia eocenica
[18]
Fulakora Mann 1919 25 Stigmatomma celata  
Fulakora celata
[19][20]
Myopopone Roger 1861 2 Myopopone maculata  
Myopopone castanea
[21][22]
Mystrium Roger 1862 14 Mystrium mysticum  
Mystrium mysticum
[23]
Onychomyrmex Emery 1895 4 Onychomyrmex hedleyi  
Onychomyrmex hedleyi
[24]
Prionopelta Mayr 1866 22 Prionopelta punctulata  
Prionopelta punctulata
[25]
Stigmatomma Roger 1859 54 Stigmatomma denticulatum  
Stigmatomma denticulatum
[26]
Xymmer Santschi 1914 1 Stigmatomma muticum  
Xymmer muticus
[27]

AneuretinaeEdit

The subfamily Aneuretinae represents one extant genus and eight fossil genera established by Italian entomologist Carlo Emery in 1913. Only a single species of this subfamily is extant, the Sri Lankan relict ant (Aneuretus simoni), endemic to Sri Lanka.[28]

Subfamily Aneuretinae Emery, 1913 – nine genera, 12 species[29]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Aneuretellus Dlussky 1988 1 Aneuretellus deformis N/A [30]
Aneuretus Emery 1893 1 Aneuretus simoni  
Aneuretus simoni
[31]
Britaneuretus Dlussky & Perfilieva 2014 1 Britaneuretus anglicus N/A [32]
Burmomyrma Dlussky 1996 1 Burmomyrma rossi  
Burmomyrma rossi
[33]
Cananeuretus Engel & Grimaldi 2005 1 Cananeuretus occidentalis N/A [34]
Mianeuretus Carpenter 1930 2 Mianeuretus mirabilis  
Mianeuretus mirabilis
[5]
Paraneuretus Wheeler 1915 3 Paraneuretus tornquisti  
Paraneuretus tornquisti
[9]
Pityomyrmex Wheeler 1915 1 Pityomyrmex tornquisti  
Pityomyrmex tornquisti
[9]
Protaneuretus Wheeler 1915 1 Protaneuretus succineus  
Protaneuretus succineus
[9]

ApomyrminaeEdit

The subfamily Apomyrminae contains the single genus Apomyrma which only has one species, the rare subterranean ant Apomyrma stygia from West Africa. Several undescribed species are known to exist, all from tropical Africa.[35]

Subfamily Apomyrminae Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988 – one genus, one species[36]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Apomyrma Brown, Gotwald & Levieux 1970 1 Apomyrma stygia  
Apomyrma stygia
[37]

ArmaniinaeEdit

The subfamily Armaniinae (or family Armaniidae) contains seven extinct genera from a series of Cretaceous fossils found in Asia and Africa.[38] These ants are treated as a group of "ant-like wasps",[34] and they appear to lack a metapleural gland which would exclude them from the family Formicidae. However, the lack of a metapleural gland could be due to poorer preservation.[1]

Subfamily Armaniinae Dlussky, 1983 – seven genera, 14 species
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Archaeopone Dlussky 1975 2 Archaeopone kzylzharica N/A [39]
Armania Dlussky 1983 4 Armania robusta N/A [40]
Dolichomyrma Dlussky 1975 2 Dolichomyrma longiceps N/A [39]
Khetania Dlussky 1999 1 Khetania mandibulata N/A [41]
Orapia Dlussky, Brothers & Rasnitsyn 2004 2 Orapia rayneri  
Orapia rayneri
[42]
Poneropterus Dlussky 1983 1 Poneropterus sphecoides N/A [40]
Pseudarmania Dlussky 1983 2 Pseudarmania rasnitsyni N/A [40]

BrownimeciinaeEdit

The subfamily Brownimeciinae contains the single genus Brownimecia which only has one species, Brownimecia clavata. It was described in 1997 after a fossilised specimen was collected from Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and was initially placed in the subfamily Ponerinae.[38] The species was later classified into its own subfamily in 2003 by Barry Bolton.[6]

Subfamily †Brownimeciinae Bolton, 2003 – one genus, one species[43]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Brownimecia Grimaldi, Agosti & Carpenter 1997 1 Brownimecia clavata  
Brownimecia clavata
[38]

DolichoderinaeEdit

The subfamily Dolichoderinae was established by Forel in 1878, which represents 28 extant genera and 20 fossil genera. The subfamily presents a great diversity of species throughout the world, mainly in the tropics. Most species are generalised scavengers, but some are predacious.[44][45]

Subfamily Dolichoderinae Forel, 1878 – 48 genera, 843 species[46]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Alloiomma Zhang 1989 2 Alloiomma changweiensis N/A [47]
Anillidris Santschi 1936 1 Anillidris bruchi  
Anillidris bruchi
[48]
Anonychomyrma Donisthorpe 1947 26 Anonychomyrma myrmex  
Anonychomyrma gilberti
[49]
Aptinoma Fisher 2009 2 Aptinoma mangabe  
Aptinoma mangabe
[50]
Arnoldius Dubovikoff 2005 3 Bothriomyrmex flavus  
Arnoldius flavus
[51]
Asymphylomyrmex Wheeler 1915 1 Asymphylomyrmex balticus  
Asymphylomyrmex balticus
[9]
Axinidris Weber 1941 21 Axinidris acholli  
Axinidris acholli
[52]
Azteca Forel 1878 86 Liometopum xanthochroum  
Azteca xanthochroum
[53]
Bothriomyrmex Emery 1869 24 Bothriomyrmex costae  
Bothriomyrmex costae
[54]
Chronomyrmex McKellar, Glasier & Engel 2013 1 Chronomyrmex medicinehatensis  
Chronomyrmex medicinehatensis
[55]
Chronoxenus Santschi 1919 6 Bothriomyrmex myops  
Chronoxenus myops
[56]
Ctenobethylus Brues 1939 1 Ctenobethylus succinalis  
Ctenobethylus goepperti
[57]
Doleromyrma Forel 1907 2 Tapinoma darwinianum  
Doleromyrma darwiniana
[58]
Dolichoderus Lund 1831 181 Formica attelaboides  
Dolichoderus attelaboides
[59]
Dorymyrmex Mayr 1866 60 Dorymyrmex flavescens  
Dorymyrmex flavescens
[25]
Ecphorella Forel 1909 1 Tapinoma wellmani  
Ecphorella wellmani
[60]
Elaeomyrmex Carpenter 1930 2 Elaeomyrmex gracilis  
Elaeomyrmex gracilis
[5]
Elaphrodites Zhang 1989 2 Elaphrodites scutulatus N/A [47]
Eldermyrmex Heterick & Shattuck 2011 1 Iridomyrmex oblongiceps  
Eldermyrmex oblongiceps
[61]
Emplastus Donisthorpe 1920 12 Emplastus emeryi  
Emplastus britannicus
[62]
Eotapinoma Dlussky 1988 3 Eotapinoma gracilis N/A [30]
Eurymyrmex Zhang, Sun & Zhang 1994 1 Eurymyrmex geologicus N/A [63]
Forelius Emery 1888 18 Iridomyrmex mccooki  
Forelius mccooki
[64]
Froggattella Forel 1902 2 Acantholepis kirbii  
Froggattella kirbii
[65]
Gracilidris Wild & Cuezzo 2006 2 Gracilidris pombero  
Gracilidris pombero
[66]
Iridomyrmex Mayr 1862 84 Formica detecta  
Iridomyrmex purpureus
[22][67]
Kotshkorkia Dlussky 1981 1 Kotshkorkia laticeps N/A [68]
Ktunaxia Lapolla & Greenwalt 2015 1 Ktunaxia jucunda  
Ktunaxia jucunda
[69]
Leptomyrmex Mayr 1862 29 Formica erythrocephala  
Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus
[67]
Leptomyrmula Emery 1913 1 Leptomyrmula maravignae  
Leptomyrmula maravignae
[70]
Linepithema Mayr 1866 20 Linepithema fuscum  
Linepithema fuscum
[25]
Liometopum Mayr 1861 28 Liometopum microcephalum  
Liometopum microcephalum
[71]
Loweriella Shattuck 1992 1 Loweriella boltoni  
Loweriella boltoni
[72]
Miomyrmex Carpenter 1930 2 Miomyrmex impactus  
Miomyrmex impactus
[5]
Nebothriomyrmex Dubovikov 2004 1 Nebothriomyrmex majeri  
Nebothriomyrmex majeri
[73]
Ochetellus Shattuck 1992 7 Ochetellus glaber  
Ochetellus glaber
[74]
Papyrius Shattuck 1992 2 Papyrius nitidus  
Papyrius nitidus
[74]
Petraeomyrmex Carpenter 1930 1 Petraeomyrmex minimus  
Petraeomyrmex minimus
[5]
Philidris Shattuck 1992 9 Philidris cordata  
Philidris cordata
[74]
Proiridomyrmex Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 2 Proiridomyrmex vetulus  
Proiridomyrmex rotundatus
[69]
Protazteca Carpenter 1930 5 Protazteca elongata  
Protazteca elongata
[5]
Ravavy Fisher 2009 1 Ravavy miafina  
Ravavy miafina
[50]
Tapinoma Förster 1850 74 Tapinoma erraticum  
Tapinoma erraticum
[75]
Technomyrmex Mayr 1872 97 Technomyrmex strenuus  
Technomyrmex strenuus
[76]
Turneria Forel 1895 8 Turneria bidentata  
Turneria bidentata
[77]
Usomyrma Dlussky et al. 2014 1 Usomyrma mirabilis  
Usomyrma mirabilis
[78]
Yantaromyrmex Dlussky & Dubovikoff 2013 5 Yantaromyrmex geinitzi  
Yantaromyrmex geinitzi
[79]
Zherichinius Dlussky 1988 2 Zherichinius horribilis  
Zherichinius horribilis
[30]

DorylinaeEdit

The subfamily Dorylinae was established by Leach in 1815, which represents 27 extant genera and one fossil genus. Many species of ant in this subfamily are known as army ants that are distributed in the Old World and New World.[80][81]

Subfamily Dorylinae Leach, 1815 – 28 genera, 693 species[81][82]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acanthostichus Mayr 1887 24 Acanthostichus serratulus  
Acanthostichus serratulus
[83]
Aenictogiton Emery 1901 7 Aenictogiton fossiceps  
Aenictogiton fossiceps
[84]
Aenictus Shuckard 1840 184 Aenictus ambiguus  
Aenictus ambiguus
[85]
Cerapachys Smith 1857 5 Cerapachys antennatus  
Cerapachys antennatus
[22][86]
Cheliomyrmex Mayr 1870 4 Cheliomyrmex morosus  
Cheliomyrmex morosus
[87]
Chrysapace Crawley 1924 3[a] Chrysapace jacobsonii  
Chrysapace jacobsonii
[88]
Cylindromyrmex Mayr 1870 13 Cylindromyrmex striatus  
Cylindromyrmex striatus
[87]
Dorylus Fabricius 1793 60 Dorylus helvolus  
Dorylus helvolus
[89]
Eburopone Borowiec 2016 1 Cerapachys wroughtoni  
Eburopone wroughtoni
[81]
Eciton Latreille 1804 12 Eciton hamatum  
Eciton hamatum
[90][91]
Eusphinctus Emery 1893 2 Eusphinctus furcatus  
Eusphinctus furcatus
[31]
Labidus Jurine 1807 7 Labidus coecus  
Labidus coecus
[92]
Leptanilloides Mann 1923 19 Leptanilloides biconstricta  
Leptanilloides biconstricta
[93]
Lioponera Mayr 1879 73 Lioponera longitarsus  
Lioponera longitarsus
[94]
Lividopone Bolton & Fisher 2016 1 Cerapachys lividus  
Lividopone livida
[95]
Neivamyrmex Borgmeier 1940 128 Neivamyrmex nigrescens  
Neivamyrmex nigrescens
[96]
Neocerapachys Borowiec 2016 2 Cerapachys neotropicus  
Neocerapachys neotropicus
[81]
Nomamyrmex Borgmeier 1936 2 Nomamyrmex esenbeckii  
Nomamyrmex esenbeckii
[97]
Ooceraea Roger 1862 11 Ooceraea fragosa  
Ooceraea fragosa
[23]
Parasyscia Emery, in André 1882 50 Parasyscia piochardi  
Parasyscia piochardi
[98]
Procerapachys Wheeler 1915 3 Procerapachys annosus  
Procerapachys annosus
[9]
Simopone Forel 1891 39 Simopone grandidieri  
Simopone grandidieri
[99]
Sphinctomyrmex Mayr 1866 3 Sphinctomyrmex stali  
Sphinctomyrmex stali
[100]
Syscia Roger 1861 5 Syscia typhla  
Syscia typhla
[21]
Tanipone Bolton & Fisher 2012 10 Tanipone hirsuta  
Tanipone hirsuta
[101]
Vicinopone Bolton & Fisher 2012 1 Vicinopone conciliatrix  
Vicinopone conciliatrix
[101]
Yunodorylus Xu 2000 4 Yunodorylus sexspinus  
Yunodorylus sexspinus
[102]
Zasphinctus Wheeler 1918 20 Sphinctomyrmex turneri  
Zasphinctus turneri
[103]

EctatomminaeEdit

The subfamily Ectatomminae represents four extant genera and three fossil genera, established in 1895 by Carlo Emery. They are distributed in tropical and warm climates in the New World and Old World, as well as the Indo-Australian regions.[45]

Subfamily Ectatomminae Emery, 1895 – seven genera, 278 species[104]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Canapone Dlussky 1999 1 Canapone dentata N/A [105]
Ectatomma Smith 1858 16 Ectatomma tuberculatum  
Ectatomma tuberculatum
[22][106]
Electroponera Wheeler 1915 1 Electroponera dubia  
Electroponera dubia
[9]
Gnamptogenys Roger 1863 143 Gnamptogenys sulcata  
Gnamptogenys sulcata
[107][108]
Pseudectatomma Dlussky & Wedman 2012 2 Pseudectatomma eocenica  
Pseudectatomma eocenica
[13]
Rhytidoponera Mayr 1862 108 Rhytidoponera araneoides  
Rhytidoponera araneoides
[67][108]
Typhlomyrmex Mayr 1862 7 Scyphodon anomalum  
Scyphodon anomalum
[67]

FormiciinaeEdit

The subfamily Formiciinae represents one extinct genus of ants dating back to the Eocene.[b] Ants of the genus Titanomyrma are the largest ants ever known, with queen specimens the size of small hummingbirds. Fossils have been collected from the state of Wyoming and in Germany.[110][111]

Subfamily †Formiciinae Lutz, 1986 – one, six species[112]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Formicium[b] Westwood 1854 3 None[c] N/A [113]
Titanomyrma Archibald, Johnson, Mathewes & Greenwood 2011 3 Titanomyrma gigantea  
Titanomyrma gigantea
[110]

FormicinaeEdit

The subfamily Formicinae represents 51 extant genera and 30 fossil genera that are globally distributed. Established by French zoologist Pierre André Latreille in 1809, the subfamily has more than 3,000 described species, placing it as the second largest ant subfamily. Despite this, the hyperdiverse genus Camponotus is the most diverse group of ants in the world, with more than 1,100 species described.[45][114]

Subfamily Formicinae Latreille, 1809 – 82 genera, 3,243 species[115]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acropyga Roger 1862 41 Acropyga acutiventris  
Acropyga acutiventris
[23]
Agraulomyrmex Prins 1983 2 Agraulomyrmex meridionalis  
Agraulomyrmex meridionalis
[116]
Alloformica Dlussky 1969 4 Alloformica aberrans  
Alloformica aberrans
[117]
Anoplolepis Santschi 1914 9 Anoplolepis gracilipes  
Anoplolepis gracilipes
[118]
Aphomomyrmex Emery 1899 1 Aphomomyrmex afer  
Aphomomyrmex afer
[119]
Attopsis Heer 1850 1 Attopsis longipennis  
Attopsis longipennis
[120]
Bajcaridris Agosti 1994 3 Bajcaridris theryi  
Bajcaridris theryi
[121]
Brachymyrmex Mayr 1868 44 Brachymyrmex patagonicus  
Brachymyrmex patagonicus
[122]
Bregmatomyrma Wheeler 1929 1 Bregmatomyrma carnosa  
Bregmatomyrma carnosa
[123]
Calomyrmex Emery 1895 9 Calomyrmex laevissimus  
Calomyrmex laevissimus
[124]
Camponotites Steinbach 1967 5 Camponotites silvestris  
Camponotites silvestris
[125]
Camponotus Mayr 1861 1131 Camponotus ligniperda  
Camponotus ligniperda
[22][71]
Cataglyphis Förster 1850 91 Cataglyphis bicolor  
Cataglyphis bicolor
[126]
Cataglyphoides Dlussky 2008 2 Cataglyphoides constrictus  
Cataglyphoides constrictus
[127]
Chimaeromyrma Dlussky 1988 1 Chimaeromyrma brachycephala N/A [30]
Cladomyrma Wheeler 1920 13 Cladomyrma hewitti  
Cladomyrma hewitti
[128]
Conoformica Dlussky 2008 1 Conoformica bitterfeldiana N/A [127]
Curtipalpulus Hong 2002 1 Curtipalpulus eocenicus N/A [129]
Dinomyrmex Ashmead 1905 1 Formica gigas N/A [130]
Drymomyrmex Wheeler 1915 2 Drymomyrmex fuscipennis  
Drymomyrmex fuscipennis
[9]
Echinopla Smith 1857 33 Echinopla melanarctos  
Echinopla melanarctos
[86][131]
Eoleptocerites Hong 2002 2 Eoleptocerites chinensis N/A [129]
Euprenolepis Emery 1906 8 Euprenolepis procera  
Euprenolepis procera
[132]
Eurytarsites Hong 2002 1 Eurytarsites fushunensisa N/A [129]
Formica Linnaeus 1758 234 Formica rufa  
Formica rufa
[133]
Fushuniformica Hong 2002 1 Fushuniformica spinata N/A [129]
Gesomyrmex Mayr 1868 17 Gesomyrmex hoernesi  
Gesomyrmex hoernesi
[134]
Gigantiops Roger 1863 1 Gigantiops destructor  
Gigantiops destructor
[135]
Glaphyromyrmex Wheeler 1915 1 Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus  
Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus
[9]
Heeridris Dlussky & Putyatina 2014 1 Heeridris croaticus N/A [136]
Huaxiaformica Hong 2002 1 Huaxiaformica mallepetiolata N/A [129]
Iberoformica Tinaut 1990 2 Iberoformica subrufa  
Iberoformica subrufa
[137]
Imhoffia Heer 1850 2 Imhoffia nigra N/A [120]
Kyromyrma Grimaldi & Agosti 2000 1 Kyromyrma neffi  
Kyromyrma neffi
[138]
Lasiophanes Emery 1895 6 Lasiophanes atriventris  
Lasiophanes atriventris
[139]
Lasius Fabricius 1804 134 Formica nigra  
Formica nigra
[140]
Lepisiota Santschi 1926 81 Lepisiota rothneyi  
Lepisiota rothneyi
[141]
Leptogasteritus Hong 2002 1 Leptogasteritus capricornutes N/A [129]
Leucotaphus Donisthorpe 1920 2 Leucotaphus gurnetensiss  
†Leucotaphus gurnetensiss
[62]
Liaoformica Hong 2002 1 Liaoformica longipetiolata N/A [129]
Longiformica Hong 2002 2 Longiformica dongzhouheensis N/A [129]
Magnogasterites Hong 2002 1 Magnogasterites curticornutus N/A [129]
Melophorus Lubbock 1883 23 Melophorus bagoti  
Melophorus bagoti
[142]
Myrmecocystus Wesmael 1838 29 Myrmecocystus mexicanus  
Myrmecocystus mexicanus
[143]
Myrmecorhynchus André 1896 3 Myrmecorhynchus emeryi  
Myrmecorhynchus emeryi
[144]
Myrmelachista Roger 1863 56 Myrmelachista kraatzii  
Myrmelachista kraatzii
[107]
Myrmoteras Forel 1893 41 Myrmoteras binghamii  
Myrmoteras binghamii
[145]
Notoncus Emery 1895 6 Notoncus ectatommoide  
Notoncus ectatommoide
[24]
Notostigma Emery 1920 2 Notostigma carazzii  
Notostigma carazzii
[146]
Nylanderia Emery 1906 110 Nylanderia vividula  
Nylanderia vividula
[132]
Oecophylla Smith 1860 15 Oecophylla smaragdina  
Oecophylla smaragdina
[147]
Opisthopsis Dalla Torre 1893 13 Myrmecopsis respiciens  
Opisthopsis respiciens
Orbicapitia Hong 2002 1 Orbicapitia reticulata N/A [129]
Ovalicapito Hong 2002 1 Ovalicapito fushunensis N/A [129]
Ovaligastrula Hong 2002 1 Ovaligastrula xilutianensis N/A [129]
Overbeckia Viehmeyer 1916 1 Overbeckia subclavata  
Overbeckia subclavata
[148]
Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe 1947 36 Paratrechina pallida  
Paraparatrechina pallida
[149]
Paratrechina Motschoulsky 1863 5 Paratrechina currens  
Paratrechina longicornis
[131][150]
Petalomyrmex Snelling 1979 1 Petalomyrmex phylax  
Petalomyrmex phylax
[151]
Plagiolepis Mayr 1861 72 Formica pygmaea  
Plagiolepis pygmaea
[71]
Polyergus Latreille 1804 14 Formica rufescens  
Polyergus rufescens
[90]
Polyrhachis Smith 1857 698 Formica bihamata  
Polyrhachis bihamata
[86]
Prenolepis Mayr 1861 17 Tapinoma nitens  
Prenolepis nitens
[22][71]
Prodimorphomyrmex Wheeler 1915 1 Prodimorphomyrmex primigenius  
Prodimorphomyrmex primigenius
[9]
Proformica Ruzsky 1902 25 Formica nasuta  
Proformica nasuta
[152]
Prolasius Forel 1892 19 Formica advena  
Prolasius advena
[153]
Protoformica Dlussky 1967 1 Formica proformicoides N/A [154]
Protrechina Wilson 1985 1 Protrechina carpenteri  
Protrechina carpenteri
[155]
Pseudocamponotus Carpenter 1930 1 Pseudocamponotus elkoanus  
Pseudocamponotus elkoanus
[5]
Pseudolasius Emery 1887 50 Formica familiaris  
Pseudolasius familiaris
[22][156]
Pseudonotoncus Clark 1934 2 Pseudonotoncus hirsutus  
Pseudonotoncus hirsutus
[157]
Rossomyrmex Arnol'di 1928 4 Rossomyrmex proformicarum  
Rossomyrmex proformicarum
[158]
Santschiella Forel 1916 1 Santschiella kohli  
Santschiella kohli
[159]
Sicilomyrmex Wheeler 1915 1 Gesomyrmex corniger  
Sicilomyrmex corniger
[9]
Sinoformica Hong 2002 1 Sinoformica longicapitata N/A [129]
Sinotenuicapito Hong 2002 1 Sinotenuicapito badis N/A [129]
Stigmacros Forel 1905 49 Acantholepis froggatti  
Stigmacros froggatti
[160]
Tapinolepis Emery 1925 14 Plagiolepis tumidula  
Tapinolepis tumidula
[161]
Teratomyrmex McAreavey 1957 3 Teratomyrmex greavesi  
Teratomyrmex greavesi
[162]
Wilsonia Hong 2002 2 Wilsonia megagastrosa N/A [129]
Zatania LaPolla, Kallal & Brady 2012 6 Paratrechina cisipa  
Zatania albimaculata
[163]

HeteroponerinaeEdit

The subfamily Heteroponerinae represents three extant genera of ants, established in 2003 when Barry Bolton divided the subfamily Ponerinae into six subfamilies.[45] These ants are known from the Neotropics of Central America and South America while Aulacopone relicta is from Azerbaijan.[164]

Subfamily Heteroponerinae Bolton, 2003 – three genera, 33 species[165]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acanthoponera Mayr 1862 4 Acanthoponera mucronata  
Acanthoponera mucronata
[67]
Aulacopone Arnol'di 1930 1 Aulacopone relicta  
Aulacopone relicta
[166]
Heteroponera Mayr 1887 28 Heteroponera carinifrons  
Heteroponera carinifrons
[83]

LeptanillinaeEdit

The subfamily Leptanillinae represents nine extant genera of ants, established in 1910 by Carlo Emery. They are subterranean ants from Africa, Europe and a single species known from Australia. Studies about their biology is minimal.[167][168]

Subfamily Leptanillinae Emery, 1910 – nine genera, 64 species[169]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Anomalomyrma Bolton 1990 3 Anomalomyrma taylori  
Anomalomyrma taylori
[170]
Furcotanilla Xu 2012 1 Furcotanilla furcomandibula N/A [171]
Leptanilla Emery 1870 45 Leptanilla revelierii  
Leptanilla revelierii
[172]
Noonilla Petersen 1968 1 Noonilla copiosa  
Noonilla copiosa
[173]
Opamyrma Yamane, Bui & Eguchi 2008 1 Opamyrma hungvuong  
Opamyrma hungvuong
[174]
Phaulomyrma Wheeler & Wheeler 1930 1 Phaulomyrma javana  
Phaulomyrma javana
[175]
Protanilla Taylor 1990 9 Protanilla rafflesi  
Protanilla rafflesi
[170]
Scyphodon Brues 1925 1 Scyphodon anomalum  
Scyphodon anomalum
[176]
Yavnella Kugler 1987 2 Yavnella argamani  
Yavnella argamani
[177]

MartialinaeEdit

The subfamily Martialinae contains the single genus Martialis which only has one species, Martialis heureka. The ant was discovered in 2000 Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil. Described in 2008, the ant belongs to the oldest known distinct lineage to have diverged from the ancestors of all other ants.[178]

Subfamily Martialinae Rabeling & Verhaagh, 2008 – one genus, one species[179]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Martialis Rabeling & Verhaagh 2008 1 Martialis heureka  
Martialis heureka
[178]

MyrmeciinaeEdit

The subfamily Myrmeciinae represents two extant genera and five fossil genera that were once found worldwide.[d] Established by Carlo Emery in 1877, the extant genera are restricted to Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand.[181] The notorious ant genus Myrmecia is known for their venomous stings and aggression, which has caused several human deaths in sensitive people.

Subfamily Myrmeciinae Emery, 1877 – seven genera, 111 species[182]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Archimyrmex Cockerell 1923 4 Archimyrmex rostratus  
Archimyrmex rostratus
[183]
Avitomyrmex Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 3 Avitomyrmex mastax N/A [184]
Macabeemyrma Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 1 Macabeemyrma ovata  
Macabeemyrma ovata
[184]
Myrmecia Fabricius 1804 95 Myrmecia gulosa  
Myrmecia gulosa
[91][140]
Myrmeciites[d] Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 0 None[c]  
Myrmeciites "incertae sedis"
[184]
Nothomyrmecia Clark 1934 1 Nothomyrmecia macrops  
Nothomyrmecia macrops
[185]
Prionomyrmex Mayr 1868 3 Prionomyrmex longiceps  
Prionomyrmex longiceps
[134]
Ypresiomyrma Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 4 Ypresiomyrma orbiculata  
Ypresiomyrma orbiculata
[184]

MyrmicinaeEdit

The subfamily Myrmicinae was established by Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau in 1835. It represents 142 extant genera and 36 fossil genera that are distributed globally. It is the largest subfamily of the Formicidae, with more than 6,758 species described. The seed-harvesting ants and fungus-growing ants are well known among the Myrmicines.[45][186]

Subfamily Myrmicinae Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 – 178 genera, 6,758 species[186]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acanthognathus Mayr 1887 8 Acanthognathus ocellatus  
Acanthognathus ocellatus
[83]
Acanthomyrmex Emery 1893 17 Acanthomyrmex luciolae  
Acanthomyrmex concavus
[31]
Acromyrmex Mayr 1865 32 Formica hystrix  
Acromyrmex balzani
[187]
Adelomyrmex Emery 1897 30 Adelomyrmex biroi  
Adelomyrmex biroi
[188]
Adlerzia Forel 1902 1 Monomorium froggatti  
Adlerzia froggatti
[65]
Afromyrma Dlussky, Brothers & Rasnitsyn 2004 1 Afromyrma petrosa N/A [42]
Agastomyrma Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva 2015 1 Agastomyrma laticeps N/A [189]
Allomerus Mayr 1878 8 Allomerus decemarticulatus  
Allomerus decemarticulatus
[190]
Ancyridris Wheeler 1935 2 Ancyridris polyrhachioides  
Ancyridris polyrhachioides
[191]
Anillomyrma Emery 1913 2 Monomorium decamerum  
Anillomyrma decamera
[192]
Aphaenogaster Mayr 1853 204 Aphaenogaster sardoa  
Aphaenogaster swammerdami
[193]
Apterostigma Mayr 1865 47 Apterostigma pilosum  
Apterostigma pilosum
[187]
Aretidris General 2015 2 Aretidris buenaventei  
Aretidris buenaventei
[194]
Atopomyrmex André 1889 3 Atopomyrmex mocquerysi  
Atopomyrmex mocquerysi
[195]
Atta Fabricius 1804 17 Formica cephalotes  
Atta cephalotes
[140]
Attaichnus Laza 1982 1 None N/A [196]
Austromorium Shattuck 2009 2 Xiphomyrmex flavigaster  
Austromorium flavigaster
[197]
Baracidris Bolton 1981 3 Baracidris meketra  
Baracidris sitra
[198]
Bariamyrma Lattke 1990 1 Bariamyrma hispidula  
Bariamyrma hispidula
[199]
Basiceros Schulz 1906 8 Meranoplus singularis  
Basiceros manni
[200]
Biamomyrma Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva 2015 3 Biamomyrma zherikhini N/A [189]
Bilobomyrma Radchenko & Dlussky 2013 2 Bilobomyrma ukrainica N/A [201]
Blepharidatta Wheeler 1915 4 Blepharidatta brasiliensis  
Blepharidatta brasiliensis
[202]
Boltonidris Radchenko & Dlussky 2012 1 Boltonidris mirabilis N/A [203]
Bondroitia Forel 1911 2 Monomorium coecum  
Bondroitia lujae
[204]
Brachytarsites Hong 2002 1 Brachytarsites dongzhouheensis N/A [129]
Calyptomyrmex Emery 1887 37 Calyptomyrmex beccarii  
Calyptomyrmex beccarii
[156]
Cardiocondyla Emery 1869 70 Cardiocondyla elegans  
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii
[205]
Carebara Westwood 1840 212 Carebara lignata  
Carebara longii
[206]
Cataulacus Smith 1853 68 Cataulacus taprobanae  
Cataulacus oberthueri
[207]
Cephalomyrmex Carpenter 1930 1 Cephalomyrmex rotundatus  
Cephalomyrmex rotundatus
[5]
Cephalotes Latreille 1802 135 Formica atrata  
Cephalotes atratus
[208]
Chimaeridris Wilson 1989 2 Chimaeridris boltoni  
Chimaeridris boltoni
[209]
Clavipetiola Hong 2002 1 Clavipetiola asiatica N/A [129]
Colobostruma Wheeler 1927 16 Epopostruma leae  
Colobostruma foliacea
[210]
Crematogaster Lund 1831 496 Formica scutellaris  
Crematogaster scutellaris
[59]
Cryptomyrmex Fernández 2004 2 Adelomyrmex longinodus  
Cryptomyrmex longinodus
[211]
Cyatta Sosa-Calvo et al. 2013 1 Cyatta abscondita  
Cyatta abscondita
[212]
Cyphoidris Weber 1952 4 Cyphoidris spinosa  
Cyphoidris spinosa
[213]
Cyphomyrmex Mayr 1862 41 Cyphomyrmex minutus  
Cyphomyrmex minutus
[67]
Dacatria Rigato 1994 1 Dacatria templaris  
Dacatria templaris
[214]
Dacetinops Brown & Wilson 1957 7 Dacetinops cibdelus  
Dacetinops cibdelus
[215]
Daceton Perty 1833 2 Formica armigera  
Daceton armigerum
[216]
Diaphoromyrma Fernández, Delabie & Nascimento 2009 1 Diaphoromyrma sofiae  
Diaphoromyrma sofiae
[217]
Dicroaspis Emery 1908 2 Dicroaspis cryptocera  
Dicroaspis cryptocera
[218]
Dilobocondyla Santschi 1910 19 Atopomyrmex selebensis  
Dilobocondyla fouqueti
[219]
Diplomorium Mayr 1901 1 Diplomorium longipenne  
Diplomorium longipenne
[220]
Dolopomyrmex Cover & Deyrup 2007 1 Dolopomyrmex pilatus  
Dolopomyrmex pilatus
[221]
Electromyrmex Wheeler 1910 1 Electromyrmex klebsi  
Electromyrmex klebsi
[222]
Enneamerus Mayr 1868 1 Enneamerus reticulatus  
Enneamerus reticulatus
[134]
Eocenidris Wilson 1985 1 Eocenidris crassa  
Eocenidris crassa
[155]
Eocenomyrma Dlussky & Radchenko 2006 4 Eocenomyrma orthospina  
Eocenomyrma orthospina
[223]
Eomyrmex Hong 1974 1 Eomyrmex guchengziensis N/A [224]
Epelysidris Bolton 1987 1 Epelysidris brocha  
Epelysidris brocha
[225]
Epopostruma Forel 1895 19 Strumigenys quadrispinosa  
Epopostruma natalae
[77]
Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf 1961 53 Rhopalothrix bolaui  
Eurhopalothrix bolaui
[226]
Eutetramorium Emery 1899 3 Eutetramorium mocquerysi  
Eutetramorium mocquerysi
[227]
Fallomyrma Dlussky & Radchenko 2006 1 Fallomyrma transversa N/A [228]
Formicoxenus Mayr 1855 7 Myrmica nitidula  
Formicoxenus nitidulus
[229]
Formosimyrma Terayama 2009 1 Formosimyrma lanuyensis  
Formosimyrma lanuyensis
[230]
Fushunomyrmex Hong 2002 1 Fushunomyrmex liaoningensis N/A [129]
Gaoligongidris Xu 2012 1 Gaoligongidris planodorsa N/A [231]
Gauromyrmex Menozzi 1933 2 Gauromyrmex bengakalisi  
Gauromyrmex bengakalisi
[232]
Goniomma Emery 1895 8 Aphaenogaster blanci  
Goniomma collingwoodi
[233]
Harpagoxenus Forel 1893 3 Myrmica sublaevis  
Harpagoxenus sublaevis
[234]
Huberia Forel 1890 2 Tetramorium striatum  
Huberia striata
[235]
Hylomyrma Forel 1912 13 Pogonomyrmex columbicus  
Hylomyrma balzani
[236]
Hypopomyrmex Emery 1891 1 Hypopomyrmex bombiccii  
Hypopomyrmex bombiccii
[237]
Ilemomyrmex Wilson 1985 1 Ilemomyrmex caecus  
Ilemomyrmex caecus
[238]
Indomyrma Brown 1986 2 Indomyrma dasypyx  
Indomyrma dasypyx
[239]
Ishakidris Bolton 1984 1 Ishakidris ascitaspis  
Ishakidris ascitaspis
[240]
Kalathomyrmex Klingenberg & Brandão 2009 1 Myrmicocrypta emeryi  
Kalathomyrmex emeryi
[241]
Kartidris Bolton 1991 6 Kartidris nyos  
Kartidris nyos
[242]
Kempfidris Fernández, Feitosa & Lattke 2014 1 Monomorium inusuale  
Kempfidris inusualis
[243]
Lachnomyrmex Wheeler 1910 16 Lachnomyrmex scrobiculatus  
Lachnomyrmex scrobiculatus
[8]
Lasiomyrma Terayama & Yamane 2000 4 Lasiomyrma gedensis  
Lasiomyrma gedensis
[244]
Lenomyrmex Fernández & Palacio 1999 6 Lenomyrmex mandibularis  
Lenomyrmex colwelli
[245]
Leptothorax Mayr 1855 19 Formica acervorum  
Leptothorax acervorum
[229]
Liomyrmex Mayr 1865 1 Myrmica caeca  
Liomyrmex gestroi
[187]
Lonchomyrmex Mayr 1867 2 Lonchomyrmex freyeri N/A [246]
Lophomyrmex Emery 1892 13 Oecodoma quadrispinosa  
Lophomyrmex longicornis
[247]
Lordomyrma Emery 1897 34 Lordomyrma furcifera  
Lordomyrma furcifera
[188]
Malagidris Bolton & Fisher 2014 6 Aphaenogaster belti  
Malagidris belti
[248]
Manica Jurine 1807 6 Formica rubida  
Manica rubida
[92]
Mayriella Forel 1902 9 Mayriella abstinens  
Mayriella abstinens
[65]
Megalomyrmex Forel 1885 44 Megalomyrmex leoninus  
Megalomyrmex leoninus
[249]
Melissotarsus Emery 1877 4 Melissotarsus beccarii  
Melissotarsus beccarii
[250]
Meranoplus Smith 1853 90 Cryptocerus bicolor  
Meranoplus bicolor
[207]
Mesostruma Brown 1948 9 Strumigenys turneri  
Mesostruma turneri
[251]
Messor Forel 1890 110 Formica barbara  
Messor barbarus
[252]
Metapone Forel 1911 18 Metapone greeni  
Metapone emersoni
[253]
Microdaceton Santschi 1913 4 Microdaceton exornatum  
Microdaceton exornatum
[254]
Miosolenopsis Zhang 1989 1 Miosolenopsis fossilis N/A [47]
Monomorium Mayr 1855 372 Monomorium monomorium  
Monomorium pharaonis
[229]
Mycetagroicus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes 2001 4 Mycetagroicus cerradensis  
Mycetagroicus cerradensis
[255]
Mycetarotes Emery 1913 4 Cyphomyrmex parallelus  
Mycetarotes parallelus
[192]
Mycetophylax Emery 1913 3 Myrmicocrypta brittoni  
Mycetophylax conformis
[192]
Mycetosoritis Wheeler 1907 5 Atta hartmanni  
Mycetosoritis hartmanni
[256]
Mycocepurus Forel 1893 6 Atta smithii  
Mycocepurus smithii
[257]
Myrmecina Curtis 1829 51 Myrmecina latreillii  
Myrmecina graminicola
[258]
Myrmecites Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 6 Myrmecites rotundiceps N/A [259]
Myrmica Latreille 1804 211 Formica rubra  
Myrmica rubra
[90]
Myrmicaria Saunders 1842 32 Myrmicaria brunnea  
Myrmicaria brunnea
[260]
Myrmicocrypta Smith 1860 27 Myrmicocrypta squamosa  
Myrmicocrypta squamosa
[261]
Myrmisaraka Bolton & Fisher 2014 2 Myrmisaraka producta  
Myrmisaraka producta
[248]
Nesomyrmex Wheeler 1910 57 Nesomyrmex clavipilis  
Nesomyrmex angulatus
[8]
Novomessor Emery 1915 3 Aphaenogaster cockerelli  
Novomessor cockerelli
[262]
Ochetomyrmex Mayr 1878 2 Ochetomyrmex semipolitus  
Ochetomyrmex semipolitus
[190]
Octostruma Forel 1912 34 Rhopalothrix simoni  
Octostruma iheringi
[263]
Ocymyrmex Emery 1886 37 Ocymyrmex barbiger  
Ocymyrmex dekerus
[264]
Orbigastrula Hong 2002 1 Orbigastrula guchengziensis N/A [129]
Orectognathus Smith 1853 29 Orectognathus antennatus  
Orectognathus antennatus
[207]
Oxyepoecus Santschi 1926 21 Oxyepoecus bruchi  
Oxyepoecus bruchi
[265]
Oxyidris Wilson 1985 1 Oxyidris antillana  
Oxyidris antillana
[238]
Oxyopomyrmex André 1881 12 Oxyopomyrmex oculatus  
Oxyopomyrmex oculatus
[266]
Parameranoplus Wheeler 1915 1 Parameranoplus primaevus  
Parameranoplus primaevus
[9]
Paramycetophylax Kusnezov 1956 1 Sericomyrmex bruchi  
Paramycetophylax bruchi
[267]
Paraphaenogaster Dlussky 1981 4 Paraphaenogaster microphthalmus  
Paraphaenogaster hooleyana
[68]
Paratopula Wheeler 1919 11 Atopomyrmex ceylonicus  
Paratopula macta
[268]
Patagonomyrmex Johnson & Moreau 2016 3 Pogonomyrmex angustus  
Patagonomyrmex angustus
[269]
Perissomyrmex Smith 1947 6 Perissomyrmex snyderi  
Perissomyrmex snyderi
[270]
Peronomyrmex Viehmeyer 1922 3 Peronomyrmex overbecki  
Peronomyrmex greavesi
[271]
Phalacromyrmex Kempf 1960 1 Phalacromyrmex fugax  
Phalacromyrmex fugax
[272]
Pheidole Westwood 1839 1007 Atta providens  
Pheidole rhea
[273]
Pilotrochus Brown 1978 1 Pilotrochus besmerus  
Pilotrochus besmerus
[274]
Plesiomyrmex Dlussky & Radchenko 2009 1 Plesiomyrmex tubulatus N/A [275]
Podomyrma Smith 1859 52 Podomyrma femorata  
Podomyrma minor
[276]
Poecilomyrma Mann 1921 2 Poecilomyrma senirewae  
Poecilomyrma senirewae
[277]
Pogonomyrmex Mayr 1868 69 Formica badia  
Camponotus badius
[122]
Pristomyrmex Mayr 1866 60 Pristomyrmex pungens  
Pristomyrmex punctatus
[100]
Proatta Forel 1912 1 Proatta butteli  
Proatta butteli
[278]
Procryptocerus Emery 1887 45 Meranoplus striatus  
Procryptocerus hylaeus
[156]
Propodilobus Branstetter 2009 1 Stenamma orientale  
Propodilobus orientale
[279]
Protalaridris Brown 1980 1 Protalaridris armata  
Protalaridris armata
[280]
Protomyrmica Dlussky & Radchenko 2009 1 Protomyrmica atavia  
Protomyrmica atavia
[275]
Pseudoatta Gallardo 1916 1 Pseudoatta argentina  
Pseudoatta argentina
[281]
Quadrulicapito Hong 2002 1 Quadrulicapito longa N/A [129]
Quineangulicapito Hong 2002 1 Quineangulicapito fushunensis N/A [129]
Recurvidris Bolton 1992 11 None  
Recurvidris recurvispinosa
[282]
Rhopalomastix Forel 1900 6 Rhopalomastix rothneyi  
Rhopalomastix rothneyi
[283]
Rhopalothrix Mayr 1870 16 Rhopalothrix ciliata  
Rhopalothrix ciliata
[284]
Rogeria Emery 1894 40 Rogeria curvipubens  
Rogeria curvipubens
[285]
Romblonella Wheeler 1935 9 Romblonella grandinodis  
Romblonella opaca
[191]
Rostromyrmex Rosciszewski 1994 1 Rostromyrmex pasohensis  
Rostromyrmex pasohensis
[286]
Rotastruma Bolton 1991 2 Rotastruma recava  
Rotastruma recava
[242]
Royidris Bolton & Fisher 2014 15 Monomorium robertsoni  
Royidris robertsoni
[248]
Secostruma Bolton 1988 1 Secostruma lethifera  
Secostruma lethifera
[287]
Sericomyrmex Mayr 1865 19 Sericomyrmex opacus  
Sericomyrmex amabilis
[187]
Sinomyrmex Hong 2002 2 Sinomyrmex brunneus N/A [129]
Solenopsis Westwood 1840 205 Solenopsis mandibularis  
Solenopsis geminata
[206]
Solenopsites Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 3 Solenopsites minutus  
Solenopsites rossi
[259]
Sphaerogasterites Hong 2002 1 Sphaerogasterites longipetiolatus N/A [129]
Stegomyrmex Emery 1912 5 Stegomyrmex connectens  
Stegomyrmex vizottoi
[288]
Stenamma Westwood 1839 85 Stenamma westwoodii  
Stenamma westwoodii
[273]
Stereomyrmex Emery 1901 3 Stereomyrmex horni  
Stereomyrmex horni
[289]
Stigmomyrmex Mayr 1868 1 Stigmomyrmex venustus  
Stigmomyrmex venustus
[134]
Stiphromyrmex Wheeler 1915 1 Stiphromyrmex robustus  
Stiphromyrmex robustus
[9]
Strongylognathus Mayr 1853 24 Eciton testaceum  
Strongylognathus testaceus
[290][291]
Strumigenys Smith 1860 842 Strumigenys mandibularis  
Strumigenys abdera
[261]
Syllophopsis Santschi 1915 20 Monomorium modestum  
Syllophopsis modesta
[292]
Talaridris Weber 1941 1 Talaridris mandibularis  
Talaridris mandibularis
[52]
Temnothorax Mayr 1861 395 Myrmica recedens  
Temnothorax unifasciatus
[71]
Terataner Emery 1912 12 Atopomyrmex foreli  
Terataner foreli
[288]
Tetheamyrma Bolton 1991 1 Tetheamyrma subspongia  
Tetheamyrma subspongia
[242]
Tetramorium Mayr 1855 569 Formica caespitum  
Tetramorium caespitum
[229]
Trachymyrmex Forel 1893 48 Atta septentrionalis  
Trachymyrmex septentrionalis
[257]
Tranopelta Mayr 1866 2 Tranopelta gilva  
Tranopelta gilva
[25]
Trichomyrmex Mayr 1865 18 Trichomyrmex rogeri  
Trichomyrmex destructor
[187]
Tropidomyrmex Silva, Feitosa, Brandão & Diniz 2009 1 Tropidomyrmex elianae  
Tropidomyrmex elianae
[293]
Tyrannomyrmex Fernández 2003 3 Tyrannomyrmex rex  
Tyrannomyrmex dux
[294]
Veromessor Forel 1917 9 Aphaenogaster andrei  
Veromessor andrei
[295]
Vitsika Bolton & Fisher 2014 14 Vitsika crebra  
Vitsika crebra
[248]
Vollenhovia Mayr 1865 62 Vollenhovia punctatostriata  
Vollenhovia emeryi
[187]
Vombisidris Bolton 1991 17 Vombisidris philax  
Vombisidris philax
[242]
Wasmannia Forel 1893 11 Tetramorium auropunctatum  
Wasmannia auropunctata
[296]
Wumyrmex Hong 2002 1 Wumyrmex furvis N/A [129]
Xenomyrmex Forel 1885 4 Xenomyrmex stollii  
Xenomyrmex stollii
[249]
Zhangidris Bolton 2003 1 Heteromyrmex atopogaster N/A [6]

ParaponerinaeEdit

The subfamily Paraponerinae contains a single genus Paraponera. This genus has two species, one of which was found in Dominican amber from the Miocene.[297] The extant species, Paraponera clavata, is found in Central America and South America, and the pain from its sting is said to be greater than any other insect sting on earth.[298]

Subfamily Paraponerinae Emery, 1901 – one genus, two species[299]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Paraponera Smith 1858 2 Paraponera clavata  
Paraponera clavata
[106]

PonerinaeEdit

The subfamily Ponerinae was established by Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau in 1835, which represents 47 extant genera and 12 fossil genera. The subfamily is among the most diverse in the family Formicidae, with more than 1,000 species described. They are mostly distributed in the tropics and subtropics.[6][45]

Subfamily Ponerinae Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 – 59 genera, 1,287 species[300]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Afropone Dlussky et al. 2004 2 Afropone oculata N/A [42]
Anochetus Mayr 1861 122 Anochetus ghilianii  
Anochetus ghilianii
[71]
Archiponera Carpenter 1930 1 Archiponera wheeleri  
Archiponera wheeleri
[5]
Asphinctopone Santschi 1914 3 Asphinctopone silvestrii  
Asphinctopone silvestrii
[27]
Austroponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 3 Austroponera rufonigra  
Austroponera rufonigra
[301]
Belonopelta Mayr 1870 2 Belonopelta attenuata  
Belonopelta attenuata
[284]
Boloponera Fisher 2006 1 Boloponera vicans  
Boloponera vicans
[302]
Bothroponera Mayr 1862 37 Bothroponera pumicosa  
Bothroponera pumicosa
[67]
Brachyponera Emery 1900 19 Brachyponera croceicornis  
Brachyponera croceicornis
[303]
Buniapone Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014 2014 1 Buniapone amblyops  
Buniapone amblyops
[301]
Centromyrmex Mayr 1866 15 Centromyrmex bohemanni  
Centromyrmex bohemanni
[100]
Cephalopone Dlussky & Wedmann 2012 2 Cephalopone potens  
Cephalopone potens
[13]
Cryptopone Emery 1893 24 Cryptopone testacea  
Cryptopone testacea
[31]
Cyrtopone Dlussky & Wedmann 2012 4 Cyrtopone microcephala  
Cyrtopone microcephala
[13]
Diacamma Mayr 1862 24 Diacamma rugosum  
Diacamma rugosum
[67]
Dinoponera Roger 1861 8 Dinoponera gigantea  
Dinoponera gigantea
[21]
Dolioponera Brown 1974 1 Dolioponera fustigera  
Dolioponera fustigera
[304]
Ectomomyrmex Mayr 1867 28 Ectomomyrmex javanus  
Ectomomyrmex javanus
[22][305]
Emeryopone Forel 1912 5 Emeryopone buttelreepeni  
Emeryopone buttelreepeni
[278]
Eogorgites Hong 2002 1 Eogorgites cingulatus N/A [129]
Eoponerites Hong 2002 1 Eoponerites longipetiolatus N/A [129]
Euponera Forel 1891 27 Euponera sikorae  
Euponera sikorae
[99]
Feroponera Bolton & Fisher 2008 1 Feroponera ferox  
Feroponera ferox
[306]
Fisheropone Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 1 Fisheropone ambigua  
Fisheropone ambigua
[301]
Furcisutura Hong 2002 1 Furcisutura wanghuacunensis N/A [129]
Hagensia Forel 1901 2 Hagensia havilandi  
Hagensia havilandi
[307]
Harpegnathos Jerdon 1851 7 Harpegnathos saltator  
Harpegnathos saltator
[308]
Hypoponera Santschi 1938 154 Hypoponera abeillei  
Hypoponera abeillei
[309]
Iroponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 1 Iroponera odax  
Iroponera odax
[301]
Leptogenys Roger 1861 308 Leptogenys falcigera  
Leptogenys falcigera
[21]
Loboponera Bolton & Brown 2002 9 Loboponera vigilans  
Loboponera vigilans
[310]
Longicapitia Hong 2002 1 Longicapitia reticulata N/A [129]
Mayaponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 1 Mayaponera constricta  
Mayaponera constricta
[301]
Megaponera Mayr 1862 1 Megaponera analis  
Megaponera analis
[67]
Mesoponera Emery 1900 20 Mesoponera melanaria  
Mesoponera melanaria
[311]
Messelepone Dlussky & Wedmann 2012 1 Messelepone leptogenoides  
Messelepone leptogenoides
[13]
Myopias Roger 1861 40 Myopias amblyops  
Myopias amblyops
[21]
Neoponera Emery 1901 57 Neoponera villosa  
Neoponera villosa
[312]
Odontomachus Latreille 1804 70 Odontomachus haematodus  
Odontomachus haematodus
[90]
Odontoponera Mayr 1862 2 Odontoponera denticulata  
Odontoponera denticulata
[67]
Ophthalmopone Forel 1890 5 Ophthalmopone berthoudi  
Ophthalmopone berthoudi
[235]
Pachycondyla Smith 1858 36 Pachycondyla crassinoda  
Pachycondyla crassinoda
[106]
Paltothyreus Mayr 1862 1 Paltothyreus tarsatus  
Paltothyreus tarsatus
[312]
Parvaponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 4 Parvaponera darwinii  
Parvaponera darwinii
[301]
Phrynoponera Wheeler 1920 5 Phrynoponera gabonensis  
Phrynoponera gabonensis
[128]
Platythyrea Roger 1863 44 Platythyrea punctata  
Platythyrea punctata
[22][107]
Plectroctena Smith 1858 17 Plectroctena mandibularis  
Plectroctena mandibularis
[106]
Ponera Latreille 1804 62 Ponera coarctata  
Ponera coarctata
[90][273]
Ponerites Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 14 Ponerites eocenicus  
Ponerites eocenicus
[259]
Promyopias Santschi 1914 1 Promyopias silvestrii  
Promyopias silvestrii
[27]
Protopone Dlussky 1988 7 Protopone primigena  
Protopone primigena
[30]
Psalidomyrmex André 1890 6 Psalidomyrmex foveolatus  
Psalidomyrmex foveolatus
[313]
Pseudoneoponera Donisthorpe 1943 18 Pseudoneoponera verecundae  
Pseudoneoponera verecundae
[314]
Pseudoponera Emery 1900 6 Pseudoponera stigma  
Pseudoponera stigma
[303]
Rasopone Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 11 Rasopone ferruginea  
Rasopone ferruginea
[301]
Simopelta Mann 1922 22 Simopelta jeckylli  
Simopelta jeckylli
[315]
Streblognathus Mayr 1862 2 Streblognathus aethiopicus  
Streblognathus aethiopicus
[67]
Taphopone Dlussky & Perfilieva 2014 6 Taphopone karaganensis  
Taphopone macroptera
[32]
Thaumatomyrmex Mayr 1887 12 Thaumatomyrmex mutilatus  
Thaumatomyrmex mutilatus
[83]

ProceratiinaeEdit

The subfamily Proceratiinae was established by Italian entomologist Carlo Emery in 1895, which represents three extant genera and one extinct genus. Found worldwide, these ants are mainly encountered in tropical and subtropical areas. Little is known about their biology.[45][316]

Subfamily Proceratiinae Emery, 1895 – four genera, 155 species[317]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Bradoponera Mayr 1868 4 Bradoponera meieri  
Bradoponera meieri
[134]
Discothyrea Roger 1863 37 Discothyrea testacea  
Discothyrea testacea
[107]
Probolomyrmex Mayr 1901 26 Probolomyrmex filiformis  
Probolomyrmex filiformis
[220]
Proceratium Roger 1863 88 Proceratium silaceum  
Proceratium silaceum
[107]

PseudomyrmecinaeEdit

The subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae was established by M.R. Smith in 1952,[318] which represents three genera of ants that are primarily arboreal nesting ants in the tropical and subtropical regions.[319] They are found in Africa, Asia, Australia, North America and South America.[320]

Subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae Smith, 1952 – three genera, 251 species[321]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Myrcidris Ward 1990 1 Myrcidris epicharis  
Myrcidris epicharis
[319]
Pseudomyrmex Lund 1831 147 Pseudomyrmex gracilis  
Pseudomyrmex gracilis
[318][322]
Tetraponera Smith 1852 103 Tetraponera nigra  
Tetraponera nigra
[323]

SphecomyrminaeEdit

The subfamily Sphecomyrminae contains nine fossil genera of stem ants. Most fossilised ants from Cretaceous amber are placed in this subfamily.[1][324]

Subfamily Sphecomyrminae Wilson & Brown, 1967 – nine genera, 18 species[325]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Baikuris Dlussky 1987 4 Baikuris mandibularis  
Baikuris mandibularis
[326]
Ceratomyrmex Perrichot, Wang & Engel 2016 1 Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri  
Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri
[327]
Cretomyrma Dlussky 1975 2 Cretomyrma arnoldii N/A [39]
Dlusskyidris Bolton 1994 1 Dlusskyidris zherichini  
Dlusskyidris zherichini
[39][328]
Haidomyrmex Dlussky 1996 3 Haidomyrmex cerberus  
Haidomyrmex cerberus
[33]
Haidomyrmodes Perrichot et al. 2008 1 Haidomyrmodes mammuthus  
Haidomyrmodes mammuthus
[329]
Haidoterminus McKellar, Glasier & Engel 2013 1 Haidoterminus cippus  
Haidoterminus cippus
[330]
Sphecomyrma Wilson & Brown 1967 3 Sphecomyrma freyi  
Sphecomyrma freyi
[331]
Zigrasimecia Barden & Grimaldi 2013 2 Zigrasimecia tonsora  
Zigrasimecia tonsora
[324]

Incertae sedisEdit

There are several ant genera where their taxonomic placement is uncertain (incertae sedis). These genera have not yet been assigned to any subfamily within Formicidae; 14 genera are currently listed as incertae sedis.[2]

Incertae sedis taxa
Genus name Binomial authority Described No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Calyptites Scudder 1877 1 Calyptites antediluvianum N/A [5][332]
Camelomecia Barden & Grimaldi 2016 1 Camelomecia janovitzi  
Camelomecia janovitzi
[333]
Condylodon Lund 1831 1 Condylodon audouini N/A [6][59]
Cretopone Dlussky 1975 1 Cretopone magna  
Cretopone magna
[334]
Curticorna[e] Hong 2002 1 Curticorna leptogastrosa N/A [6][129]
Eoaenictites[f] Hong 2002 1 Eoaenictites castanifurvus N/A [129]
Eoformica Cockerell 1921 6 Eoformica eocenica  
Eoformica pinguis
[259][337]
Fonsecahymen Martins-Neto & Mendes 2002 1 Fonsecahymen stigmata N/A [338]
Gerontoformica Nel & Perrault 2004 13 Gerontoformica cretacica  
Gerontoformica cretacica
[339]
Hypochira[g] Buckley 1866 1 Formica subspinosa N/A [340][341]
Klondikia Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 1 Klondikia whiteae N/A [259]
Kohlsimyrma Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 3 Kohlsimyrma laticeps N/A [259]
Myanmyrma Engel & Grimaldi 2005 1 Myanmyrma gracilis  
Myanmyrma gracilis
[34]
Petropone Dlussky 1975 1 Petropone petiolata  
Petropone petiolata
[334]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Includes one undescribed fossil species.[81]
  2. ^ a b Formicium is considered a collective group name.[109]
  3. ^ a b The collective group names †Formicium and †Myrmeciites do not have designated type species per the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.[110]
  4. ^ a b Myrmeciites is considered a collective group name.[180]
  5. ^ Curticorna was placed in Dorylinae by Hong (2002), but this genus is "definitely not Dorylinae" according to Barry Bolton.[335] Dlussky & Wedmann (2012) suggest that Curticorna may belong to Ectatomminae.[13]
  6. ^ Eoaenictites was placed in Aenictinae (now Dorylinae) by Hong (2002), but this genus is "definitely not Aenictinae" according to Barry Bolton.[336]
  7. ^ Genus is unidentifiable, previously placed in Formicinae and Dolichoderinae.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Ward, Philip S. (2007), "Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." (PDF), Zootaxa, 1668: 549–563
  2. ^ a b Bolton, B. (2014). "Formicidae". AntCat. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  3. ^ a b Bolton, B. (2015). "Agroecomyrmecinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  4. ^ a b Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kempf, W. W. (1968). "Tatuidris, a remarkable new genus of Formicidae (Hymenoptera)". Psyche. 74: 183–190. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27017. Zenodo27017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Carpenter, F.M. (1930). "The fossil ants of North America" (PDF). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 70: 1–66.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Bolton, B. (2003), "Synopsis and classification of Formicidae." (PDF), Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 71: 1–370, ISBN 1-887988-15-7
  7. ^ Donoso, D.A. (2012). "Additions to the taxonomy of the armadillo ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Tatuidris)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3503: 61–81.
  8. ^ a b c Wheeler, W.M. (1910). "Three new genera of myrmicine ants from tropical America". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 28: 259–265. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25138.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Wheeler, W. M. (1915). "The ants of the Baltic amber" (PDF). Schriften der Physikalisch-Okonomischen Gesellschaft zu Konigsberg. 55 (4): 1–142. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25147.
  10. ^ Bolton, B. (1973). "A remarkable new arboreal ant genus (Hym. Formicidae) from West Africa" (PDF). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 108: 234–237.
  11. ^ Carpenter, F. M. (1935). "A New Name for Lithomyrmex Carp. (Hymenoptera)" (PDF). Psyche. 42 (2): 91. doi:10.1155/1935/68604.
  12. ^ "Subfamily: Amblyoponinae". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Dlussky, G. M.; Wedmann, S. (December 2012). "The poneromorph ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: Amblyoponinae, Ectatomminae, Ponerinae) of Grube Messel, Germany: high biodiversity in the Eocene" (PDF). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10 (4): 725–753. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.628341.
  14. ^ Saux, C.; Fisher, B.L.; Spicer, G.S. (2004). "Dracula ant phylogeny as inferred by nuclear 28S rDNA sequences and implications for ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Amblyoponinae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 33 (2): 457–468. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.06.017. PMID 15336679.
  15. ^ Bolton, B. (2016). "Amblyoponinae". AntCat. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  16. ^ Ward, P. S. (1994). "Adetomyrma, an enigmatic new ant genus from Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and its implications for ant phylogeny" (PDF). Systematic Entomology. 19 (2): 159–175. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1994.tb00585.x.
  17. ^ Erichson, W.F. (1842), "Beitrag zur Insecten-Fauna von Vandiemensland, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der geographischen Verbreitung der Insecten" (PDF), Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 8: 83–287, doi:10.5281/zenodo.26334
  18. ^ Pagliano, G.; Scaramozzino, P. (1990). "Elenco dei generi di Hymenoptera del mundo". Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana. 68: 1–210.
  19. ^ Mann, W.M. (1919). "The ants of the British Solomon Islands" (PDF). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 63: 273–391. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25890.
  20. ^ Ward, P.S.; Fisher, B.L. (2016). "Tales of dracula ants: the evolutionary history of the ant subfamily Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Systematic Entomology. 41 (3): 683–693. doi:10.1111/syen.12186.
  21. ^ a b c d e Roger, J. (1861). "Die Ponera-artigen Ameisen (Schluss)". Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift. 5: 1–54. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25617.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bingham, C.T. (1903). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps (PDF). London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 28–347.
  23. ^ a b c Roger, J. (1862). "Einige neue exotische Ameisen-Gattungen und Arten" (PDF). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift. 6: 233–254. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25619.
  24. ^ a b Emery, C. (1895). "Descriptions de quelques fourmis nouvelles d'Australie" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 39: 345–358. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25459.
  25. ^ a b c d Mayr, G. (1866). "Myrmecologische Beiträge" (PDF). Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. Abteilung I. 53: 484–517. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25846.
  26. ^ Roger, J. (1859). "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Ameisenfauna der Mittelmeerländer. I" (PDF). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift. 3 (2–3): 225–259. doi:10.1002/mmnd.18590030209.
  27. ^ a b c Santschi, F. (1914). "Formicides de l'Afrique occidentale et australe du voyage de Mr. le Professeur F. Silvestri" (PDF). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici. 8: 309–385. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14385.
  28. ^ Karunarathna, D. A. G. N. B.; Karunaratne, W. A. I. P. (2013). "Two new localities of Sri Lankan Relict Ant Aneuretus simoni Emery, 1893 (Formicidae: Aneuretinae) with the very first record in the intermediate zone". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 5 (11): 4604–4607. doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3334.4604-7.
  29. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Aneuretinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  30. ^ a b c d e Dlussky, G.M. (1988). "Ants of Sakhalin amber (Paleocene?)" (PDF). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 1988 (1): 50–61.
  31. ^ a b c d Emery, C. (1893). "Untitled. Introduced by: "M. C. Emery, de Bologne, envoie les diagnoses de cinq nouveaux genres de Formicides"" (PDF). Bulletin Bimensuel de la Société Entomologique de France 1892. 61: 275–277. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25436.
  32. ^ a b Dlussky, G.M.; Perfilieva, K.S. (2014). "Superfamily Formicoidea Latreille, 1802. 410-438 in Antropov, A. V.; Belokobylskij, S. A.; Compton, S. G.; Dlussky, G. M.; Khalaim, A. I.; Kolyada, V. A.; Kozlov, M. A.; Perfilieva, K. S.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2014. The wasps, bees and ants (Insecta: Vespida=Hymenoptera) from the Insect Limestone (Late Eocene) of the Isle of Wight, UK" (PDF). Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 104 (3–4): 335–446. doi:10.1017/S1755691014000103.
  33. ^ a b Dlussky, G.M. (1996). "Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Burmese amber". Paleontological Journal. 30: 449–454.
  34. ^ a b c Engel, M.S.; Grimaldi, D.A. (2005). "Primitive New Ants in Cretaceous Amber from Myanmar, New Jersey, and Canada (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". American Museum Novitates. 3485: 1–24. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2005)485[0001:PNAICA]2.0.CO;2.
  35. ^ Ward, P. S. (2014). "The phylogeny and evolution of ants" (PDF). Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 45: 23–43. doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-120213-091824.
  36. ^ Bolton, B. (2016). "Apomyrminae". AntCat. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  37. ^ Brown, W. L., Jr., W. H. Gotwald, et Levieux (1970). "A new genus of ponerine ants from West Africa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with ecological notes". Psyche. 77 (3): 259–275. doi:10.1155/1970/64703.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  38. ^ a b c Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J.M. (1997), "New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships.", American Museum Novitates, 3208: 1–43
  39. ^ a b c d Dlussky, G.M. (1975). "Superfamily Formicoidea Latreille, 1802. Family Formicidae Latreille, 1802. [In Russian.]. Pp. 114–122 in: Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1975. Hymenoptera Apocrita of Mesozoic". Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta. Akademiya Nauk SSSR. 147: 1–134.
  40. ^ a b c Dlussky, G.M. (1983). "A new family of Upper Cretaceous Hymenoptera: an "intermediate link" between the ants and the scolioids" (PDF). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 1983 (3): 65–78. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26412.
  41. ^ Dlussky, G.M. (1999). "The first find of the Formicoidea (Hymenoptera) in the lower Cretaceous of the northern hemisphere" (PDF). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 1999 (3): 62–66.
  42. ^ a b c Rasnitsyn, G.M.; Brothers, D.J.; Dlussky, A.P. (2004). "The first Late Cretaceous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from southern Africa, with comments on the origin of the Myrmicinae" (PDF). Insect Systematics & Evolution. 35 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1163/187631204788964727.
  43. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Brownimeciinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  44. ^ Cardoso, D.; Cristiano, M. P.; Barros, L. S.; Lopes, D.; Pompolo, S. (2012). "First cytogenetic characterization of a species of the arboreal ant genus Azteca Forel, 1978 (Dolichoderinae, Formicidae)". Comparative Cytogenetics. 6 (2): 107–114. doi:10.3897/CompCytogen.v6i2.2397. PMC 3833797.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Fisher, B.L.; Cover, S.P. (2007). Ants of North America: A Guide to the Genera. University of California Press. pp. 54–58. ISBN 978-0-520-93455-9.
  46. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Dolichoderinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  47. ^ a b c Zhang, J. (1989). Fossil insects from Shanwang, Shandong, China. Jinan, China. Shandong: Shandong Science and Technology Publishing House. pp. 282–284.
  48. ^ Santschi, F. (1936). "Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes de la République Argentine" (PDF). Revista de Entomologia. 6: 402–421. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25371.
  49. ^ Donisthorpe, H. (1947). "Ants from New Guinea, including new species and a new genus" (PDF). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 13 (11): 577–595. doi:10.1080/00222934608654581.
  50. ^ a b Fisher, B. (2009). "Two new dolichoderine ant genera from Madagascar: Aptinoma gen. n. and Ravavy gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2118: 37–52.
  51. ^ Dubovikoff, D. A. (2005). "The system of taxon Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and relatives genera". Kavkazskii Entomologicheskii Byulleten (in Russian). 1 (1): 89–94.
  52. ^ a b Weber, N. A. (1941). "Four new genera of Ethiopian and Neotropical Formicidae" (PDF). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 34: 183–194. doi:10.1093/aesa/34.1.183.
  53. ^ Forel, A.H. (1878). "Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 15: 337–392. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25567.
  54. ^ Emery, C. (1869). "Descrizione di una nuova formica italiana" (PDF). Annuario del Museo Zoologico della Reale Università de Napoli. 5: 117–118. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25404.
  55. ^ McKellar, R.C.; Glasier, J.R.N.; Engel, M.S. (2013). "New ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) from Canadian Late Cretaceous amber" (PDF). Bulletin of Geosciences. 88 (3): 583–594. doi:10.3140/bull.geosci.1425.
  56. ^ Santschi, F. (1919). "Fourmis du genre Bothriomyrmex Emery. (Systématique et moeurs)" (PDF). Revue Zoologique Africaine. 7: 201–224. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14226.
  57. ^ Brues, C.T. (1939). "New Oligocene Braconidae and Bethylidae from Baltic Amber" (PDF). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 32 (2): 251–263. doi:10.1093/aesa/32.2.251.
  58. ^ Forel, A.H. (1907). "Formicides du Musée National Hongrois" (PDF). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 5: 1–42. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14434.
  59. ^ a b c Lund, P. W. (1831). "Lettre sur les habitudes de quelques fourmis du Brésil, adressée à M. Audouin" (PDF). Annales des Sciences Naturelles. 23: 113–138. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25936.
  60. ^ Forel, A.H. (1909). "Fourmis du Musée de Bruxelles. Fourmis de Benguela récoltées par M. Creighton Wellman, et fourmis du Congo récoltées par MM. Luja, Kohl et Laurent" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 53: 51–73. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14164.
  61. ^ Shattuck, S.O.; Heterick, B.E (2011). "Revision of the ant genus Iridomyrmex (Hymenoptera : Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2845: 1–74. ISBN 978-1-86-977676-3. ISSN 1175-5334.
  62. ^ a b Donisthorpe, H. (1920). "British Oligocene ants" (PDF). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 6 (9): 81–94. doi:10.1080/00222932008632412.
  63. ^ Zhang, J.; Sun, B.; Chang, X (1994). Miocene insects and spiders from Shanwang, Shandong. Beijing: Science Press. p. 167.
  64. ^ Emery, C. (1888). "Über den sogenannten Kaumagen einiger Ameisen" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie. 46: 378–412. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25424.
  65. ^ a b c Forel, A. (1902). "Fourmis nouvelles d'Australie" (PDF). Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 10: 405–548. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14495.
  66. ^ Wild, A.L.; Cuezzo, F. (2006). "Rediscovery of a fossil dolichoderine ant lineage (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and a description of a new genus from South America" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1142: 57–68. doi:10.15468/agc2jn. ISSN 1175-5334.
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mayr, G. (1862). "Myrmecologische Studien" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 12: 649–776. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25912.
  68. ^ a b Dlussky, G.M. (1981). "Miocene ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR. Pp. 64–83 in: Vishnyakova, V. N.; Dlussky, G. M.; Pritykina, L. N. 1981. New fossil insects from the territories of the USSR". Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta. Akademiya Nauk SSSR. 183: 1–87.
  69. ^ a b Lapolla, John S; Greenwalt, Dale E (2015). "Fossil Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation" (PDF). Sociobiology. 62 (2): 163–174. doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v62i2.163-174.
  70. ^ Emery, C. (1913). "Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae" (PDF). Genera Insectorum. 137: 1–50.
  71. ^ a b c d e f Mayr, G. (1861). Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet (PDF). Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn. pp. 80 pp.
  72. ^ Shattuck, S.O. (1992). "Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Sociobiology. 21 (1): 1–181. ISSN 0361-6525.
  73. ^ Dubovikov, D. A. (2004). "Nebothriomyrmex majeri gen. et sp. n., a new genus and species of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) from Australia". Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie (in Russian). 83: 487–489.
  74. ^ a b c Shattuck, S. O. (1992). "Review of the dolichoderine ant genus Iridomyrmex Mayr with descriptions of three new genera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society. 31 (1): 13–18. doi:10.1111/j.1440-6055.1992.tb00453.x.
  75. ^ Förster, A. (1850). Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae. Aachen: Ernst Ter Meer. p. 43.
  76. ^ Mayr, G. (1872). "Formicidae Borneenses collectae a J. Doria et O. Beccari in territorio Sarawak annis 1865-1867" (PDF). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale. 2: 133–155. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25856.
  77. ^ a b Forel, A.H. (1895). "Nouvelles fourmis d'Australie, récoltées à The Ridge, Mackay, Queensland, par M. Gilbert Turner" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 39: 417–428. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14402.
  78. ^ Dlussky, G.M.; Radchenko, A.; Dubovikoff, D. (2013). "A new enigmatic ant genus from late Eocene Danish Amber and its evolutionary and zoogeographic significance" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 59 (4): 931–939. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0028.
  79. ^ Dlussky, G.M.; Dubovikoff, D. (2013). "Yantaromyrmex gen. n. – a new ant genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Late Eocene ambers of Europe" (PDF). Caucasian Entomological Bulletin. 9 (2): 305–314.
  80. ^ B., S.G.; Fisher, B.L.; Schultz, T.R.; Ward, P.S. (2014). "The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14 (1): 2–14. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-93. PMC 4021219. PMID 24886136.
  81. ^ a b c d e Borowiec, M. (2016). "Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)". ZooKeys. 608: 1–280. doi:10.3897/zookeys.608.9427. PMC 4982377. PMID 27559303.
  82. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Dorylinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  83. ^ a b c d Mayr, G. (1887). "Südamerikanische Formiciden" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 37: 511–632. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25866.
  84. ^ Emery, C. (1901). "Note sulle Doriline". Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana. 33: 43–56. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25866.
  85. ^ Shuckard, W.E. (1840). "Monograph of the Dorylidae, a family of the Hymenoptera Heterogyna" (PDF). Annals of Natural History. 5: 258–271. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24619.
  86. ^ a b c Smith, F. (1857). "Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace" (PDF). Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology. 2 (6): 42–88. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1857.tb01759.x.
  87. ^ a b Mayr, G. (1870). "Neue Formiciden" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 20: 939–996. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25855.
  88. ^ Crawley, W.C. (1924). "XLVII.—Ants from Sumatra. With biological notes by Edward Jacobson" (PDF). Journal of Natural History. Series 9. 13 (76): 380–409. doi:10.1080/00222932408633052.
  89. ^ Fabricius, J.C. (1793). Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis observationibus, descriptionibus. Tome 2 (PDF). Hafniae: C. G. Proft. p. 365.
  90. ^ a b c d e Latreille, P.A. (1804). Tableau méthodique des insectes. Pp. 129–200 in: Société de Naturalistes et d'Agriculteurs 1804. Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle. Tome 24. Paris: Déterville. p. 179.
  91. ^ a b Swainson, W.; Shuckard, W.E. (1840). On the history and natural arrangement of insects. 104. London, UK: Longman, Brown, Green & Longman's. p. 173. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.32786. LCCN 06013653. OCLC 4329243.
  92. ^ a b Jurine, L. (1807). Nouvelle méthode de classer les Hyménoptères et les Diptères. Hyménoptères. Vol. 1. Genève: Paschoud. p. 282.
  93. ^ Mann, W.M. (1923). "Two new ants from Bolivia. (Results of the Mulford Biological Exploration. - Entomology)" (PDF). Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 30 (1): 13–18. doi:10.1155/1923/58289.
  94. ^ Mayr, G. (1879). "Beiträge zur Ameisen-Fauna Asiens" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 28: 645–686. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25859.
  95. ^ Fisher, B.L.; Bolton, B. (2016). Ants of Africa and Madagascar A Guide to the Genera. 2. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-520-29089-1.
  96. ^ Borgmeier, T. (1940). "Duas notas myrmecologicas" (PDF). Revista de Entomologia. 11: 606. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26883.
  97. ^ Borgmeier, T. (1936). "Sobre algumas formigas dos generos Eciton e Cheliomyrmex (Hym. Formicidae)" (PDF). Archivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal. 3: 51–68. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26879.
  98. ^ Emery, C. in André, E. (1882). "Les fourmis (continuation)" (PDF). Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe et d'Algérie. 2: 233–280. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27099.
  99. ^ a b Forel, A.H. (1891). "Histoire naturelle des hyménoptères. Les formicides" (PDF). Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar. 20 (2): 1–280. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26987.
  100. ^ a b c Mayr, G. (1866). "Diagnosen neuer und wenig gekannter Formiciden" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 16: 885–908. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25847.
  101. ^ a b Bolton, B.; Fisher, B.L. (2012). "Taxonomy of the cerapachyine ant genera Simopone Forel, Vicinopone gen. n. and Tanipone gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3283: 1–101.
  102. ^ Xu, Z.-H. B. (2000). "Two new genera of ant subfamilies Dorylinae and Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Yunnan, China" (PDF). Zoological Research. 21 (4): 297–302.
  103. ^ Wheeler, W.M. (1918). "The Australian Ants of the Ponerine Tribe Cerapachyini" (PDF). Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 53 (3): 215–265. doi:10.2307/25129989.
  104. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Ectatomminae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  105. ^ Dlussky, G.M. (1999). "New ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Canadian amber". Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal (4): 73–76.
  106. ^ a b c d Smith, F. (1858). Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum part VI (PDF). London: British Museum. pp. 100–105.
  107. ^ a b c d e Roger, J. (1863). "Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegebenen Beschreibungen". Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift. 7 (1–2): 131–214. doi:10.1002/mmnd.18630070116.
  108. ^ a b Emery, C. (1911). "Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae" (PDF). Genera Insectorum. 118: 1–125.
  109. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "†Formicium". AntCat. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  110. ^ a b c Archibald, S. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Mathewes, R. W.; Greenwood, D. R. (2011). "Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278: 3679–3686. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0729. PMC 3203508. PMID 21543354.
  111. ^ Lutz, H. (1986). "Eine neue Unterfamilie der Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) aus dem mittel-eozänen Olschiefer der "Grube Messel" bei Darmstadt (Deutschland, S-Hessen)" (PDF). Senckenbergiana Lethaea. 67: 177–218.
  112. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Formiciinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  113. ^ Westwood, J.O. (1854). "Contributions to fossil entomology" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 10: 378–396. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1854.010.01-02.43.
  114. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "Camponotus". AntCat. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  115. ^ Bolton, B. (2016). "Formicinae". AntCat. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  116. ^ Prins, A.J. (1983). "A new ant genus from southern Africa (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)". Annals of the South African Museum. 94: 1–11. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25707. ISSN 0303-2515.
  117. ^ Dlussky, G.M. (1969). "Ants of the genus Proformica Ruzs. of the USSR and contiguous countries (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)" (PDF). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. 48: 218–232. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26410.
  118. ^ Santschi, F. (1914). Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale, 1911-1912. Résultats scientifiques. Insectes Hyménoptères. II. Formicidae. Paris: Libr. A. Schulz. p. 123.
  119. ^ Emery, C. (1899). "Fourmis d'Afrique" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 43: 459–504. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25484.
  120. ^ a b Heer, O. (1850). "Die Insektenfauna der Tertiärgebilde von Oeningen und von Radoboj in Croatien. Zweite Abtheilung: Heuschrecken, Florfliegen, Aderflüger, Schmetterlinge und Fliegen". Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften. 11 (1): 1–264. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.2469.
  121. ^ Agosti, D. (1994). "The phylogeny of the ant tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of a new genus". Systematic Entomology. 19 (2): 93–117. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1994.tb00581.x.
  122. ^ a b Mayr, G. (1868). "Formicidae novae Americanae collectae a Prof. P. de Strobel" (PDF). Annuario della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici, Modena. 3: 161–178. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25851.
  123. ^ Wheeler, W.M. (1929). "Three new genera of ants from the Dutch East Indies" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 349: 1–8. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25219.
  124. ^ Emery, C. (1895). "Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher" (PDF). Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere. 8: 685–778. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25462.
  125. ^ Steinbach, G. (1967). "Zur Hymenopterenfauna des Pliozäns von Willershausen/Westharz". Bericht der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Hannover. 111: 95–102.
  126. ^ Förster, A. (1850). "Eine Centurie neuer Hymenopteren. Zweite Dekade". Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens. 7: 485–500. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26323.
  127. ^ a b Dlussky, G.M. (2008). "Ants of the tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from late Eocene amber of Europe" (PDF). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 2008 (5): 45–59. doi:10.1134/S0031030108050055. ISSN 1555-6174.
  128. ^ a b Wheeler, W.M. (1920). "The Subfamilies of Formicidae, and Other Taxonomic Notes" (PDF). Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 27 (2–3): 46–55. doi:10.1155/1920/14961.
  129. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Hong, Y.-C. (2002). Amber insects of China. [In Chinese.] Beijing: Beijing Science and Technology Press. pp. x + 653 pp.
  130. ^ Ward, P. S.; Blaimer, B. B.; Fisher, B. L. (2016). "A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex" (PDF). Zootaxa. 4072 (3): 343–357. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4072.3.4.
  131. ^ a b Wheeler, W.M. (1911). "A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae" (PDF). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 21: 157–175. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25141. ISSN 0077-8923.
  132. ^ a b Emery, C. (1906). "Note sur Prenolepis vividula Nyl. et sur la classification des espèces du genre Prenolepis" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 50: 130–134. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25504.
  133. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (10th ed.). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 579.
  134. ^ a b c d e G., Mayr (1868). "Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins" (PDF). Beiträge zur Naturkunde Preussens Königlichen Physikalisch-Oekonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg. 1: 1–102. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25852.
  135. ^ Roger, J. (1863). "Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten". Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift. 7 (1–2): 1–65. doi:10.1002/mmnd.18630070123.
  136. ^ Dlussky, G.M. (2014). "Early Miocene ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Radoboj, Croatia" (PDF). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 272 (3): 237–285. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2014/0409.
  137. ^ Tinaut, A. (1990). "Descripción del macho de Formica subrufa Roger, 1859 y creación de un nuevo subgénero (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". EOS. Revista Española de Entomología (in Spanish). 65: 281–291. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24884.
  138. ^ Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D. (2000). "A formicine in New Jersey Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and early evolution of the ants". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (25): 13678–13683. Bibcode:2000PNAS...9713678G. doi:10.1073/pnas.240452097. PMC 17635. PMID 11078527.
  139. ^ Emery, C. (1895). "Deuxième note sur les fourmis du Chili" (PDF). Actes de la Société Scientifique du Chili. 5: 10–18. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25461.
  140. ^ a b c Fabricius, J.C. (1804). Systema Piezatorum secundum ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus (PDF). Brunswick: C. Reichard. pp. xiv + 15–439 + 30 pp. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.10490. OCLC 19422437.
  141. ^ Santschi, F. (1926). "Trois notes myrmécologiques" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 95: 13–28. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14367.
  142. ^ Lubbock, J. (1883). "Observations on Ants, Bees, and Wasps.-Part X. With a Description of a new Genus of Honey-ant". Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology. 17 (98): 41–52. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1883.tb00235.x.
  143. ^ Wesmael, C. (1838). "Sur une nouvelle espece de fourmi du Mexique" (PDF). Bulletins de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles. 5: 766–771. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25039.
  144. ^ André, E. (1896). "Fourmis nouvelles d'Asie et d'Australie" (PDF). Revue d'Entomologie (Caen). 15: 251–265. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27114.
  145. ^ Forel, A.H. (1893). "Note préventive sur un nouveau genre et une nouvelle espèce de formicide (camponitide)" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 37: 607–608. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14257.
  146. ^ Emery, C. (1920). "Le genre Camponotus Mayr. Nouvel essai de sa subdivision en sous-genres" (PDF). Revue de Zoologie Africaine. 8: 229–260. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25546.
  147. ^ Smith, F. (1860). "Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the Islands of Bachian, Kaisaa, Amboyna, Gilolo, and at Dory in New Guinea" (PDF). Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology. 5 (17): 93–143. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1860.tb01022.x.
  148. ^ Viehmeyer, H. (1916). "Ameisen von Singapore. Beobachtet und gesammelt von H. Overbeck" (PDF). Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 81 (A8): 108–168. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24932.
  149. ^ Donisthorpe, H. (1947). "Some new ants from New Guinea" (PDF). Journal of Natural History. Series 11. 14 (111): 183–197. doi:10.1080/00222934708654624.
  150. ^ Motschoulsky, V. de. (1863). "Essai d'un catalogue des insectes de l'ile Ceylan" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou. 36 (3): 1–153.
  151. ^ Snelling, R.R. (1979). "Aphomomyrmex and a related new genus of arboreal African ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Contributions in Science (Los Angeles). 316: 1–8. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24733.
  152. ^ Ruzsky, M. (1902). "[Ueber die Ameisenfauna des Kaukasus und der Krim.]" (PDF). Protokoly Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete. 206: 1–33. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25637.
  153. ^ Forel, A.H. (1892). "Die Ameisen Neu-Seelands" (PDF). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. 8: 331–343. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14369.
  154. ^ Dlussky, G.M. (1967). "Ants of the genus Formica from the Baltic amber". Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 1967 (2): 80–89. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26409.
  155. ^ a b Wilson, E.O. (1985). "Ants From the Cretaceous and Eocene Amber of North America". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 92 (2–3): 205–216. doi:10.1155/1985/57604.
  156. ^ a b c Emery, C. (1887). "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia" (PDF). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova). 2. 4 (24): 209–258. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25419.
  157. ^ Clark, J.S. (1934). "Ants from the Otway Ranges" (PDF). Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria. 8: 48–73. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26631.
  158. ^ Arnol'di, K.W. (1928). "tudien über die Systematik der Ameisen. III. Rossomyrmex. Neue Gattung der Ameisen und ihre Beziehungen zu den anderen Gattungen der Formicidae" (PDF). Zoologischer Anzeiger. 75: 299–310. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27148.
  159. ^ Forel, A.H. (1916). "Fourmis du Congo et d'autres provenances récoltées par MM. Hermann Kohl, Luja, Mayné, etc" (PDF). Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 24 (5): 397–460. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14177.
  160. ^ Forel, A.H. (1905). "Miscellanea myrmécologiques, II" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 49: 155–185. doi:10.5281/zenodo.14170.
  161. ^ Emery, C. (1925). "Hymenoptera, Fam. Formicidae, subfam. Formicinae" (PDF). Genera Insectorum. 183: 1–302. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25560.
  162. ^ McAreavey, J. (1957). "Revision of the genus Stigmacros Forel". Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria. 21: 7–64. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25878.
  163. ^ LaPolla, J.S.; Kallal, R.J.; Brady, S.G. (2012). "A new ant genus from the Greater Antilles and Central America, Zatania (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exemplifies the utility of male and molecular character systems". Systematic Entomology. 37: 200–214. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00605.x.
  164. ^ Taylor, R.W. (2011), "Australasian ants of the subfamily Heteropone rinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): (1) General introduction and review of the Heteroponera leae (Wheeler, 1923) species group, with descriptions of two new species", Myrmecological News, 15: 117–123
  165. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Heteroponerinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  166. ^ Arnol'di, K.V. (1930). "Studien über die Systematik der Ameisen. IV. Aulacopone, eine neue Ponerinengattung (Formicidae) in Russland". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 89: 139–144. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27149.
  167. ^ Borowiec, M.L.; Schultz, A.; Alpert, G.D.; Baňař, P. (2011). "Discovery of the worker caste and descriptions of two new species of Anomalomyrma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Leptanillinae) with unique abdominal morphology". Zootaxa. 2810: 1–14.
  168. ^ Shattuck, S. (2000). Australian Ants: Their Biology and Identification. Csiro Publishing. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-643-06659-5.
  169. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Leptanillinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  170. ^ a b Bolton, B. (1990). "The higher classification of the ant subfamily Leptanillinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Systematic Entomology. 15: 267–282. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1990.tb00063.x.
  171. ^ Xu, Z.-H. (2012). "Furcotanilla, a new genus of the ant subfamily Leptanillinae from China with descriptions of two new species of Protanilla and P. rafflesi Taylor (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Sociobiology. 59: 477–491.
  172. ^ Emery, C. (1870). "Studi mirmecologici" (PDF). Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana. 2: 193–201. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25405.
  173. ^ Pertersen, B. (1968). "Some novelties in presumed males of Leptanillinae (Hym., Formicidae)" (PDF). Entomologiske Meddelelser. 36: 577–598. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25739.
  174. ^ Yamane, S; Bui, T.V.; Eguchi, K. (2008). "Opamyrma hungvuong, a new genus and species of ant related to Apomyrma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Amblyoponinae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1767: 55–63. doi:10.15468/jvwb8h.
  175. ^ Wheeler, G.C.; Wheeler, E.W. (1930). "Two new ants from Java" (PDF). Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 37 (3): 193–201. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25058.
  176. ^ Brues, C.T. (1925). "Scyphodon, an anomalous genus of Hymenoptera of doubtful affinities" (PDF). Treubia. 6 (2): 93–96. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27042.
  177. ^ Kugler, J. (1987). "The Leptanillinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Israel and a description of a new species from India" (PDF). Israel Journal of Entomology. 20: 45–57. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26107.
  178. ^ a b Rabeling, C.; Brown, J.M.; Verhaagh, M. (2008). "Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (39): 14913–14917. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10514913R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806187105. PMC 2567467. PMID 18794530.
  179. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Martialinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  180. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "†Myrmeciites". AntCat. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  181. ^ Ward, P.S.; Brady, S.G. (2003). "Phylogeny and biogeography of the ant subfamily Myrmeciinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Invertebrate Systematics. 17 (3): 361–386. doi:10.1071/IS02046.
  182. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Myrmeciinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  183. ^ Cockerell, T.D.A. (1923). "The earliest known ponerine ant". The Entomologist. 56: 51–52. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26638.
  184. ^ a b c d Archibald, S.B.; Cover, S. P.; Moreau, C. S. (2006). "Bulldog Ants of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands and History of the Subfamily (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae)" (PDF). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99 (3): 487–523. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)99[487:BAOTEO]2.0.CO;2.
  185. ^ Clark, J.S. (1934). "Notes on Australian ants, with descriptions of new species and a new genus" (PDF). Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria. 8: 5–20. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26629.
  186. ^ a b Bolton, B. (2016). "Myrmicinae". AntCat. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  187. ^ a b c d e f Mayr, G. (1865). Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865 Reise der Oesterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, unter den befehlen des Commodore B. von Wuellerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Formicidae (PDF). Vienna: K. Gerold's Sohn. p. 119.
  188. ^ a b Emery, C. (1897). "Formicidarum species novae vel minus cognitae in collectione Musaei Nationalis Hungarici quas in Nova-Guinea, colonia germanica, collegit L. Biró" (PDF). Természetrajzi Füzetek. 20: 571–599.
  189. ^ a b Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Perfilieva, K. S. (2015). "The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bol'shaya Svetlovodnaya (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East)" (PDF). Caucasian Entomological Bulletin. 11 (1): 131–152.
  190. ^ a b Mayr, G. (1878). "Formiciden gesammelt in Brasilien von Professor Trail" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 27: 867–878. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25858.
  191. ^ a b Wheeler, W. M. (1935). "Two new genera of myrmicine ants from Papua and the Philippines" (PDF). Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club. 15: 1–9. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25255.
  192. ^ a b c Emery, C. (1913). "Études sur les Myrmicinae. [V-VII.]" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 57: 250–262. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25526.
  193. ^ Mayr, G. (1853). "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Ameisen" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien. 3: 101–114. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25908.
  194. ^ General, D. E. M. (2015). "Aretidris, a new genus of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) from the mountains of Luzon Island, Philippines" (PDF). Myrmecological News. 21: 131–136.
  195. ^ André, E. (1889). "Hyménoptères nouveaux appartenant au groupe des Formicides" (PDF). Revue d'Entomologie (Caen). 8: 217–231. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27105.
  196. ^ Laza, J. H. (1982). "Signos de actividad atribuibles a Atta (Myrmicidae, Hymenoptera) en el Mioceno de la provincia de La Pampa, Republica Argentina" (PDF). Ameghiniana. 19: 109–124. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25947.
  197. ^ Shattuck, S. O. (2009). "Austromorium, a new myrmicine ant genus from Australia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2193: 62–68.
  198. ^ Bolton, B. (1981). "A revision of six minor genera of Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Ethiopian zoogeographical region" (PDF). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology. 43: 245–307.
  199. ^ Lattke, J. E. (1990). "A new genus of myrmicine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Venezuela" (PDF). Entomologica Scandinavica. 21 (2): 173–178. doi:10.1163/187631290X00120.
  200. ^ Schulz, W. A. (1906). Spolia hymenopterologica (PDF). Paderborn: Junfermannsche Buchhandlung. pp. 355 pp.
  201. ^ Radchenko, A.; Dlussky, G.M. (2013). "Bilobomyrma new genus, a new extinct ant genus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the late Eocene European ambers" (PDF). Journal of Paleontology. 87 (6): 1060–1066. doi:10.1666/13-013.
  202. ^ Wheeler, W. M. (1915). "Two new genera of myrmicine ants from Brasil" (PDF). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 59: 483–491.
  203. ^ Radchenko, A.; Dlussky, G. M. (2012). "Boltonidris gen. nov., the first extinct Stenammini ant genus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the late Eocene Rovno amber" (PDF). Annales Zoologici. 62 (4): 627–631. doi:10.3161/000345412X659687.
  204. ^ Forel, A.H. (1911). "Ameisen des Herrn Prof. v. Ihering aus Brasilien (Sao Paulo usw.) nebst einigen anderen aus Südamerika und Afrika (Hym.)" (PDF). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 1911: 285–312. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14174.
  205. ^ Emery, C. (1869). "Enumerazione dei formicidi che rinvengonsi nei contorni di Napoli con descrizioni di specie nuove o meno conosciute" (PDF). Annali dell'Accademia degli Aspiranti Naturalisti. Secunda Era. 2 (2): 1–26. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25403.
  206. ^ a b Westwood, J. O. (1840). "Observations on the genus Typhlopone, with descriptions of several exotic species of ants" (PDF). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 6 (35): 81–89. doi:10.1080/03745484009443610.
  207. ^ a b c Smith, F. (1853). "Monograph of the genus Cryptocerus, belonging to the group Cryptoceridae - family Myrmicidae - division Hymenoptera Heterogyna" (PDF). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 2. 2 (1854): 213–228. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24624.
  208. ^ Latreille, P. A. (1802). Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des insectes. Tome 3. Familles naturelles des genres. Paris: F. Dufart. pp. xii + 467 pp.
  209. ^ Wilson, E. O. (1989). "Chimaeridris, a new genus of hook-mandibled myrmicine ants from tropical Asia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Insectes Sociaux. 36 (1): 62–69. doi:10.1007/BF02225881.
  210. ^ Wheeler, W. M. (1927). "The physiognomy of insects" (PDF). Quarterly Review of Biology. 2 (1): 1–36. doi:10.1086/394264.
  211. ^ Fernández, F. (2004). "Adelomyrmecini new tribe and Cryptomyrmex new genus of myrmicine ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)" (PDF). Sociobiology. 44 (2): 325–335.
  212. ^ Sosa-Calvo, J.; Schultz, T. R.; Brandão, C. R. F.; Klingenberg, C.; Feitosa, R. M.; Rabeling, C.; Bacci, M., Jr.; Lopes, C. T.; Vasconcelos, H. L. (2013). "Cyatta abscondita: Taxonomy, evolution, and natural history of a new fungus-farming ant genus from Brazil" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 8: e80498. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...880498S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080498. PMC 3829880. PMID 24260403.
  213. ^ Weber, N. A. (1952). "Studies on African Myrmicinae, I (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 1548: 1–32. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25030.
  214. ^ Rigato, F. (1994). "Dacatria templaris gen. n., sp. n. A new myrmicine ant from the Republic of Korea" (PDF). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 41: 155–162. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25683.
  215. ^ Brown, W. L., Jr.; Wilson, E. O. (1957). "Dacetinops, a new ant genus from New Guinea" (PDF). Breviora. 77: 1–7. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27020.
  216. ^ Perty, J.A.M. (1833). Delectus animalium articulatorum, quae in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae regis augustissimi peracto, collegerunt Dr. J. B. Spix et Dr. C. F. Ph. de Martius. Fasc. 3. Monachii [= Munich]: published by the author. p. 136.
  217. ^ Fernández, F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Nascimento, I. C. do (2009). "Diaphoromyrma, a new myrmicine ant genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from northeastern Brazil" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2204: 55–62.
  218. ^ Emery, C. (1908). "Descriptions d'une genre nouveau et de plusieurs formes nouvelles de fourmis du Congo" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 52: 184–189. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25509.
  219. ^ Santschi, F. (1910). "Deux nouvelles fourmis du Tonkin". Le Naturaliste. 32 (2): 283–284. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14521.
  220. ^ a b Mayr, G. (1901). "Südafrikanische Formiciden, gesammelt von Dr. Hans Brauns" (PDF). Annalen des Kaiserlich-Königlichen Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. 16: 1–30. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25873.
  221. ^ Cover, S. P.; Deyrup, M. (2007). "A new ant genus from the southwestern United States" (PDF). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. 80: 89–99.
  222. ^ Wheeler, W. M. (1910). Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. xxv + 663 pp.
  223. ^ Dlussky, G.; Radchenko, A. (2006). "A new ant genus from the late Eocene European amber" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 51 (3): 561–567.
  224. ^ Hong, Y.-C.; Yang, T.-C.; Wang, S.-T; Wang, S.-E.; Li, Y.-K; Sun, M.-R.; Sun, H.-C.; Tu., N.-C. (1974). "[Stratigraphy and palaeontology of Fushun coal-field, Liaoning Province.]". Acta Geologica Sinica. 1974 (2): 113–149. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26203.
  225. ^ Bolton, B. (1987). "A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology. 54: 263–452. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26850.
  226. ^ Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kempf, W. W. (1961). "The type species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix" (PDF). Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 67: 44. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27016.
  227. ^ Emery, C. (1899). "Formiche di Madagascar raccolte dal Sig. A. Mocquerys nei pressi della Baia di Antongil (1897-1898)" (PDF). Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana. 31: 263–290. doi:10.5281/zenodo.9785.
  228. ^ Dlussky, G. M.; Radchenko, A. (2006). "Fallomyrma gen. nov., a new myrmicine ant genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Late Eocene European amber" (PDF). Annales Zoologici. 56 (1): 153–157.
  229. ^ a b c d Mayr, G. (1855). "Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien. 5: 273–478. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25911.
  230. ^ Terayama, M. (2009). "A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera)" (PDF). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts. 17: 81–266.
  231. ^ Xu, Z.-H. (2012). "Gaoligongidris planodorsa, a new genus and species of the ant subfamily Myrmicinae from China with a key to the genera of Stenammini of the world (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Sociobiology. 59 (2): 331–342.
  232. ^ Menozzi, C. (1933). "Description préliminaire d'une espèce nouvelle de fourmi constituant un genre nouveau" (PDF). Natuurhistorisch Maandblad. 22: 146–147. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25782.
  233. ^ Emery, C. (1895). "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der nordamerikanischen Ameisenfauna. (Schluss)" (PDF). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere. 8: 257–360. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25455.
  234. ^ Forel, A. (1893). "Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 37: 161–167. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14460.
  235. ^ a b Forel, A.H. (1890). "Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 34: 102–114. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25571.
  236. ^ Forel, A. (1912). "Formicides néotropiques. Part IV. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae Lep. (suite)" (PDF). Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 20: 1–32. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14524.
  237. ^ Emery, C. (1891). "Le formiche dell'ambra Siciliana nel Museo Mineralogico dell'Università di Bologna" (PDF). Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna. 1 (5): 141–165. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25430.
  238. ^ a b Wilson, E. O. (1985). "Ants of the Dominican amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 1. Two new myrmicine genera and an aberrant Pheidole" (PDF). Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 92: 1–9. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25312.
  239. ^ Brown, W. L., Jr. (1986). "Indomyrma dasypyx, new genus and species, a myrmicine ant from peninsular India (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Israel Journal of Entomology. 19: 37–49.
  240. ^ Bolton, B. (1984). "Diagnosis and relationships of the myrmicine ant genus Ishakidris gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Systematic Entomology. 9 (4): 373–382. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1984.tb00516.x.
  241. ^ Klingenberg, C.; Brandão, C. R. F. (2009). "Revision of the fungus-growing ant genera Mycetophylax Emery and Paramycetophylax Kusnezov rev. stat., and description of Kalathomyrmex n. gen. (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2052: 1–31. doi:10.15468/5dydsz.
  242. ^ a b c d Bolton, B. (1991). "New myrmicine genera from the Oriental Region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Systematic Entomology. 16 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1991.tb00571.x.
  243. ^ Fernández, F.; Feitosa, R. M.; Lattke, J. (2014). "Kempfidris, a new genus of myrmicine ants from the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). European Journal of Taxonomy. 85: 1–10. doi:10.5852/ejt.2014.85.
  244. ^ Terayama, M.; Yamane, S. (2000). "Lasiomyrma, a new stenammine ant genus from southeast Asia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Entomological Science. 3 (3): 523–527.
  245. ^ Fernández, F.; Palacio, E. E. (1999). "Lenomyrmex, an enigmatic new ant genus from the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae)". Systematic Entomology. 24 (1): 7–16. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3113.1999.00063.x.
  246. ^ Mayr, G. (1867). "Vorläufige Studien über die Radoboj-Formiciden, in der Sammlung der k. k. geologischen Reichsanstalt" (PDF). Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt. Wien. 17: 47–62. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25850.
  247. ^ Emery, C. (1892). "Sopra alcune formiche raccolte dall'Ingegnere L. Bricchetti Robecchi nel paese dei Somali" (PDF). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale. 2. 12 (32): 110–122. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25431.
  248. ^ a b c d Bolton, B.; Fisher, B. L. (2014). "The Madagascan endemic myrmicine ants related to Eutetramorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): taxonomy of the genera Eutetramorium Emery, Malagidris nom. n., Myrmisaraka gen. n., Royidris gen. n., and Vitsika gen. n." (PDF). Zootaxa. 3791 (1): 1–99. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3791.1.1. PMID 24869996.
  249. ^ a b Forel, A. (1885). "Études myrmécologiques en 1884 avec une description des organes sensoriels des antennes" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 20: 316–380. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25568.
  250. ^ Emery, C. (1877). "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte prima. Formiche provenienti dal Viaggio dei signori Antinori, Beccari e Issel nel Mar Rosso e nel paese dei Bogos. [concl.]" (PDF). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova). 9: 369–381. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25409.
  251. ^ Brown, W. L., Jr. (1948). "A preliminary generic revision of the higher Dacetini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 74: 101–129. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24827.
  252. ^ Forel, A. (1890). "Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 34: 61–76. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14252.
  253. ^ Forel, A. (1911). "Sur le genre Metapone n. g. nouveau groupe des Formicides et sur quelques autres formes nouvelles" (PDF). Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 19: 445–459. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.29919.
  254. ^ Santschi, F. (1913). "Genre nouveau et espèce nouvelle de Formicides (Hym.)" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 1913: 478. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14358.
  255. ^ Brandão, C. R. F.; Mayhé-Nunes, A. J. (2001). "A new fungus-growing ant genus, Mycetoagroicus gen. n., with the description of three new species and comments on the monophyly of the Attini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Sociobiology. 38 (3B): 639–665.
  256. ^ Wheeler, W. M. (1907). "The fungus-growing ants of North America" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 23: 669–807.
  257. ^ a b Forel, A. (1893). "Note sur les Attini" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 37: 586–607. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25576.
  258. ^ Curtis, J. (1829). British entomology; being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 6:242–288. London: Printed by the author. p. 265.
  259. ^ a b c d e f Dlussky, G.M.; Rasnitsyn, A.P. (2003). "Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 11: 411–436.
  260. ^ Saunders, W. W. (1842). "Descriptions of two hymenopterous insects from northern India" (PDF). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 3: 57–58. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25380.
  261. ^ a b Smith, F. (1860). "Descriptions of new genera and species of exotic Hymenoptera" (PDF). Journal of Entomology. 1: 65–84. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24632.
  262. ^ Emery, C. (1915). "Definizione del genere Aphaenogaster e partizione di esso in sottogeneri. Parapheidole e Novomessor nn. gg" (PDF). Rendiconto delle Sessioni della R. Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna. 19: 67–75. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.11435.
  263. ^ Forel, A. (1912). "Formicides néotropiques. Part II. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae Lep. (Attini, Dacetii, Cryptocerini)" (PDF). Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 19: 179–209. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14163.
  264. ^ Emery, C. (1886). "Alcune formiche africane" (PDF). Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana. 18: 355–366. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25418.
  265. ^ Santschi, F. (1926). "Deux nouvelles fourmis parasites de l'Argentine" (PDF). Folia Myrmecologica et Termitologica. 1: 6–8. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14220.
  266. ^ André, E. (1881). "Catalogue raisonné des Formicides provenant du voyage en Orient de M. Abeille de Perrin et description des espèces nouvelles" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 1 (6): 53–78. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27096.
  267. ^ Kusnezov, N. (1956). "Claves para la identificación de las hormigas de la fauna argentina" (PDF). Idia, Min. Agric. Ganad. Argent. 104–105: 1–56. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26128.
  268. ^ Wheeler, W. M. (1919). "The ants of Borneo" (PDF). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 63: 43–147. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25174.
  269. ^ Johnson, R.A.; Moreau, C.S. (2016). "A new ant genus from southern Argentina and southern Chile, Patagonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Zootaxa. 4139 (1): 1–31. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4139.1.1. PMID 27470783.
  270. ^ Smith, M. R. (1947). "A new genus and species of ant from Guatemala (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)" (PDF). Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 55: 281–284. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24687.
  271. ^ Viehmeyer, H. (1922). "Neue Ameisen" (PDF). Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 88 (7): 203–220. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24934.
  272. ^ Kempf, W. W. (1960). "Phalacromyrmex, a new ant genus from southern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Biologia. 20: 89–92. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26012.
  273. ^ a b c Westwood, J.O. (1839). Synopsis of the genera of British insects in: Westwood, J. O. 1840. An introduction to the modern classification of insects; founded on the natural habits and corresponding organisation of the different families. Volume 2. Part XV (PDF). London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans. pp. 83–219.
  274. ^ Brown, W. L., Jr. (1978). "An aberrant new genus of myrmicine ant from Madagascar" (PDF). Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 84 (3–4): 218–224. doi:10.1155/1977/41590.
  275. ^ a b Dlussky, G. M.; Radchenko, A. G. (2009). "Two new primitive ant genera from the late Eocene European ambers" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54 (3): 435–441. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0092.
  276. ^ Smith, F. (1859). "Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at the islands of Aru and Key. [part]" (PDF). Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology. 3 (12): 132–178. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1859.tb00078a.x.
  277. ^ Mann, W. M. (1921). "The ants of the Fiji Islands" (PDF). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 64: 401–499. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25892.
  278. ^ a b Forel, A.H. (1912). "Descriptions provisoires de genres, sous-genres, et espèces de Formicides des Indes orientales" (PDF). Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 20: 761–774. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14416.
  279. ^ Branstetter, M. G. (2009). "The ant genus Stenamma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) redefined, with a description of a new genus Propodilobus" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2221: 41–57.
  280. ^ Brown, W. L., Jr. (1980). "Protalaridris genus nov". Pilot Register of Zoology. Card: 1–2.
  281. ^ Gallardo, A. (1916). "Notes systématiques et éthologiques sur les fourmis attines de la République Argentine" (PDF). Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires. 28: 317–344. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26240.
  282. ^ Bolton, B. (1992). "A review of the ant genus Recurvidris (Hym.: Formicidae), a new name for Trigonogaster Forel" (PDF). Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 99 (1): 35–48. doi:10.1155/1992/58186.
  283. ^ Forel, A. (1900). "Un nouveau genre et une nouvelle espèce de Myrmicide" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 44: 24–26. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25582.
  284. ^ a b Mayr, G. (1870). "Formicidae novogranadenses" (PDF). Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. Abteilung I. 61: 370–417. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25854.
  285. ^ Emery, C. (1894). "Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. VI-XVI" (PDF). Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana. 26: 137–241. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25446.
  286. ^ Rosciszewski, K. (1994). "Rostromyrmex, a new genus of myrmicine ants from peninsular Malaysia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Entomologica Scandinavica. 25 (2): 159–168. doi:10.1163/187631294X00289.
  287. ^ Bolton, B. (1988). "Secostruma, a new subterranean tetramoriine ant genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Systematic Entomology. 13 (3): 263–270. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1988.tb00243.x.
  288. ^ a b Emery, C. (1912). "Études sur les Myrmicinae. [I-IV.]" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 56: 94–105. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25522.
  289. ^ Emery, C. (1901). "Ameisen gesammelt in Ceylon von Dr. W. Horn 1899" (PDF). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 1901: 113–122. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25493.
  290. ^ Mayr, G. (1853). "Ueber die Abtheilung der Myrmiciden, und eine neue Gattung derselben" (PDF). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien. 3: 387–394. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25910.
  291. ^ Schenck, A. (1853). "Die Nassauischen Ameisen-Species (Fortsetzung)" (PDF). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung. 14: 185–198. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24599.
  292. ^ Santschi, F. (1915). "Nouvelles fourmis d'Afrique" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 84: 244–282. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14212.
  293. ^ Silva, R. R.; Feitosa, R. M.; Brandão, C. R. F.; Diniz, J. L. M. (2009). "Tropidomyrmex elianae, a new myrmicine ant genus and species from Brazil, tentatively assigned to Solenopsidini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2052: 32–48.
  294. ^ Fernández, F. (2003). "A new myrmicine ant genus from Malaysia with uncertain affinities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 341: 1–6.
  295. ^ Forel, A.H. (1917). "Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 51: 229–253. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25600.
  296. ^ Forel, A.H. (1893). "Formicides de l'Antille St. Vincent, récoltées par Mons. H. H. Smith" (PDF). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 1893: 333–418. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14444.
  297. ^ Baroni Urbani, C. (1994). "The identity of the Dominican Paraponera. (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae. V: Ponerinae, partim.)" (PDF). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. 197: 1–9. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26804.
  298. ^ Capinera, J.L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology (2nd ed.). Dordrecht: Springer. p. 615. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
  299. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Paraponerinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  300. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Ponerinae". AntCat. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  301. ^ a b c d e f g Schmidt, C. A.; Shattuck, S. O. (2014). "The Higher Classification of the Ant Subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a Review of Ponerine Ecology and Behavior". Zootaxa. 3817 (1): 1–242. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1. PMID 24943802.
  302. ^ Fisher, B.L. (2006). "Boloponera vicans gen.n. and sp.n. and two new species of the Plectroctena genus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Myrmecologische Nachrichten. 8: 111–118.
  303. ^ a b Emery, C. (1900). "Formicidarum species novae vel minus cognitae in collectione Musaei Nationalis Hungarici quas in Nova-Guinea, colonia germanica, collegit L. Biró. Publicatio secunda" (PDF). Természetrajzi Füzetek. 23: 310–338. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25487.
  304. ^ Brown, W.L. Jr (1974). "Dolioponera genus nov". Pilot Register of Zoology. 31: 1. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26998.
  305. ^ Mayr, G. (1867). "Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum" (PDF). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie. 2. 2 (10): 33–117. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25848.
  306. ^ Bolton, B.; Fisher, B.L. (2008), "Afrotropical ants of the ponerine genera Centromyrmex Mayr, Promyopias Santschi gen. rev. and Feroponera gen. n., with a revised key to genera of African Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF), Zootaxa, 1929: 1–37, doi:10.15468/stadaf
  307. ^ Forel, A.H. (1901). "Nouvelles espèces de Ponerinae. (Avec un nouveau sous-genre et une espèce nouvelle d'Eciton)" (PDF). Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 9: 325–353. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14463.
  308. ^ Jerdon, T.C. (1851). "A catalogue of the species of ants found in Southern India" (PDF). Madras Journal of Literature and Science. 17: 103–127. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26186.
  309. ^ Santschi, F. (1938). "Notes sur quelques Ponera Latr" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 43: 78–80. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.14525.
  310. ^ Bolton, B.; Brown, W.L. (2002). "Loboponera gen. n. and a review of the Afrotropical Plectroctena genus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, Entomology Series. 71 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1017/S0968045402000019. ISSN 0968-0454.
  311. ^ Emery, C. (1900). "Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. Dummy reference". Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale. 40 (2): 661–722. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25488.
  312. ^ a b Emery, C. (1901). "Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides)" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 45: 32–54. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25489.
  313. ^ André, E. (1890). "Matériaux pour servir à la faune myrmécologique de Sierra-Leone (Afrique occidentale)" (PDF). Revue d'Entomologie (Caen). 9: 311–327. doi: