List of animals by number of neurons

The following are two lists of animals ordered by the size of their nervous system. The first list shows number of neurons in their entire nervous system, indicating their overall neural complexity. The second list shows the number of neurons in the structure that has been found to be representative of animal intelligence.[1] The human brain contains 86 billion neurons, with 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex.[2][1]

Brief comparisons of number of whole brain neurons (top) and cerebral cortex neurons (bottom) among six mammals.

OverviewEdit

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether.

Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects.

The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior.

Whole nervous systemEdit

All numbers for neurons (except Caenorhabditis and Ciona), and all numbers for synapses (except Ciona) are estimations.

Name Neurons in the brain & whole nervous system Synapses Details Image Source
Sponge 0 [3]
Trichoplax 0 Despite no nervous system, it exhibits coordinated feeding and response behaviors.[4] [5]
Asplanchna brightwellii (rotifer) ~200 Brain only [6]
Tardigrade ~200 Brain only [7]
Ciona intestinalis larva (sea squirt) 231 8,617 (central nervous system only) [8]

[9]

Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) 302 ~7,500 is the only organism to have its whole connectome (neuronal "wiring diagram") completed.[10][11][12] [13]
Starfish ~500 ring of neurons surrounding the mouth *requires references
Jellyfish 5,600 Hydra vulgaris (H. attenuate) [14]
Megaphragma mymaripenne 7,400 [15]
Box jellyfish 8,70017,500 adult Tripedalia cystophora (8 mm diameter) – does not include 1000 neurons in each of the four rhopalia [16]
Medicinal leech 10,000 [17]
Pond snail 11,000 [18]
Sea slug 18,000 [19]
Amphioxus 20,000 central nervous system only [20]

[21]

Larval zebrafish 100,000 [22]
Lobster 100,000 [23]
Fruit fly 100,000 [24]
Wandering spider 100,000 [25]
Calliopsis (bee) 234,000 [26]
Ant 250,000 Varies per species [27]
Perdita (genus) 275,000 [26]
Melissodes 495,000 [26]
Bombus impatiens 557,000 [26]
Western honey bee 613,000 [26]
Honey bee 960,000 ~1×10^9 [28]
Cockroach 1,000,000 [29]
Coconut crab >1,000,000 c. 1,000,000 interneurons are dedicated to analysing olfactory input alone. [30]
California carpenter bee 1,180,000 [26]
Steudner's dwarf gecko 1,771,000 [31]
Brown anole 2,792,000 [31]
Mochlus sundevallii 3,049,000 [31]
Peloponnese slowworm 3,713,000 [31]
Common house gecko 3,988,000 [31]
Takydromus sexlineatus 4,021,000 [31]
Anolis cristatellus 4,270,000 [32]
Papua snake lizard 4,271,000 [31]
Guppy 4,300,000 [33]
Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon 4,305,000 [31]
Acontias percivali 4,340,000 [31]
Sand lizard 4,341,000 [31]
Ocelot gecko 4,420,000 [34]
Darevskia raddei 4,765,000 [31]
Anolis evermanni 4,920,000 [32]
Echis carinatus 4,951,000 [31]
Cerastes cerastes 4,996,000 [31]
Tenerife gecko 5,001,000 [31]
Draco sumatranus 5,174,000 [31]
Blue-throated keeled lizard 5,269,000 [31]
Crested gecko 5,417,000 [31]
Lacerta strigata 5,529,000 [31]
San Francisco garter snake 5,663,000 [31]
Red-eyed crocodile skink 5,697,000 [31]
Emoia cyanura 5,733,000 [31]
East African spiny-tailed lizard 5,756,000 [31]
Chalcides ocellatus 5,774,000 [31]
Cylindrophis ruffus 5,779,000 [31]
Cat gecko 5,964,000 [31]
Aspidoscelis deppii 5,968,000 [31]
Brown water snake 5,995,000 [31]
Aspidelaps lubricus 6,020,000 [31]
Scincus scincus 6,284,000 [31]
Montivipera xanthina 6,677,000 [31]
Hispaniolan curlytail lizard 7,063,000 [31]
Sceloporus malachiticus 7,149,000 [31]
Crotalus durissus 7,263,000 [31]
Agama agama 7,455,000 [31]
Agama aculeata 7,631,000 [31]
Gekko kuhli 7,659,000 [31]
Leopard gecko 8,081,000 [31]
Latastia longicaudata 8,099,000 [31]
Razor-backed musk turtle 8,389,000 [31]
Greek tortoise 8,520,000 [31]
Phelsuma grandis 8,623,000 [31]
Acanthocercus atricollis 8,650,000 [31]
Tokay gecko 8,892,000 [31]
Russian tortoise 9,008,000 [31]
Marginated tortoise 9,074,000 [31]
Psammophis elegans 9,170,000 [31]
Xenopeltis unicolor 9,293,000 [31]
Zonosaurus Karsteni 9,538,000 [31]
Oplurus quadrimaculatus 9,565,000 [31]
Malagasy giant chameleon 9,751,000 [31]
Ahaetulla prasina 9,767,000 [31]
Dasia olivacea 9,785,000 [31]
Adult zebrafish ~10,000,000 cells (neurons + other) [35]
Timon tangitanus 10,619,000 [31]
Corn snake 10,629,000 [31]
Acanthosaura capra 10,724,000 [31]
Gallotia galloti 10,903,000 [31]
Eutropis multifasciata 10,944,000 [31]
Rainbow boa 11,083,000 [31]
East African black mud turtle 11,285,000 [31]
Indochinese spitting cobra 11,306,000 [31]
Cyrtodactylus irianjayaensis 11,415,000 [31]
Uromastyx ornata 11,438,000 [31]
Yellow-throated plated lizard 11,847,000 [31]
Meller's chameleon 12,035,000 [31]
Twist-necked turtle 12,171,000 [31]
Western whiptail 12,269,000 [31]
Gehyra vorax 12,388,000 [31]
White-lipped mud turtle 12,671,000 [31]
Painted wood turtle 12,677,000 [31]
Sheltopusik 12,830,000 [31]
Standing's day gecko 13,223,000 [31]
Common snapping turtle 13,681,000 [31]
Painted turtle 14,302,000 [31]
Ocellated lizard 14,593,000 [31]
Oplurus cuvieri 14,627,000 [31]
African spurred tortoise 14,986,000 [31]
Boa imperator 15,194,000 [31]
Red-eared slider 15,388,000 [31]
Plumed basilisk 15,536,000 [31]
Red-bellied short-necked turtle 15,787,000 [31]
Frog 16,000,000 [36]
Corallus hortulana 16,303,000 [31]
Blue-tongued skink 16,376,000 [31]
Gran Canaria giant lizard 18,038,000 [31]
Chinese water dragon 18,301,000 [31]
Chlamydosaurus 18,641,000 [31]
Northern snake-necked turtle 19,040,000 [31]
Spiny-tailed monitor 19,771,000 [31]
Boa constrictor 19,781,000 [31]
Ameiva ameiva 19,835,000 [31]
Chinese softshell turtle 20,697,000 [31]
Amboina box turtle 21,440,000 [31]
Alligator snapping turtle 22,230,000 [31]
Yellow anaconda 23,035,000 [31]
Mexican beaded lizard 23,681,000 [31]
Major skink 24,155,000 [31]
Sudan plated lizard 24,434,000 [31]
Mata mata 26,105,000 [31]
Naked mole-rat 26,880,000 [37]
Weber's sailfin lizard 27,245,000 [31]
Green iguana 29,098,000 [31]
Argentine black and white tegu 29,251,000 [31]
Cyclura nubila 30,820,000 [31]
Gold tegu 31,335,000 [31]
Varanus macraei 33,091,000 [31]
Little free-tailed bat 35,000,000 [38]
Smoky shrew 36,000,000 [39]
Sand goanna 50,253,000 [31]
Short-tailed shrew 52,000,000 [39]
Pig-nosed turtle 53,027,000 [31]
Common bent-wing bat 56,000,000 [38]
African sheath-tailed bat 59,000,000 [38]
Hottentot golden mole 65,000,000 [40]
Woermann's bat 66,000,000 [38]
Zenker's fruit bat 66,000,000 [38]
Commerson's roundleaf bat 67,000,000 [38]
Rufous trident bat 70,000,000 [38]
House mouse 71,000,000 ~1×10^12 [41]
Asian water monitor 78,231,000 [31]
King quail 80,478,000 [31]
Nile crocodile 80,500,000 [42]
Heart-nosed bat 81,000,000 [38]
Diamond dove 87,879,000 [31]
Golden hamster 90,000,000 [41]
Short-palated fruit bat 99,000,000 [38]
Ansell's mole-rat 103,000,000 [43]
Mashona mole-rat 113,000,000 [43]
Common quail 117,760,000 [31]
Hairy-tailed mole 124,000,000 [40]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 129,000,000 [40]
Star-nosed mole 131,000,000 [39]
Zebra finch 131,000,000 Brain only [44]
African collared dove 139,271,000 [31]
Silvery mole-rat 148,000,000 [43]
Northern bobwhite 148,399,000 [31]
Four-toed elephant shrew 157,000,000 [40]
Eurasian blackcap 157,000,000 [44]
Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat 162,000,000 [38]
Goldcrest 164,000,000 [44]
Cape mole-rat 170,000,000 [43]
Grey partridge 170,287,000 [31]
Egyptian fruit bat 172,000,000 [38]
Mechow's mole-rat 174,000,000 [43]
Damaraland mole-rat 178,000,000 [43]
Franquet's epauletted fruit bat 186,000,000 [38]
Brown rat 200,000,000 ~4.48×10^11 [45]
Guyenne spiny rat 202,000,000 [40]
Eastern mole 204,000,000 [39]
Elegant crested tinamou 217,768,000 [31]
Red junglefowl 221,000,000 [44]
Great tit 226,000,000 [44]
Green-rumped parrotlet 227,000,000 [44]
Quebracho crested tinamou 235,671,000 [31]
Guinea pig 240,000,000 [41]
Chilean tinamou 241,374,000 [31]
Gray mouse lemur 254,710,000 [46]
Common wood pigeon 258,681,000 [31]
Common treeshrew 261,000,000 [47]
Hammer-headed bat 275,000,000 [38]
Wood duck 305,816,000 [31]
Pigeon 310,000,000 Brain only [44]
Budgerigar 322,000,000 [44]
Pygmy falcon 350,367,000 [31]
Cape dune mole-rat 361,000,000 [43]
Mallard 367,000,000 [31]
Eurasian teal 375,409,000 [31]
Common blackbird 379,000,000 [44]
Marbled duck 386,920,000 [31]
Reeves's pheasant 387,173,000 [31]
Eurasian sparrowhawk 401,751,000 [31]
Ferret 404,000,000 [48]
Cockatiel 453,000,000 [44]
Gray squirrel 453,660,000 [37]
Banded mongoose 454,000,000 [48]
Prairie dog 473,940,000 [37]
Red-breasted goose 482,705,000 [31]
Common starling 483,000,000 [44]
Wild turkey 492,873,000 [31]
European rabbit 494,200,000 [37]
Octopus 500,000,000 [49]
Western tree hyrax 505,000,000 [40]
Eurasian pygmy owl 533,263,000 [31]
Indian peafowl 570,934,000 [31]
Victoria crowned pigeon 578,697,000 [31]
Little owl 585,923,000 [31]
Common kestrel 624,582,000 [31]
Common marmoset 636,000,000 [47]
Eastern rosella 642,000,000 [44]
Yellow-knobbed curassow 652,989,000 [31]
Barn owl 690,000,000 [44]
Monk parakeet 697,000,000 [44]
Greylag goose 738,232,000 [31]
Azure-winged magpie 741,000,000 [44]
Rock hyrax 756,000,000 [40]
Cat 760,000,000 ~1×10^13 [50]
Black-rumped agouti 857,000,000 [41]
Magpie 897,000,000 [44]
Common hill myna 906,000,000 [44]
Northern greater galago 936,000,000 [47]
Western jackdaw 968,000,000 [44]
Long-eared owl 991,310,000 [31]
Mute swan 1.001×10^9 [31]
Common buzzard 1.001×10^9 [31]
Black vulture 1.009×10^9 [31]
Greater rhea 1.03×10^9 [31]
Eurasian jay 1.085×10^9 [44]
Alexandrine parakeet 1.096×10^9 [44]
Raccoon dog 1.16×10^9 [51]
Tanimbar corella 1.161×10^9 [44]
Saker falcon 1.204×10^9 [31]
Emu 1.335×10^9 [44]
Three-striped night monkey 1.468×10^9 [47]
Rook 1.509×10^9 [44]
Grey parrot 1.566×10^9 [44]
Tawny owl 1.58×10^9 [31]
Capybara 1.6×10^9 [41]
Common ostrich 1.62×10^9 [31]
White-tailed eagle 1.65×10^9 [31]
Jackal 1.73×10^9 [51]
Snowy owl 1.807×10^9 [31]
Eurasian eagle-owl 1.897×10^9 [31]
Fox 2.11×10^9 [51]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 2.122×10^9 [44]
Raccoon 2.148×10^9 [48]
Kea 2.149×10^9 [44]
Raven 2.171×10^9 Brain only [44]
Domestic pig 2.22×10^9 [52]
Dog 2.253×10^9 [48]
Chihuahua (dog) 2.51×10^9 [51]
Dog (Chow Chow) 2.61×10^9 [51]
Dog (Yorkshire Terrier) 2.64×10^9 [51]
Springbok 2.72×10^9 [52]
Dog (West Highland White Terrier) 2.83×10^9 [51]
Blesbok 3.06×10^9 [52]
Blue-and-yellow macaw 3.136×10^9 Brain only [44]
Common squirrel monkey 3.246×10^9 [47]
Crab-eating macaque 3.44×10^9 [46]
Dog (German Shepherd) 3.53×10^9 [51]
Tufted capuchin 3.691×10^9 [47]
Bonnet macaque 3.78×10^9 [46]
Striped hyena 3.885×10^9 [48]
Dog (Komondor) 3.99×10^9 [51]
Dog (Transylvanian Hound) 4.39×10^9 [51]
Lion 4.667×10^9 [48]
Greater kudu 4.91×10^9 [52]
Rhesus macaque 6.376×10^9 [47]
Brown bear 9.586×10^9 [48]
Giraffe 1.075×10^10 [52]
Yellow baboon 1.095×10^10 [46]
Chimpanzee 2.8×10^10 [53]
Orangutan 3.26×10^10 [54]
Gorilla 3.34×10^10 [54]
Human 8.6×10^10 ~1.5×10^14 Neurons for average adult [55][56][57]
African elephant 2.57×10^11 [58][59]

List of animal species by forebrain (cerebrum or pallium) neuron numberEdit

The question of what physical characteristic of an animal makes an animal intelligent has varied over the centuries. One early speculation was brain size (or weight, which provides the same ordering.) A second proposal was brain-to-body-mass ratio, and a third was encephalization quotient, sometimes referred to as EQ. The current best predictor is number of neurons in the forebrain, based on Herculano-Houzel's improved neuron counts.[1] It accounts most accurately for variations in dependence on the cerebellum. The elephant depends on its exceptionally large cerebellum, while birds make do with a much smaller one.

Differing methods have been used to count neurons and these may differ in degree of reliability. These are the optical fractionator, an application of stereology and the isotropic fractionator, a recent methodological innovation. Most numbers in the list are the result of studies using the newer isotropic fractionator.[1][37][26][41][42][44][45][46][47][52][53][54][55][56][58][60] A variation of the optical fractionator was responsible for the previous total human brain neuron count of 100,000,000,000 neurons, which has been revised down to 86,000,000,000 by the use of the isotropic fractionator. This is in part why it may be considered to be less reliable. Finally, some numbers are the result of estimations based on correlations observed between number of cortical neurons and brain mass within closely related taxa.

The following table gives information on the number of neurons estimated to be in the sensory-associative structure: the cerebral cortex (aka pallium) for mammals, the dorsal ventricular ridge ("DVR" or "hypopallium") of the pallium for birds, and the corpora pedunculata ("mushroom bodies") for insects.

Common name Average number of sensory-associative structure neurons[a] Intraspecific variation[b] Method[c] Sensory-associative structure Binomial nomenclature Image Source
Common fruit fly 2,500* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Drosophila melanogaster [61]
House cricket 50,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Acheta domesticus [61]
Honey bee 170,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Apis [61]
Common cockroach 200,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Periplaneta [61]
African sheath-tailed bat 5,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Coleura afra [38]
Rufous trident bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Triaenops persicus [38]
Naked mole-rat 6,000,000 ± 1,065,587[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heterocephalus glaber [37]
Little free-tailed bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Chaerephon pumilus [38]
Common bent-wing bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Miniopterus schreibersii [38]
Commerson's roundleaf bat 8,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hipposideros commersoni [38]
Heart-nosed bat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Cardioderma cor [38]
Ansell's mole-rat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys anselli [43]
Smoky shrew 10,000,000 ± 352,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sorex fumeus [40]
Short-palated fruit bat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Casinycteris argynnis [38]
Mashona mole-rat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys darlingi [43]
Woermann's bat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Megaloglossus woermanni [38]
Northern short-tailed shrew 12,000,000 ± 1,569,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Blarina brevicauda [40]
Zenker's fruit bat 13,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Scotonycteris zenkeri [38]
House mouse 14,000,000 ± 2,242,257[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mus musculus [40]
Hairy-tailed mole 16,000,000 ± 2,611,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Parascalops breweri [40]
Star-nosed mole 17,000,000 ± 3,105,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Condylura cristata [40]
Golden hamster 17,000,000 ± 3,619,934[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mesocricetus auratus [40]
Diamond dove 18,209,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Geopelia cuneata [31]
King quail 20,523,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Synoicus chinensis [31]
Damaraland mole-rat 21,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys damarensis [43]
Hottentot golden mole 22,000,000 ± 2,154,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Amblysomus hottentotus [40]
Gray mouse lemur 22,310,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Microcebus murinus [46]
Common quail 22,568,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coturnix coturnix [31]
Mechow's mole-rat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys mechowii [43]
Franquet's epauletted fruit bat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Epomops franqueti [38]
Hammer-headed bat 24,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hypsignathus mostrosus [38]
Hedgehog 24,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Subfamily Erinaceinae, various species [62]
Silvery mole-rat 25,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heliophobius argenteocinereus [43]
Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Epomophorus wahlbergi [38]
Cape mole-rat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Georychus capensis [43]
Guyenne spiny rat 26,000,000 ± 2,155,723[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Proechimys cayennensis [40]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 26,000,000 ± 4,020,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Elephantulus myurus [40]
Eastern mole 27,000,000 ± 5,113,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Scalopus aquaticus [40]
Opossum 27,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Didelphis virginiana [62]
Egyptian fruit bat 29,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Rousettus aegyptiacus [38]
Brown Rat 31,000,000 + 3,034,654[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Rattus norvegicus [40]
Four-toed elephant shrew 34,000,000 ± 5,840,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Petrodromus tetradactylus [40]
Grey partridge 36,882,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Perdix perdix [31]
Ferret 38,950,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mustela putorius furo [48]
Northern bobwhite 39,112,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Colinus virginianus [31]
African collared dove 39,997,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Streptopelia roseogrisea [31]
Cape dune mole-rat 43,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Bathyergus suillus [43]
Guinea pig 43,510,000 ± 3,169,924[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Cavia porcellus [37]
Quebracho crested tinamou 48,292,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Eudromia formosa [31]
Common wood pigeon 51,325,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Columba palumbus [31]
Elegant crested tinamou 51,384,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Eudromia elegans [31]
Eurasian blackcap 52,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sylvia atricapilla [44]
Prairie dog 53,770,000 ± 6,044,322[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Genus:Cynomys [37]
Zebra finch 55,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Taeniopygia guttata [44]
Chilean tinamou 59,130,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nothoprocta perdicaria [31]
Common treeshrew 60,000,000 ± 26,510,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tupaia glis [40]
Red junglefowl 61,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gallus gallus [44]
Goldcrest 64,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Regulus regulus [44]
European rabbit 71,450,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Oryctolagus cuniculus [37]
Rock dove 72,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Columba livia [44]
Eastern gray squirrel 77,330,000 ± 2,634,444[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sciurius carolinensis [37]
Reeves's pheasant 80,688,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Syrmaticus reevesii [31]
Great tit 83,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Parus major [44]
Eurasian sparrowhawk 87,832,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Accipiter nisus [31]
Western tree hyrax 99,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dendrohyrax dorsalis [40]
Green-rumped parrotlet 103,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Forpus passerinus [44]
Wild turkey 105,654,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Meleagris gallopavo [31]
Mallard 112,255,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Anas platyrhynchos [31]
Black-rumped agouti 113,000,000 ± 2,576,768[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dasyprocta prymnolopha [1]
Banded mongoose 115,770,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mungos mungo [48]
Victoria crowned pigeon 118,445,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Goura victoria [31]
Yellow-knobbed curassow 124,624,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Crax daubentoni [31]
Indian peafowl 129,621,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Pavo cristatus [31]
Marbled duck 130,142,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Marmaronetta angustirostris [31]
Pygmy falcon 131,898,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Polihierax semitorquatus [31]
Common blackbird 136,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Turdus merula [44]
Wood duck 138,206,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Aix sponsa [31]
Red-breasted goose 148,617,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Branta ruficollis [31]
Budgerigar 149,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Melopsittacus undulatus [44]
Eurasian teal 167,287,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Anas crecca [31]
Rock hyrax 198,000,000 ± 29,082,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procavia capensis [40]
Northern greater galago 226,000,000 ± 87,570,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Otolemur garnettii [40]
Common starling 226,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sturnus vulgaris [44]
Common kestrel 237,903,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Falco tinnunculus [31]
Raccoon dog 240,180,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Nyctereutes procyonoides [51]
Common marmoset 245,000,000 ± 81,180,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callithrix jacchus [40]
House cat 249,830,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Felis catus [48]
Brown bear 250,970,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ursus arctos [48]
Cockatiel 258,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nymphicus hollandicus [44]
Greylag goose 258,650,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Anser anser [31]
Capybara 306,500,000 ± 62,726,120[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris [37]
Tarsius 310,000,000 Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Tarsius, unknown species [63]
Mute swan 323,661,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cygnus olor [31]
Greater rhea 330,342,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Rhea americana [31]
Eastern rosella 333,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Platycercus eximius [44]
Common buzzard 351,700,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Buteo buteo [31]
Red fox 355,010,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Vulpes vulpes [51]
Goeldi's marmoset 357,130,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callimico goeldii [46]
Eurasian pygmy owl 364,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Glaucidium passerinum [31]
Western grey kangaroo 370,170,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macropus fuliginosus [64]
Golden jackal 393,620,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis aureus [51]
Monk parakeet 396,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Myiopsitta monachus [44]
Springbok 396,900,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Antidorcas marsupialis [52]
Black vulture 398,899,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coragyps atratus [31]
Azure-winged magpie 400,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cyanopica cyanus [44]
Little owl 400,822,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Athene noctua [31]
Common hill myna 410,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gracula religiosa [44]
Domesticated pig 425,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sus scrofa domesticus [65]
Barn owl 437,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Tyto alba [44]
Emu 439,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Dromaius novaehollandiae [44]
West Highland White Terrier 440,160,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
Three-striped night monkey 442,000,000 ± 111,310,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Aotus trivirgatus [1]
Saker falcon 442,946,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Falco cherrug [31]
Eurasian magpie 443,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Pica pica [44]
Raccoon 453,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procyon lotor [60]
Chow Chow 471,500,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
Common ostrich 479,410,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Struthio camelus [31]
Western jackdaw 492,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coloeus monedula [44]
Striped hyena 495,280,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hyaena hyaena [48]
Chihuahua 513,330,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
Eurasian jay 529,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Garrulus glandarius [44]
White-tailed eagle 542,926,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Haliaeetus albicilla [31]
Lion 545,240,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Panthera leo [48]
Blesbok 570,670,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi [52]
Yorkshire Terrier 572,140,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
Alexandrine parakeet 575,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacula eupatria [44]
Tanimbar corella 599,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua goffiniana [44]
Golden retriever 627,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [48]
Gracile capuchin monkey 650,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cebus [66]
Long-eared owl 673,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Asio otus [31]
Transylvanian Hound 725,760,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
Greater kudu 762,570,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tragelaphus strepsiceros [52]
Crab-eating macaque 800,960,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca fascicularis [46]
Rook 820,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus frugilegus [44]
Beagle 844,410,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
Grey parrot 850,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacus erithacus [44]
Komondor 883,380,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
German Shepherd 885,460,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [51]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 1,135,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua galerita [44]
Tufted capuchin 1,140,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sapajus apella [40][1]
Tawny owl 1,153,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Strix aluco [31]
Harp seal 1,168,000,000^

6,100,000,000*

Estimated

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Pagophilus groenlandicus [67][68]
Horse 1,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Equus ferus caballus [69]
Raven 1,204,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus corax [44]
Snowy owl 1,270,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Bubo scandiacus [31]
Kea 1,281,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nestor notabilis [44]
Eurasian eagle-owl 1,328,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Bubo bubo [31]
Common squirrel monkey 1,340,000,000 ± 20,000,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Saimiri sciureus [40]
Bonnet macaque 1,660,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca radiata [40]
Rhesus macaque 1,710,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca mulatta [40]
Giraffe 1,731,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Giraffa camelopardalis [52]
Blue and yellow macaw 1,900,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Ara ararauna [44]
Pygmy sperm whale 2,020,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Kogia breviceps [70]
Leopard seal 2,386,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Hydrurga leptonyx [67]
Guenon 2,500,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cercopithecus, unknown species [63]
Pigtail Macaque 2,531,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Macaca nemestrina [67]
Gelada baboon 2,568,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Theropithecus gelada [67]
Red-and-green macaw 2,646,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Ara chloropterus [67]
Harbor porpoise 2,750,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Phocoena phocoena [67][68]
Yellow baboon 2,880,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Papio cynocephalus [46]
Hyacinth macaw 2,944,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [67]
Hamadryas baboon 2,990,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Papio hamadryas [67]
Mandrill 3,102,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mandrillus sphinx [67]
Walrus 3,929,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Odobenus rosmarus [67]
Southern elephant seal 3,994,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mirounga leonina [67]
African elephant 5,600,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Loxodonta africana [58]
Short-beaked common dolphin 6,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Delphinus delphis [67][70]
Asian elephant 6,775,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Elephas maximus [67]
Pygmy chimpanzee or bonobo 7,250,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Pan paniscus [67]
Chimpanzee 7,400,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Pan troglodytes [71]
Orangutan 7,704,000,000^ - 8,900,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Pongo [67][54]
Western gorilla 9,100,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Gorilla gorilla [67][54]
Cuvier's beaked whale 9,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ziphius cavirostris [70]
Beluga whale 10,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Delphinapterus leucas [67]
Bottlenose dolphin 12,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tursiops truncatus [67][70]
Common minke whale 12,800,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera acutorostrata [72]
Fin whale 15,000,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera physalus [67][73]
Blue whale 15,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera musculus [67]
Human 16,340,000,000

21,000,000,000*

± 2,170,000,000[40] Isotropic fractionator

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Homo sapiens [40][55][1][74][75]
Risso's dolphin 18,750,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Grampus griseus [67]
Short-finned pilot whale 35,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Globicephala macrorhynchus [67]
Long-finned pilot whale 37,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Globicephala melas [76]
Killer whale 43,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Orcinus orca [67][70]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ ^ = Estimated
    * = Optical fractionator
  2. ^ ± standard deviation
  3. ^ For the estimated values, the numbers of cortical neurons estimated from brain mass for different mammalian and bird orders are based on correlation observed between number of cortical neuron and brain mass per order[40]

ReferencesEdit

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