List of animals by number of neurons

The following are two lists of animals ordered by the size of their nervous system. The first list shows number of neurons in their entire nervous system, indicating their overall neural complexity. The second list shows the number of neurons in the structure that has been found to be representative of animal intelligence.[1] The human brain contains 86 billion neurons, with 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex.[2][1]

Brief comparisons of number of whole brain neurons (top) and cerebral cortex neurons (bottom) among six mammals.

OverviewEdit

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether.

Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects.

The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior.

Whole nervous systemEdit

All numbers for neurons (except Caenorhabditis and Ciona), and all numbers for synapses (except Ciona) are estimations.

Name Neurons in the brain/whole nervous system Synapses Details Image Source
Sponge 0 [3]
Trichoplax 0 Despite no nervous system, it exhibits coordinated feeding and response behaviors.[4] [5]
Asplanchna brightwellii (rotifer) about 200 Brain only [6]
Tardigrade about 200 Brain only [7]
Ciona intestinalis larva (sea squirt) 231 8,617 (central nervous system only) [8]

[9]

Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) 302 ~7,500 is the only organism to have its whole connectome (neuronal "wiring diagram") completed.[10][11][12] [13]
Jellyfish 5,600 Hydra vulgaris (H. attenuate) [14]
Megaphragma mymaripenne 7,400 [15]
Box jellyfish 8,70017,500 adult Tripedalia cystophora (8 mm diameter) – does not include 1000 neurons in each of the four rhopalia [16]
Medicinal leech 10,000 [17]
Pond snail 11,000 [18]
Sea slug 18,000 [19]
Amphioxus 20,000 central nervous system only [20]

[21]

Larval zebrafish 100,000 [22]
Lobster 100,000 [23]
Fruit fly 250,000 < 10,000,000 In 2020 a research group announced the most sophisticated connectome[24] [25]

[26]

Ant 250,000 Varies per species [27]
Honey bee 960,000 ~1×10^9 [28]
Cockroach 1,000,000 [29]
Anolis cristatellus 4,270,000 [30]
Guppy 4,300,000 [31]
Ocelot gecko 4,420,000 [32]
Anolis evermanni 4,920,000 [30]
Adult zebrafish ~10,000,000 cells (neurons + other) [33]
Frog 16,000,000 [34]
Naked mole-rat 26,880,000 [35]
Little free-tailed bat 35,000,000 [36]
Smoky shrew 36,000,000 [37]
Short-tailed shrew 52,000,000   [37]
Common bent-wing bat 56,000,000 [36]
African sheath-tailed bat 59,000,000 [36]
Hottentot golden mole 65,000,000 [38]
Woermann's bat 66,000,000 [36]
Zenker's fruit bat 66,000,000 [36]
Commerson's roundleaf bat 67,000,000 [36]
Rufous trident bat 70,000,000 [36]
House mouse 71,000,000 ~1×10^12 [39]
Nile crocodile 80,500,000 [40]
Heart-nosed bat 81,000,000 [36]
Golden hamster 90,000,000 [39]
Short-palated fruit bat 99,000,000 [36]
Ansell's mole-rat 103,000,000 [41]
Mashona mole-rat 113,000,000 [41]
Hairy-tailed mole 124,000,000 [38]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 129,000,000 [38]
Star-nosed mole 131,000,000 [37]
Zebra finch 131,000,000 Brain only   [42]
Silvery mole-rat 148,000,000 [41]
Four-toed elephant shrew 157,000,000 [38]
Eurasian blackcap 157,000,000 [42]
Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat 162,000,000 [36]
Goldcrest 164,000,000 [42]
Cape mole-rat 170,000,000 [41]
Egyptian fruit bat 172,000,000 [36]
Mechow's mole-rat 174,000,000 [41]
Damaraland mole-rat 178,000,000 [41]
Franquet's epauletted fruit bat 186,000,000 [36]
Brown rat 200,000,000 ~4.48×10^11 [43]
Guyenne spiny rat 202,000,000 [38]
Eastern mole 204,000,000 [37]
Red junglefowl 221,000,000 [42]
Great tit 226,000,000 [42]
Green-rumped parrotlet 227,000,000 [42]
Guinea pig 240,000,000 [39]
Gray mouse lemur 254,710,000 [44]
Common treeshrew 261,000,000 [45]
Hammer-headed bat 275,000,000 [36]
Pigeon 310,000,000 Brain only [42]
Budgerigar 322,000,000 [42]
Cape dune mole-rat 361,000,000 [41]
Common blackbird 379,000,000 [42]
Ferret 404,000,000 [46]
Cockatiel 453,000,000 [42]
Gray squirrel 453,660,000 [35]
Banded mongoose 454,000,000 [46]
Prairie dog 473,940,000 [35]
Common starling 483,000,000 [42]
European rabbit 494,200,000 [35]
Octopus 500,000,000 [47]
Western tree hyrax 505,000,000 [38]
Common marmoset 636,000,000 [45]
Eastern rosella 642,000,000 [42]
Barn owl 690,000,000 [42]
Monk parakeet 697,000,000 [42]
Azure-winged magpie 741,000,000 [42]
Rock hyrax 756,000,000 [38]
Cat 760,000,000 ~1×10^13 [48]
Black-rumped agouti 857,000,000 [39]
Magpie 897,000,000 [42]
Common hill myna 906,000,000 [42]
Northern greater galago 936,000,000 [45]
Western jackdaw 968,000,000 [42]
Eurasian jay 1.085×10^9 [42]
Alexandrine parakeet 1.096×10^9 [42]
Raccoon dog 1.16 × 109 [49]
Tanimbar corella 1.161×10^9 [42]
Emu 1.335×10^9 [42]
Three-striped night monkey 1.468×10^9 [45]
Rook 1.509×10^9 [42]
Grey parrot 1.566×10^9 [42]
Capybara 1.6×10^9 [39]
Jackal 1.73 ×109 [49]
Fox 2.11 × 109 [49]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 2.122×10^9 [42]
Raccoon 2.148×10^9 [46]
Kea 2.149×10^9 [42]
Raven 2.171×10^9 Brain only [42]
Domestic pig 2.22×10^9 [50]
Dog 2.253×10^9 [46]
Chihuahua (dog) 2.51 × 109 [49]
Dog (Chow Chow) 2.61 × 109 [49]
Dog (Yorkshire Terrier) 2.64 × 109 [49]
Springbok 2.72×10^9 [50]
Dog (West Highland White Terrier) 2.83 × 109 [49]
Blesbok 3.06×10^9 [50]
Blue-and-yellow macaw 3.136×10^9 Brain only [42]
Common squirrel monkey 3.246×10^9 [45]
Crab-eating macaque 3.44×10^9 [44]
Dog (German Shepherd) 3.53 × 109 [49]
Tufted capuchin 3.691×10^9 [45]
Bonnet macaque 3.78×10^9 [44]
Striped hyena 3.885×10^9 [46]
Dog (Komondor) 3.99 × 109 [49]
Dog (Transylvanian Hound) 4.39 × 109 [49]
Lion 4.667×10^9 [46]
Greater kudu 4.91×10^9 [50]
Rhesus macaque 6.376×10^9 [45]
Brown bear 9.586×10^9 [46]
Giraffe 1.075×10^10 [50]
Yellow baboon 1.095×10^10 [44]
Chimpanzee 2.8×10^10 [51]
Orangutan 3.26×10^10 [52]
Gorilla 3.34×10^10 [52]
Human 8.6×10^10 ~1.5×10^14 Neurons for average adult [53][54][55]
African elephant 2.57×10^11 [56][57]

Sensory-associative structureEdit

The cerebral cortex is a structure of particular interest at the intersection between comparative neuroanatomy and comparative cognitive psychology. Historically, it had been assumed that since only mammals have a cerebral cortex, only they benefit from the information processing functions associated with it, notably awareness and thought.[58] It is now known that non-avian reptiles also have a cerebral cortex and that birds have a functional equivalent called the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), which in fact appears to be a modification subsequent to the reptilian cortex. A modern understanding of comparative neuroanatomy now suggests that for all vertebrates, the pallium roughly corresponds to this general sensory-associative structure.[59] It is also a widely accepted view that arthropods and closely related worms have an equivalent structure, the corpora pedunculata, more commonly known as mushroom bodies. In fact this structure in invertebrates and the pallium in vertebrates may have a common evolutionary origin from a common ancestor.[60]

Given the apparent function of the sensory-associative structure, it has been suggested that the total number of neurons in the pallium or its equivalents may be the best predictor of intelligence when comparing species, being more representative than total brain mass or volume, brain-to-body mass ratio, or encephalization quotient (EQ).[1] It may thus be reasonably assumed that the total number of neurons in an animal's corresponding sensory-associative structure strongly relates to its degree of awareness, breadth and variety of subjective experiences, and intelligence.[1]

Methods

The methods used to arrive at the numbers in this list include neuron count by isotropic fractionator, optical fractionator or estimation based on correlations observed between number of cortical neurons and brain mass within closely related taxa. Isotropic fractionation is often considered more straightforward and reliable than optical fractionation which may yield both overestimates and underestimates.[61] Estimation based on brain mass and taxon is to be considered the least reliable method.

Common name Average number of neurons[a] Instraspecific variation[b] Method[c] Sensory-associative structure Binomial nomenclature Image Source
Common fruit fly 2,500* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Drosophila melanogaster [63]
House cricket 50,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Acheta domesticus [63]
Honey bee 170,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Apis [63]
Common cockroach 200,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Periplaneta [63]
African sheath-tailed bat 5,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Coleura afra [36]
Rufous trident bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Triaenops persicus [36]
Naked mole-rat 6,000,000 ± 1,065,587[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heterocephalus glaber [35]
Little free-tailed bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Chaerephon pumilus [36]
Common bent-wing bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Miniopterus schreibersii [36]
Commerson's roundleaf bat 8,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hipposideros commersoni [36]
Heart-nosed bat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Cardioderma cor [36]
Ansell's mole-rat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys anselli [41]
Smoky shrew 10,000,000 ± 352,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sorex fumeus [38]
Short-palated fruit bat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Casinycteris argynnis [36]
Mashona mole-rat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys darlingi [41]
Woermann's bat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Megaloglossus woermanni [36]
Northern short-tailed shrew 12,000,000 ± 1,569,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Blarina brevicauda [38]
Zenker's fruit bat 13,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Scotonycteris zenkeri [36]
House mouse 14,000,000 ± 2,242,257[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mus musculus [38]
Hairy-tailed mole 16,000,000 ± 2,611,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Parascalops breweri [38]
Star-nosed mole 17,000,000 ± 3,105,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Condylura cristata [38]
Golden hamster 17,000,000 ± 3,619,934[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mesocricetus auratus [38]
Damaraland mole-rat 21,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys damarensis [41]
Hottentot golden mole 22,000,000 ± 2,154,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Amblysomus hottentotus [38]
Gray mouse lemur 22,310,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Microcebus murinus [44]
Mechow's mole-rat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys mechowii [41]
Franquet's epauletted fruit bat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Epomops franqueti [36]
Hammer-headed bat 24,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hypsignathus mostrosus [36]
Hedgehog 24,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Subfamily Erinaceinae, various species [64]
Silvery mole-rat 25,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heliophobius argenteocinereus [41]
Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Epomophorus wahlbergi [36]
Cape mole-rat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Georychus capensis [41]
Guyenne spiny rat 26,000,000 ± 2,155,723[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Proechimys cayennensis [38]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 26,000,000 ± 4,020,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Elephantulus myurus [38]
Eastern mole 27,000,000 ± 5,113,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Scalopus aquaticus [38]
Opossum 27,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Didelphis virginiana [64]
Egyptian fruit bat 29,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Rousettus aegyptiacus [36]
Brown Rat 31,000,000 + 3,034,654[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Rattus norvegicus [38]
Four-toed elephant shrew 34,000,000 ± 5,840,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Petrodromus tetradactylus [38]
Ferret 38,950,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mustela putorius furo [46]
Cape dune mole-rat 43,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Bathyergus suillus [41]
Guinea pig 43,510,000 ± 3,169,924[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Cavia porcellus [35]
Eurasian blackcap 52,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sylvia atricapilla [42]
Prairie dog 53,770,000 ± 6,044,322[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Genus:Cynomys [35]
Zebra finch 55,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Taeniopygia guttata [42]
Common treeshrew 60,000,000 ± 26,510,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tupaia glis [38]
Red junglefowl 61,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gallus gallus [42]
Goldcrest 64,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Regulus regulus [42]
European rabbit 71,450,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Oryctolagus cuniculus [35]
Rock dove 72,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Columba livia [42]
Eastern gray squirrel 77,330,000 ± 2,634,444[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sciurius carolinensis [35]
Great tit 83,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Parus major [42]
Western tree hyrax 99,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dendrohyrax dorsalis [38]
Green-rumped parrotlet 103,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Forpus passerinus [42]
Black-rumped agouti 113,000,000 ± 2,576,768[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dasyprocta prymnolopha [1]
Banded mongoose 115,770,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mungos mungo [46]
Common blackbird 136,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Turdus merula [42]
Budgerigar 149,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Melopsittacus undulatus [42]
Rock hyrax 198,000,000 ± 29,082,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procavia capensis [38]
Northern greater galago 226,000,000 ± 87,570,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Otolemur garnettii [38]
Common starling 226,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sturnus vulgaris [42]
Raccoon dog 240,180,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Nyctereutes procyonoides [49]
Common marmoset 245,000,000 ± 81,180,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callithrix jacchus [38]
House cat 249,830,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus [46]
Brown bear 250,970,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ursus arctos [46]
Cockatiel 258,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nymphicus hollandicus [42]
Capybara 306,500,000 ± 62,726,120[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris [35]
Tarsius 310,000,000 Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Tarsius, unknown species [65]
Eastern rosella 333,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Platycercus eximius [42]
Red fox 355,010,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Vulpes vulpes [49]
Goeldi's marmoset 357,130,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callimico goeldii [44]
Western grey kangaroo 370,170,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macropus fuliginosus [66]
Golden jackal 393,620,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis aureus [49]
Monk parakeet 396,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Myiopsitta monachus [42]
Springbok 396,900,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Antidorcas marsupialis [50]
Azure-winged magpie 400,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cyanopica cyanus [42]
Common hill myna 410,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gracula religiosa [42]
Domesticated pig 425,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sus scrofa domesticus [67]
Barn owl 437,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Tyto alba [42]
Emu 439,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Dromaius novaehollandiae [42]
West Highland White Terrier 440,160,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
Three-striped night monkey 442,000,000 ± 111,310,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Aotus trivirgatus [1]
Eurasian magpie 443,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Pica pica [42]
Raccoon 453,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procyon lotor [68]
Chow Chow 471,500,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
Western jackdaw 492,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coloeus monedula [42]
Striped hyena 495,280,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hyaena hyaena [46]
Chihuhua 513,330,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
Eurasian jay 529,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Garrulus glandarius [42]
Lion 545,240,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Panthera leo [46]
Blesbok 570,670,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi [50]
Yorkshire Terrier 572,140,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
Alexandrine parakeet 575,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacula eupatria [42]
Tanimbar corella 599,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua goffiniana [42]
Golden retriever 627,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [46]
Gracile capuchin monkey 650,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cebus [61]
Transylvanian Hound 725,760,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
Greater kudu 762,570,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tragelaphus strepsiceros [50]
Crab-eating macaque 800,960,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca fascicularis [44]
Rook 820,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus frugilegus [42]
Beagle 844,410,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
Grey parrot 850,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacus erithacus [42]
Komondor 883,380,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
German Shepherd 885,460,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris [49]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 1,135,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua galerita [42]
Tufted capuchin 1,140,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sapajus apella [38][1]
Harp seal 1,168,000,000^

6,100,000,000*

Estimated

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Pagophilus groenlandicus [69][70]
Horse 1,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Equus ferus caballus [71]
Raven 1,204,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus corax [42]
Kea 1,281,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nestor notabilis [42]
Common squirrel monkey 1,340,000,000 ± 20,000,000[38] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Saimiri sciureus [38]
Bonnet macaque 1,660,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca radiata [44]
Rhesus macaque 1,710,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca mulatta [38]
Giraffe 1,731,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Giraffa camelopardalis [50]
Blue and yellow macaw 1,900,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Ara ararauna [42]
Pygmy sperm whale 2,020,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Kogia breviceps [72]
Leopard seal 2,386,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Hydrurga leptonyx [69]
Guenon 2,500,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cercopithecus, unknown species [65]
Pigtail Macaque 2,531,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Macaca nemestrina [69]
Gelada baboon 2,568,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Theropithecus gelada [69]
Red-and-green macaw 2,646,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Ara chloropterus [69]
Harbor porpoise 2,750,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Phocoena phocoena [69][70]
Yellow baboon 2,880,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Papio cynocephalus [44]
Hyacinth macaw 2,944,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [69]
Hamadryas baboon 2,990,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Papio hamadryas [69]
Mandrill 3,102,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mandrillus sphinx [69]
Walrus 3,929,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Odobenus rosmarus [69]
Southern elephant seal 3,994,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mirounga leonina [69]
African elephant 5,600,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Loxodonta africana [56]
Short-beaked common dolphin 6,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Delphinus delphis [69][72]
Asian elephant 6,775,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Elephas maximus [69]
Pygmy chimpanzee or bonobo 7,250,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Pan paniscus [69]
Chimpanzee 7,400,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Pan troglodytes [73]
Orangutan 7,704,000,000^ - 8,900,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Pongo [69][52]
Western gorilla 9,100,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Gorilla gorilla [69][52]
Cuvier's beaked whale 9,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ziphius cavirostris [72]
Beluga whale 10,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Delphinapterus leucas [69]
Bottlenose dolphin 12,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tursiops truncatus [69][72]
Common minke whale 12,800,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera acutorostrata [74]
Fin whale 15,000,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera physalus [69][75]
Blue whale 15,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera musculus [69]
Human 16,340,000,000

21,000,000,000*

± 2,170,000,000[38] Isotropic fractionator

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Homo sapiens [38][53][1][76][77]
Risso's dolphin 18,750,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Grampus griseus [69]
Short-finned pilot whale 35,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Globicephala macrorhynchus [69]
Long-finned pilot whale 37,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Globicephala melas [78]
Killer whale 43,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Orcinus orca [69][72]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ ^ = Estimated
    • = Optical fractionator
  2. ^ ± standard deviation
  3. ^ For the estimated values, the number of cortical neurons estimated from brain mass for different mammalian and bird orders are based on correlation observed between number of cortical neuron and brain mass per order[62]

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2012/feb/28/how-many-neurons-human-brain
  3. ^ Sherwood L, Klandorf H and Yancey P (2012) Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms Cengage Learning, p. 150. ISBN 9781133709510.
  4. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4eqSl7Vups
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