List of WWII Maybach engines

This is an incomplete list of gasoline engines designed by Maybach AG, manufactured by Maybach and other firms under licence, and fitted in various German tanks (fr:chars blindés, de:Panzerkampfwagen) and half-tracks before and during World War II. Until the mid 1930s, German military vehicle manufacturers could source their power plants from a variety of engine makers; by October 1935 the design and manufacture of almost all tank and half-track engines was concentrated in one company, Maybach AG, located in Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance.[1]

V-12 Maybach HL230 P30, developing 700 PS.[a]

The firm designed and made a wide range of 4, 6, and 12-cylinder engines from 2.5 to 23 litres; these powered the basic chassis designs for approximately ten tank types (including tank hunters and assault guns), six half-track artillery tractor designs, plus two series of derived armoured personnel carriers. Maybach also designed a number of gearboxes fitted to these vehicles, made under licence by other manufacturers. Friedrichshafen was also home to the Zahnradfabrik (ZF) factory which made gearboxes for Panzer III, IV, and Panther tanks. Both Maybach and ZF (and Dornier) were originally subsidiaries of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH, which also had a factory in the town.

Maybach used various combinations of factory letter codes (discussed below) which specified the particular ancillaries to be supplied with each engine variant: the same basic model could be fitted in a number of vehicles, according to the original manufacturer's design requirements. For example, the basic 3.8 and 4.2 litre straight-6 engines (the NL38 and HL42) fitted in various half-tracks could be supplied in at least 9 different configurations, although every component was to be found in a single unified parts list.[2]

However, as the war progressed, a number of problems hampered the German armaments production effort. The factory's inability to manufacture enough complete engines as well as a huge range of spare parts, meant that there was often a lack of both. Conflicts between the civilian Reich Ministry of Armaments and Munitions and the German Army led to a failure to set up an adequate distribution system, and consequent severe shortages of serviceable combat vehicles. In April 1944 an Allied bombing raid put the Maybach factory out of action for several months, and destroyed the ZF gearbox factory.

By the end of the war Maybach had produced over 140,000 engines and 30,000 semi-automatic transmissions for the German Wehrmacht.[3]

Maybach history, 1935–1945Edit

In order to rationalise Germany's military vehicle production, sweeping changes were made to its entire automotive industry. The re-organisation was overseen by Oberbaurat Heinrich Ernst Kniepkamp [fr], head of Wa.Prüf. 6 (Weapons Inspectorate 6, responsible for tanks, armoured vehicles and motorized equipment) of the Heereswaffenamt (HWA). By late October 1935, Maybach had been designated the sole designer and manufacturer of tank and half-track engines for the army, with production later outsourced to other firms including its subsidiary Nordbau (Norddeutsche Motorenbau GmbH) in the south-eastern Berlin suburb of Niederschöneweide beside the River Spree.[1][4][5]

Maybach AG made very few complete parts of its engines at all. Almost everything was bought in from other suppliers. Its main activity was precision machining of the castings and forgings of its own design, made by outside manufacturers, and producing complete assembled engines on a separate assembly line.[6] Completely finished crankshafts were supplied exclusively by Deutsche Edelstahlwerke AG [de], in Remscheid- de:Hasten.[7][b] In addition, machined pistons, piston rings, roller and ball bearings, carburettors (Solex), fuel pumps and complete electrical equipment (Bosch) were acquired as finished parts from outside sources.[6]

A Tiger tank undergoing an engine swap (HL230 P45), Romania 1944

Although a steady supply of spare parts is essential to an army in the field, the production of complete engines always took priority over providing spares.[c] According to Albert Speer, Hitler himself never realised this importance: "One of his worst failings was that he simply did not understand the necessity for supplying the armies with sufficient spare parts."[10][d]

Germany never achieved the industrial capacity needed to keep its military vehicles running efficiently: when the Russian campaign got underway, the deficiencies of the armaments industry and the organisation of maintenance depots became obvious.[11] The German armed forces suffered from continual shortages of spare parts for tanks and half-tracks until the end of the war.[12] When the first Tiger I tanks arrived in Russia in autumn 1942, there was only one spare engine and one transmission for every 10 tanks. A critical lack of spare parts meant that most of them were out of commission within a short period, sometimes for weeks on end.[13] Despite various attempts at re-organisation, friction between the distribution systems of the German Army (das Heer) and the civilian Ministry of Armaments (and from 1944 the 'Rüstungsstab') often led to confrontation and inefficiency.[14] Some of this can be blamed on Karl-Otto Saur of the Ministry of Armaments, whose ruthless drive for greater overall production figures tended to override the need for testing and durability concerns, and the manufacture of enough spare parts.[15]

According to Stieler von Heydekampf, president of the Panzer Kommission from 1943, German tank production was at a major disadvantage throughout the war because the main firms involved were heavy equipment manufacturers. It would have been more effective if the programme had been given to Ford Germany and Opel (owned by General Motors) because of their real mass production experience, but this was not done because of their American associations.[16][e]

Maybach's monopoly on engine production proved to be the bottleneck in German tank production.[18] From 1942, after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Maybach started dispersing its manufacturing activities, licensing eight other firms to manufacture its engines. Adler Werke in Frankfurt/Main built the HL42 from January 1942; Saurer Werke in Vienna, Krauss-Maffei (Munich), and Borgward in Bremen were licensed to build the HL62 & HL64; Maschinenfabrik Bahn Bedarf (MBB) in Nordhausen made the HL109, and also the HL120—along with Maybach's subsidiary Nordbau in Berlin and MAN in Nurnberg; and Auto Union in Chemnitz made HL230s, having tooled up from October 1943–March 1944.[19] Maybach from August 1943 also organised 11 of its own dispersal machining sites located from a few miles away to some 60 miles distant; the finished parts were then sent back to the factory for assembly. These precautions allowed manufacture of complete engines to take place away from Friedrichshafen.[20] On Hitler's orders in March 1944, the extensive cellars below the town of Leitmeritz (now Litoměřice, Czech Republic) on the river Elbe were to be used for the anticipated assembly for HL120 and HL230 tank engines, in case a manufacturing plant were to be bombed.[21]

Despite these precautions, by late 1943 there was still a severe shortage of spare tank engines.[f] Rather than concentrate on proven designs, Maybach continued to bring out new, relatively untested models; the wide variety of engine types seriously hampered efforts to fix the multiple defects which Maybach engines developed under combat conditions.[13] The extreme difficulty of stocking so many spares at the front, several thousand kilometres away from the factory, swiftly led to vehicles being unserviceable for combat. Because the armaments industry was already working at full capacity, it was not possible to completely replace obsolete models with new versions. Instead, the number of tank models and types within each series issued to the field forces increased steadily, which only made the maintenance and repair situation worse.[22]

Severely damaged tanks from the Russian front were initially shipped back to Germany, or to the Nibelungenwerk or the Vienna Arsenal for repair;[23][24][25] but the prospect of inevitable delays often meant that vehicles were instead cannibalised at the front for parts. Often when a new engine was delivered, there was little left except the hull of the tank it was intended for.[26] Nevertheless, the maintenance crews did their best, often retrieving knocked-out tanks under considerable difficulties.[g]

As the war progressed, new Maybach engines tended to be rushed into production, without adequate testing and improvement. As a result, they were viewed as unreliable (although this would be expected of any un-developed engine).[28] All the 325 new Panther tanks delivered to Russia in early 1943 had to be returned because of serious defects in the steering;[29] they were underpowered by the HL210 P30 engine, and its replacement, the HL230 P30 (which didn't arrive until late 1943) suffered from over-heating, fires in the engine compartment and blown gaskets.[30]

By way of comparison, the Soviet Army used a single basic engine (the V-12 diesel Kharkiv V-2) to power the majority of its tanks – with a few modifications – starting with the BT-7M and its successor the T-34,[31] producing 500 hp (370 kW) @ 1800 rpm in 1939;[32] the SU-85 and SU-100; the KV-1 and KV-2 (600 hp with supercharging in 1939); and the IS-2, ISU-122 and ISU-152 and the T-10. Maybach didn't produce a more powerful acceptable engine until late 1943 with the HL230 P30.

Starting in March 1944, a series of Allied precision and area bombing raids put the Maybach factory out of action for several months. Those of 27/28 April and 20 July especially inflicted heavy damage on the plant.[33] However, engine production continued at the various dispersed machining sites and manufacturers. If the various firms making Maybach motors under license had not been in a position to continue producing engines, the German Army's entire tank program would have been seriously jeopardised.[34]

Although the German Army used various combat vehicles appropriated from other countries, they continued to be powered by their original engines. Maybach engines were fitted to the German fighting vehicles for which they had been designed.

General designEdit

All Maybach engines which reached series production were gasoline four-stroke water-cooled designs. The firm's founder, Dr. Karl Maybach, had stated that "he was born water cooled and wanted to die water cooled."[35]

Before the war the fuel industry had indicated that petroleum was going to be easier to produce than synthetic diesel, and development of gasoline engines was therefore favoured. By around 1943 the situation had turned around, but by then it was too late to change.[36] Dr. Ferdinand Porsche had consistently pushed for air-cooled diesels, but his organisation's designs never functioned satisfactorily.[37] The large Porsche engine of this type slated for the Ferdinand never worked, and two Maybach HL120s were fitted instead.[38]

A number of Maybach motors shared the same basic design but had different engine sizes, the larger engines having bigger cylinders to increase the capacity. Similar engine designs had shared parts lists, e.g. the NL38 and HL42; the HL57 and HL62; and the HL108 and HL120.[39]

The 6-cylinder Maybach engines used a single Solex 40 JFF II down-draught (German: Fallstrom) carburetor,[40] and earlier V-12s used two.[41] Later V-12s used Solex 52 JFFs.

A hand-cranked inertia starter (Schwungkraftanlasser) was fitted to the V-12 engines to supplement the Bosch electric starter motor.[42]



Maybach used a series of letter codes and numbers to identify specific engine models, namely:

  • NL / HL – performance
  • TU / TR – lubrication
  • K – clutch
  • R / RR – V-belt drive for compressor and/or radiator fans
  • M – magneto ignition

Although these codes usually indicate what ancillary equipment was fitted at the factory (e.g. the HL42 TUKRRM and the HL57 TR), there are some exceptions, discussed below.

The individual engine number and its capacity, the model type, and year of manufacture are hand-stamped on each crankcase. On 6-cylinder models with magneto ignition, this information is found on the magneto housing: e.g.[43]

MOTOR Nr 730192
    4198 ccM.

And on the HL210:[44]

Mot. Nr. 46302
 HL210      P45


  • NL = Normalleistung (normal performance motor)
  • HL = Hochleistung (high performance motor)

This is followed (without space) by the approximate engine capacity (e.g. HL42 = approx. 4.2 litres.)


  • TR = Trockensumpfschmierung (dry sump lubrication), generally fitted to tanks - because of low ground clearance - and to the Sd.Kfz. 10 and 250 half-tracks. There is no sump below the crankcase: the engine oil is contained in a reservoir on one side. On later V-12s there is a tunnel through the oil reservoir, through which the hand crank for the inertia starter passes, operated from the outside rear of the vehicle.[45]
In a number of cases, especially the dry sump tank engines (e.g the HL108 TR), this is the complete designation of an engine: in other words, there is no factory-fitted clutch (K) attached to the engine; no extra drive belts driving a compressor (R) and/or dual fans (RR) on custom pulleys; ignition is achieved via a distributor rather than a magneto (M); and no specific vehicular installation (P, S, or Z) is implied.[h]
  • TU = Tiefer Unterteil ('deep lower part' i.e. wet sump), only fitted to some half-tracks. The sump generally has an inverted triangle shape, bolted to the underneath of the crankcase housing.
Most of the TU (wet sump) type engines were installed in half-track artillery tractors Sd.Kfz 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11, and were fitted with some or all of the ancillaries (K, R, or M). There appear, nevertheless, to be exceptions. For example, the HL57 TU was apparently only installed in some versions of the Sd.Kfz. 7, which was in fact fitted with a factory clutch, integral compressor and magneto. The extra equipment was fitted as standard and the extra letter codes were not included in the model number.[i]

In addition, 'T' by itself has no meaning; it is always directly followed by either R or U, but 'R' in this position should not be confused with an (R) signifying a V-belt drive (see below). Furthermore, in some sources engines may be referred to simply as e.g. "a Maybach HL 120 of 300 metric horsepower",[citation needed] which indicates that further information is needed to identify the particular model number.


  • K = Kupplung or Kupplungsgehäuse (clutch housing): a clutch is attached directly to the flywheel end of the crankshaft, generally driving a manual gearbox with 4 forward speeds and 1 reverse, plus a high/low reduction gearbox, giving 8 forward and 2 reverse ratios (4+1 x2). This type of transmission was fitted to all the half-tracks with a TU-type engine,[46] and to early Panzer Is. The transmission could also have a rear power take-off (PTO) shaft fitted to power a winch; or turntables for either a gun, or crane on e.g. the Sd.Kfz. 9/1.[47] The Sd.Kfz. 10 had a unique arrangement with a conventional clutch attached to the engine driving a pre-selector Maybach 'Variorex' VG 102 128H gearbox.[48] See also § Compressor below.
Panzer III engine and Maybach-Variorex pre-selector gearbox (in German). Click picture for English translation.
  • If there is no factory-fitted clutch (K), this indicates a tank engine (except early Panzer Is). Instead, a horizontal cardan shaft connects the flywheel to a separate gearbox next to the driver. This could be a pneumatically-controlled, pre-selector Maybach-Variorex (e.g. certain Panzer IIIs and Stug III); or a synchromesh ZF 'Aphon' (e.g. later Panzer III and IVs); or a hydraulically-controlled Maybach-Olvar (e.g. Tiger I and II).
    • A 10-speed Maybach-Variorex SRG 328 145 gearbox[j] was fitted in Panzer IIIs Ausf. E–G,[49] operated by vacuum pressure generated by a compressor (R) - see next section. The main clutch is integral to the gearbox housing.[50] (See also diagram on right.)
    • Other tank gearboxes included the synchromesh ZF Aphon SSG[k] 5x and 7x series gearboxes (the SSG 75 fitted in early Panzer IV had five forward gears and one reverse:[51] the 76 and 77 had six forward and one reverse). The main clutch (Hauptkupplung) (LA 120 HD) was bolted to the gearbox on the SSG 75, and incorporated into the main housing in the 77.[52] The SSG 77 gearbox replaced the mechanically vulnerable Variorex in the Stug. III Ausf. C.[53][54] Bigger tank engines (e.g. the HL230) used a hydraulically-controlled Maybach-Olvar gearbox such as the Olvar EG 40 12 16 (8 forward gears, 4 reverse), fitted to Tiger Is and IIs.[55][56][57]
    • Some half-track gearboxes also included a power take-off shaft (PTO) driving an external winch (German: Seilwinde).[l]


Most of the half-track engines had a compressor fitted, to power various types of equipment (discussed below). In some cases the compressor was an integral part of the engine's design and not specifically indicated in the model number: in others, the compressor was an external belt-driven ancillary denoted by an (R) in the model number.

  • R = Riemenantrieb für Luftpresser (V-belt drive for air compressor), driven at the radiator end by a pulley with an extra groove. The compressor is connected to various types of equipment, including:
    • Panzer III Ausf. E–G, and Stug III Ausf. A (only 20 made)§ – Maybach Variorex SRG 328 145 pre-selector gearbox
    • Sd.Kfz. 10 and 250 – Variorex VG 102 128H pre-selector g/box
    • Sd.Kfz. 11 and 251 – air brakes on towed equipment (e.g. Pak 40 anti-tank gun)
    • Sd.Kfz. 6–9 – pneumatic foot/parking brake + towed equipment[58] (e.g. 15 cm sIG 33 towed by the Sd.Kfz 7[59])
On certain Panzer IIIs, and Stug III, and on the Sd.Kfz. 10 with its derivative the Sd.Kfz. 250, the compressor provided the (reverse) pressure for a pneumatically-operated pre-selector gearbox. To shift gears, the pre-selector lever is set in the desired position or slot, and then the clutch pedal is depressed and released. The air inlet of the compressor is connected to the system, not the outlet: the compressor works "in reverse" to create a vacuum. Inside the Variorex gearbox, there are vacuum-actuated pistons with attached selector forks: these move dog clutches, which select the desired gearing.[50]

On some engines (e.g. the NL38 TUK) the compressor was an integral part of the engine, driven by internal gears and mounted on top of the cam cover at the flywheel end. In similar fashion, on the HL 57 TU and 62 TUK the compressor was located in a gear-driven housing next to the clutch on the inlet side.[60] On other models where the compressor was fitted as an ancillary (e.g. HL38 TUKR), it was mounted on one or other side of the engine, driven by an extra V-belt at the radiator end. Thus the lack of an 'R' in the model number doesn't necessarily mean that a compressor wasn't fitted.

  • KR = Clutch and compressor: production versions of the Demag half-tracks, the Sd.Kfz. 10 (manufacturer type D7) and Sd.Kfz. 250 (D7p) were fitted with a Maybach SRG, type VG 102 128H,[m] with 7 forward and 3 reverse gears.[46][61][62] Although they worked on the same vacuum principle as the bigger tank pre-selector gearboxes (e.g. Variorex SRG 328 145, installed in Panzer III Ausf. E-G), these gearbox types had no integral clutch, and were much smaller than those fitted to tanks. The drive passed through a standard clutch attached to the engine via a cardan shaft into the gearbox: depressing and releasing the clutch pedal simultaneously disengaged the main clutch and actuated the vacuum pistons to engage the pre-selected gear ratio.[48][63][64]
  • KRR = Clutch, compressor, and extra belt drives for radiator fans: fitted to a number of Sd.Kfz. 251 variants, which had a different radiator from the unarmored Sd.Kfz. 11 on which it was based.[65][46] A triple V-belt pulley mounted at the top of the engine also drove the twin cooling fans mounted directly between the engine and the radiator.[66][n]


All Maybach engines used a Bosch 12-volt magneto for the ignition. The magneto can often be identified by a circular, slightly domed cover, and a tubular duct (sometimes corrugated) which fed the ignition leads out of sight behind an engine cover plate. There were two main types;

  • Driven off the camshaft (Steuerwelle) (or the camshaft pinion), located at the top of the engine at the flywheel end. This type of installation (Steuerwelle-Magnetzündung) was part of the standard specification and not included in the model letters (e.g.HL98 TUK). This applies to some 6-cylinder models[68] and all V-12s.[69] On the HL210 the two magnetos are driven off the ends of the camshafts, and on the HL230 they are centrally located between the cylinder heads.
  • M = Schnapper-Magnetzündung (impulse magneto ignition).[o] Some 6-cylinder models had this type of magneto in its own housing, driven off the starter ring on the flywheel, located on the right-hand side.[40] This type of installation is indicated with an (M) in the model number, e.g. HL42 TUKRM.[p] A number of engines of the same basic design were first fitted with the camshaft-driven (Steuerwelle) type and later with the Schnapper type (e.g. HL62 TR/TRM).
  • Most models were also fitted with a belt-driven generator/alternator for charging the batteries for the electric starter motor, lighting, etc. On 4- and 6-cylinder engines the generator was usually connected by a drive shaft to a separate coolant pump located close to the cylindrical oil cooler.


  • P = Panzerkampfwageneinbau (tank installation?)[citation needed]
  • Z = Zerstörereinbau (tank destroyer installation?)[q][citation needed]
  • S = Schleppereinbau (military tractor installation?)[r]

These letters were only used on some models, e.g. HL42 TRKMS, HL45 Z, HL157 P.

The HL230 P30 and P45 don't appear to fall into this category, being named according to their original project specification: the HL230 P30 was designed to be fitted in the Panther, whose prototype was the 30-ton class VK30.02; and the HL230 P45 went in the Tiger, whose final 45-ton class prototype was numbered VK45.01.[73]


An exception to the naming system outlined above is the V-12 DSO8 fitted to early Sd.Kfz. 8s. John Milsom mentions two versions, one with a power output of 150 bhp fitted to the prototype DB ZD5 as early as 1931, and one of 200 bhp found in the early production Sd.Kfz. 8 (DB s 7) from 1934 to 1936.[74] A DSO8 developing 155 PS @2600 rpm was also recommended for export models of the Panzer III MKA ("mittlerer Kampfwagen fur Ausland") in August 1937, since the proposed 200 PS Maybach HL76 was "slow to come into production",[75] and may never have reached series production at all.

The DS7 (German: Doppel Sechs 7) (i.e. Double-Six, 7 litres) fitted in the Maybach Zeppelin luxury car from 1929 was a 7.0 l (6,971 cc) V12 engine that produced 150 horsepower at 2,800 rpm.[76], and the later DS8 8.0 litre (7977 cc, 486 cubic inches) developed 200 bhp (149 kW; 203 PS) at 3200 rpm.[77]

The DSO8 also powered three Swedish Stridsvagn m/31 prototypes in the early 1930s. A 150 hp DSO8 is also found in the Strv FM/31 Landsverk L-30 dating from 1931, examples of both are preserved in the Arsenalen Försvarsfordonsmuseum in Strängnäs, central Sweden.[78][79][s]


  • NL38 TRKM = Normal performance 3.8 litre, dry sump, clutch, magneto
  • HL62 TR = High performance 6.2 litre, dry sump, no clutch (K), no external compressor (R), ignition coil & distributor (no M)
  • HL108 TUKRM = High performance 10.8 litre, wet sump, clutch, belt-driven compressor, magneto


Lists of Maybach enginesEdit

Between between 1934 and 1950, Maybach designed approximately 100 different types of HL engines, of which about 70 reached at least bench testing. Some were 'proof of concept' single-cylinder designs.[81] Many of these engines were the direct result of orders for an engine of a specific power and physical size, originating from Waffenamt Prüfwesen 6 ('Weapons Testing [division] 6', Wa. Prüf. 6, responsible for tanks, armoured vehicles and motorized equipment) of the Heereswaffenamt.

Less than twenty of these basic designs were actually manufactured as quantity series production engines,[81] and are shown in the first table. Many these engines were manufactured in their thousands by Maybach and its licensed manufacturers. The second table lists Maybach engines which, although fully functioning, were only made in small quantities and often assigned to projects in the VK series (Versuchskampffahrzeug, "research/experimental fighting vehicle"). Others in the second list were intended for tanks and other AFVs which never even left the drawing board, the so-called 'Paper Panzers' such as the Entwicklung series, from de:Entwicklung, "development").[82]

List of Maybach WWII engines which reached series production
Model Type Capacity (Litres)[w] Power (PS)[x] @rpm[y]§ Application
HL25 I-4 2.5 65 2,800 Pre-production Sd.Kfz. 10 D4[4]
HL30 I-4 3.0 95 3,000 Le.WS - Leichter Wehrmacht Schlepper (Light Army Tractor) (1st & 2nd models)[83][84]
NL35 TUKM I-6 3.435[z] 90 3,000 Early Sd.Kfz. 6[85][aa]
NL38 TRKM[87] I-6 3.817[ab] 90 3,000 Panzer I Ausf. B and derivatives, e.g. 15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B:[88] Sd.Kfz. 10 D6 (pre-production):[89] early Sd.Kfz. 11[90]
NL38 TUK I-6 3.817 90 early Sd.Kfz. 6 (BN 1 8)[91][92]
HL38 TUKR I-6 3.817 100 2,800 Sd.Kfz. 11 (early versions),[93] later models were equipped with the HL42 TUKR)§ [ac]
HL42 TRKM § I-6 4.170[ad] 110[90][ae] Sd.Kfz. 10 type D7 (production models):[94][af]
HL42 TUKRR[95] I-6 4.198 100 Sd.Kfz. 251 (various Ausf. types and variants, incl. /16 & /21)[96]
HL42 TUKRM I-6 4.198 100 2,800 Sd.Kfz. 250: Sd.Kfz. 11,[97] Sd.Kfz. 251
HL42 TRKMS[98] I-6 4.198[ag] 100 3,000 Leichter Wehrmachtsschlepper (Le.Ws) (late models)[83] Schwerer Wehrmachtsschlepper (s.Ws)[99][ah]
HL45 P I-6 4.678[101] 150[102] 3,800 Panzer I Ausf. C (VK 6.01), Ausf. F (VK 18.01),[103] and Ausf. J.[104][ai]
HL45 Z I-6 4.678 150 3,800 HKp 602/603 (prototype replacement for Sd.Kfz. 251)[106][107]
HL52 TU[108][aj] I-6 120[110] Sd.Kfz. 7, 1st prod models[110]
HL54 TUKRM I-6 5.420[ak] 115[al] 2,600 Sd.Kfz. 6 (late models)[111]
HL57 TR I-6 5.698 130 2,600 Panzer II Ausf. a[112]
HL57 TU I-6 5.698 130 2,600 Sd.Kfz. 7, 2nd batch[113]
HL62 TR/TRM I-6 6.191 140 Panzer II Ausf. b–F:[114] Wespe[115]
HL62 TUK[am] I-6 6.191 140 2,600 Sd.Kfz. 7, 3rd & 4th batches (KM m 10 & 11)[117][116]
HL64 TUK[an] I-6 6.4[ao] 140[118] 2,600 Sd.Kfz. 7 (m 11, from mid-1943).[118][ap]
HL66 P I-6 6.754 180? 2,800 Panzer II Ausf. G and L (Luchs):[119] Sd.Kfz. 165/1
SHL66 I-6 6.754 Used in Pionierschnellboot[73][120][aq]
OS6 I-6 6.995[121][ar] 90/95 1800/
Krauss-Maffei KMS 85/100 (4-wheeled tractor)[121]
HL85 TUKRM V-12 8.505[122] 185 2,500 Sd.Kfz. 8[123]
HL98 TUK V-12 9.780[as] 220 –
Early Sd.Kfz. 9 (FAMO F2 1938)[74]
HL108 TR V-12 10.838 [au] 230 –
270 [av]
Panzer III Ausf. A through D:[125] Panzer IV Ausf. A (only 35 made)[126] Stug III[127]
HL108 TUKRM V-12 10.838 250 3,000 Sd.Kfz. 9 (production models)[128]
HL120 TR V-12 11.867 300 2,000 Panzer III, Ausf. E:[49] StuG III Ausf. A:[53] Panzer IV Ausf. B, early C[49][129]
HL120 TRM[aw] V-12 11.867 272[130] 2800[130] Panzer III, Ausf. F-N:[131] StuG III: StuG IV: Panzer IV Ausf. later C-J:[132] Elefant/Ferdinand (2 per vehicle): Brummbär (Sturmpanzer IV): Nashorn (Hornisse)[133] Hummel and Panzer III/IV variants;[134] Flakpanzer IV on Ausf J chassis, inc. Möbelwagen, Wirbelwind, Ostwind, Kugelblitz[135]
HL210 TRM P45 V-12 21.353 650 3,000 first 250 Tiger Is (aluminium alloy cylinder block)[136]
HL210 P30 V-12 21.353[137] 650 3,000? First 250 Ausf. D Panthers[ax] (aluminium alloy cylinder block)[140][141]
HL230 P45 V-12 23.095 700 3,000 Later versions of the Tiger I and Sturmtiger (cast iron block)[136]
HL230 P30[140][142] V-12 23.095[143] 700 Later Panther Ausf. Ds, all As and Gs[144] Jagdpanther, Tiger II (King Tiger),[145] : Jagdtiger : Sturmtiger : Panther II (prototype)[145]
List of Maybach WWII non-series production engines
Model Type Capacity (Litres)[ay] Power (PS)[az] @rpm[ba]§ Application
HL50 P I-6 4.995 110[bb] 3,000 Kätzchen APC (prototype) · HKp 603/604 (later prototype replacement for Sd.Kfz. 251)[107]
HL80[bc] I-6 8.0? 160? 2,600 Sd.Kfz. 7 (KM m 12 - 1939 projected design only)[113]
HL90[bd] V-12 9.0[be] 320/ 350 [bf] 3,000? Heuschrecke 10 - Grasshopper SPG[146][bg][bh][full citation needed]
HL116 Z[bi] I-6[124][bj] 11.048[bk] 265[124][bl] 3,300[124] Sturer Emil : HK1600/1601/1604 (prototypes)[124][148] Installed in four VK 30.01 chassis (pre-Tiger I).[147] Also proposed in May 1940 for the cancelled VK 20.01 (K) design project (later became the Panther).[149][bm]
HL157 P[bn] V-12 15.580 410? 3,000? VK 16.02 Leopard (prototype)
HL174 V-12 17.4[bo] 450[150] 3,000 VK 36.01 (H) (Henschel pre-Tiger prototype)[150][bp]
HL224 V-12 22.4 680?[bq] 3,000 VK 65.01 (H), (heavy tank prototype by Henschel based on Panzer IV)
HL234[br] V-12 23.88 900 3,000 Intended to replace HL230 P30 in Tiger II;[152] Panther II (proposed at later prototype stage, discontinued);[153] E.50/E.75 tank series, never completed.[154]
HL295 V-12 29.5[bs] c.1000 Post-war AMX-50 prototype.[155][156][bt]

Development of the HL210 and HL230Edit

Repairs on a Maybach HL210. Russia, June 1943, during Operation Citadel

A proposed replacement for the Panzer IV had been considered since around 1937. What became the Tiger tank went through a series of specifications, with the final revision (VK 4501) being made in May 1941.[157] Only a month later, the German armies invading Russia encountered the superior T-34 and KV-1: by December 1941 a specification for a 30-ton medium tank (which became the Panther) had been proposed as an immediate response to the Soviet tank threat.[158][bu]

Development of the two tanks continued simultaneously: the Tiger prototype was demonstrated to Hitler on his birthday in April 1942,[162] and the first of two Panther prototypes was ready in August 1942.[158]

The weight of the Tiger had increased considerably since its inception, and although it was now considerably heavier than the Panther medium tank, Maybach proposed fitting almost exactly the same 21-litre V-12 650 hp engine in both tanks. To save weight, the cylinder block was cast in aluminium alloy, with cast iron liners. The pistons were made of low-expansion aluminium-silicon alloy with Si content of nearly 20%.[163] The engine for the original 30-ton Panther project was the Maybach HL210 P30,[140] while the 45-ton specification for the Tiger received the HL210 P45.[136] The only visible difference was the arrangement of the coolant ducts exiting the cylinder heads, since the Panther and Tiger had different flows through their radiators.[bv]

Quantity series production of the PzKpfw VI Tiger (Ausf. H) with the HL210 P45 engine began in August 1942,[162] and it is possible that production of the Panther's HL210 P30 was begun at much the same time. The first battalions to be equipped with the Tigers were the 502nd Heavy Panzer Battalion on the Eastern Front near Leningrad, and the 501st Heavy Panzer Battalion which was sent to Tunisia. Unfortunately, it swiftly became apparent that the Tiger was seriously underpowered, and the rush into production of the new engines meant that the inevitable design defects had not been ironed out. Nevertheless, when the new Tigers arrived in Russia, there was only one spare engine and one transmission for every 10 tanks. A critical lack of spare parts meant that most of them were out of commission within a short period.[29]

HL230 P30 in a Jagdtiger: note central magnetos and symmetrical rusty coolant connectors just above rear bulkhead.[bw]

The first PzKpfw V Panthers (Ausf. D) were similarly ill-fated; series production began in January 1943, but when they arrived in Russia in the spring the faults (including the steering and leaking engine gaskets) were so egregious that the entire batch had to be returned to Germany.[13] A special plant for rebuilding the Panthers was established near Berlin.[13]

In the meantime, Maybach re-designed the HL210, replacing the alloy cylinder block with a traditional cast-iron one. Although there was no space for a physically larger engine, the cylinders were capable of being bored out without compromising the engine's integrity. The new HL230 23-litre engines were installed from May 1943 in the latest production Panthers as the P30, and in Tigers as the P45.[164][165][166][bx]

Despite all the changes, the up-engined Panther Ausf. A with the HL230 P30 (which didn't arrive in Russia until late 1943) suffered from over-heating, fires in the engine compartment and blown head gaskets.[30]

The head gasket problem was solved in August 1943 by pressing copper rings into grooves to seal the head. A new design of piston was fitted to the HL230 P45 which reduced the compression ratio slightly.[165] In November 1943 a governor was installed in the HL230 P45 which limited the maximum revs to 2,500 rpm, and the maximum speed under full load to 38 km/h (24 mph). Some new and rebuilt motors from October had faulty bearings installed causing frequent failures: improved bearings were installed in new HL230 P45s from January 1944.[167]

Maybach didn't separate the production statistics of the 210 from the 230. Altogether, production of both types amounted to 153 in 1942, 4,346 in 1943, and 1,785 HL230s up to April 1944. In late April 1944 an Allied bombing raid put the Maybach factory out of action for six months.[168] Production was transferred to the Auto Union factory in Chemnitz, which delivered 219 HL230 engines to Henschel in 1944. A total of 4,366 HL230s from April for Panthers and Tigers were delivered from April 1944 to 1945.[168]

Identifying HL210 and HL230 types
  • HL210: three air filters; magnetos are located separately at the end of each camshaft; on the oil cooler side the oil filter sits at a relatively upright angle, approx. 70°.
  • HL230: two air filters: magnetos are located centrally in a twin housing between the cylinder heads; oil filter sits at approx. 45°.
  • P30: the twin cast iron hot coolant ducts are symmetrical and visually similar, with separate feeds to l.h and r.h. radiators..
  • P45: the coolant ducts are siamesed into a single pipe leading to the r.h. radiator.[136]


Maybach continued to develop increasingly powerful 4-stroke water-cooled gasoline-powered engines during the war. One such Versuchsmotor which never reached series production was the HL234, a development of the HL230.[by]

The intention was to develop a fuel-injected and supercharged engine, but only the fuel injection mechanism (by Bosch) was working by the end of the war.[154] The engine displaced approximately 23.4 litres, and the un-supercharged version was capable of developing 850 PS @2,800 rpm, with maximum torque of 260 kilogram metres (2,500 N⋅m; 1,900 lb⋅ft) @1,750 rpm[169], and 900 PS @3,000 rpm[154] Only a few pilot fuel-injection engines were built.[170] The fuel-injected and supercharged version (one engine completed) would hopefully deliver around 1200 PS.[171]

The main supercharger was to have been driven by its own twin-cylinder supercharged 1 litre engine of 70 PS mounted in the V of the HL234 (where the carburetors were located in a normally-aspirated engine), but this part of the design was never completed.[bz] By April 1943 the crankshaft bearings and connecting rods from the HL230 had also been strengthened, and the direct fuel injection system was working - but the supercharger was not yet fully developed.[154] Other improvements over the HL230 included water-cooled spark plugs; an improved intake manifold for better airflow; and improved exhaust manifold as well.[173] Instead of coil-type valve springs the HL 234 used much stronger Belleville washers, which reduced valve opening times.[174] Problems with rubber seals and copper [head] gaskets were solved by adopting designs used in the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine.[173]

The first HL234 Versuchsmotor was planned to be delivered in early 1945 to the Kummersdorf proving ground and was proposed in January 1945 as an upgraded power plant for the Tiger II, but had not yet been tested in a tank by that date.[152] It was also proposed for the Panther II at a later prototype stage, but the project was discontinued.[153] Similarly, the E.50/E.75 tank series for which the engine was also intended were never built before the war's end, with only development of individual components taking place.[154]

Maybach also developed a smaller 12-litre version on similar lines to the HL234. It weighed 600 kg, developing 500 PS without supercharger and 700 PS at 3,800 rpm supercharged,[173] but like so many other German war-time projects, it never came to fruition.


German WWII half-track prime mover numbering may appear not to be strictly logical: the two smallest vehicles were introduced after most of the larger artillery tractors were in production.[175] In ascending order of engine size and therefore towing capacity, they were designed to tow the following:[176]

As Maybach designed new, more powerful engines, all these vehicle types received at least two and up to four different engine models during production of the latest batches. There remained the necessity of attempting to produce either spare parts or complete new engines, just to keep the older vehicles running.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The HL230 P30 can be identified by twin central magneto housings between twin coolant ducts (white interiors), and the oil filter at approx. 45°.
  2. ^ Deutsche Edelstahlwerke AG was founded in 1927 out of Vereinigte Stahlwerke as a conglomerate of high-grade and stainless steel manufacturers, including the firm of de:Richard Lindenberg AG in Remscheid-Hasten.[8] Using the electric Héroult-Lindenberg process, the firm produced the world's first commercial cast steel by the electric arc furnace method (electro-steel) in 1906. It swiftly began to replace crucible steel for making high-quality cast steel alloys.[9]
  3. ^ (Müller-Hillebrand 1982, p. 21). The lead author of this pamphlet, General Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand [de] worked in the Operational History (German) Section [de] of the Historical Section of the US Army in Karlsruhe after the war, helping to write operational histories from the German point of view.
  4. ^ Speer continues: "This disastrous tendency was evident as early as 1942: "Presented the Führer with the monthly list of tank replacement parts and reported that despite the increase in production the demand is so high that to raise the production of spare parts we must decrease the production of new tanks." (Führerprotokoll, May 6–7, 1942, Point 38.) [...] General Guderian, the Inspector General of Tank Ordnance, frequently pointed out to me that if we could repair our tanks quickly, thanks to sufficient spare parts, we could have more available for battle, at a fraction of the cost, than by producing new ones. But Hitler insisted on the priority of new production, which would have had to be reduced by 20 percent if we made provision for such repairs.[10]
  5. ^ Heydekampf, primarily a production man, had been manager of the Opel Truck division in Brandenburg from c1935.[17]
  6. ^ For example, an official report in September 1943 on the state of various battalions under the command of Panzerjäger-Regiment 656 (including the 653rd Heavy Panzerjäger Battalion) stated that sixty complete HL120 engines (two per tank) were needed to bring the Ferdinand battalions up to strength.(Munch 2005, pp. 62–3) In a long list of other modifications, only two related to the engine: the fuel line needed shielding from the exhaust; and oil leaked onto the fan housing, both leading to fires in the engine compartment.(Munch 2005, p. 64) A total of only 91 Ferdinands were ever built.
  7. ^ For example, up to five 18-ton Sd.Kfz. 9s were needed to haul an immobilised Ferdinand through the mire of the Eastern Front.[27]
  8. ^ Similarly, the HL57 TR and HL62 TR with no ancillaries were only fitted in the Panzer II.
  9. ^ Likewise, the bored-out HL62 TUK engines were also only fitted in some variants of the SdKfz 7; on these motors the compressor was an integral design part of the engine, and not an ancillary (R) which is thus excluded from the model designation. See also § Compressor.
  10. ^ SRG = Schaltreglergetriebe, 'shift regulator [or controller] gearbox'. Maybach changed the name from SRG to Variorex in 1939. (Spielberger 1994, p. 37).
  11. ^ SSG =Schaltsynchronisiertegetriebe, 'shift synchronised gearbox'[citation needed]
  12. ^ Diagram of Sd.Kfz. 9 geartrain at Spielberger 1994, p. 215. Key, from r.: Seilwinde – winch; Untersetzergetriebe – reduction gearbox; Gleiskette – track; Bremszylinder – [air]brake cylinder; Lenkbremse – steering brake; Lenkgetriebe – steering gear; Kupplung – clutch; Luftfilter – air filter; Triebrad – driving wheel; Fahrbremse – road brakes; Triebradenantrieb – drivewheel gearbox; Wechselgetriebe – change speed gearbox.
  13. ^ VG = Variorex-Getriebe, 'Variorex gearbox'; H = Hohlachse, 'hollow axle'
  14. ^ "Cette motorisation est redésignée avec une lettre R supplémentaire (R = ventilation séparée), donnant ainsi les NL38 TUKRR, NL38 TUKRRM et HL42 TUKRRM."[67] This roughly translates as 'separate (or forced) ventilation', Fremdbelüftung.
  15. ^ With the low starting speed of the engine (e.g. by hand or with a slow-running starter), a magneto ignition system would generate only a very weak or no ignition spark. The magneto is equipped with a spring mechanism that additionally accelerates the rotor at low speeds and retards the ignition spark.[70] The English name of this device is impulse coupling; in German it is usually referred to as a snapper (Schnapper), derived from the snapping sound that these magneto ignitions generate when the device is triggered.[71]
  16. ^ Photos of both types can be seen at "Maybach Motoren". Fahrzeuge der Wehrmacht. Retrieved 14 December 2021., e.g. NL38 TR and HL54 TUKRM.
  17. ^ Or perhaps Zondereinbau, special installation.
  18. ^ One of the few engines with an (S) in its designation is the HL42 TRKMS. According to Jentz and Doyle, they were specially designed for the schwerer Wehrmachtsschlepper (s.Ws), the successor to the Sd.Kfz. 5. The engines were built only by Auto Union.[72]
  19. ^ A number of photos and drawings can be found here: sp15 (12 March 2014). "Swedish Tanks – Part II: Strv m/31 & Strv fm/31". For The Record. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  20. ^ The serial number stamped on the magneto housing appears to be MOT 551253
  21. ^ Note the guide positioning and excessive tappet clearance of the far right inlet valve.
  22. ^ HL230. From top right: magneto housing, between hot coolant pipes (to radiator). Immediately below magnetos: fan drive housing (yellow interior) with locating hole for fan drive shaft (four bolts). Centre right: cast iron exhausts. Lower right: harmonic damper with splined centre. Far lower right, beneath yellow lifting eye: oil reservoir (partially hidden), with hole for inertia starter handle (hand crank).[45] Centre, below exhaust: dynamo (black). Lower centre: oil cooler, with cold water inlet (from radiator). Far lower left: oil filter (at 45°). Top centre: carburettor cover, with holes for twin air filters
  23. ^ Manufacturer's figures were given in litres. Exact engine capacities may vary slightly due to different values of π (Maybach used 355÷113), conversion into US customary units, rounding errors, etc. Details of engines fitted to a small number of prototypes are often vague. To work out engine capacity:
    Engine capacity in litres = (π/4 * bore2 (mm) * stroke (mm) * no. of cylinders) ÷ 1,000,000
    eg The Maybach HL85 has a bore and stroke of 95mm x 100mm. Taking π as 355÷113 (Maybach's own value),
    Engine capacity = (0.78539823 * 9,025 * 100 * 12) ÷ 1,000,000 = 8.505 litres.
  24. ^ Manufacturer's values for engine power were originally stated in PS (metric horsepower), which is approximately equivalent to imperial/US horsepower (1 hp = 1.04 PS, 0.7457 kW). Stated figures in various sources can vary considerably, especially where later non-series test models (Versuchsmotoren) are concerned.
  25. ^ These are manufacturer's maximum rpm figures. Under normal operating conditions, recommended revs were sometimes a couple of hundred rpm less - e.g. 2,600 rather than 2,800 rpm. HL230s were governed to 2,600 rpm from 1943
  26. ^ bore x stroke 90 x 90mm.[85]
  27. ^ The compressor for the air brakes and towed equipment is mounted on top of the cam cover at the clutch end, possibly driven off the camshaft, which also drives the magneto.[86]
  28. ^ Frank (Frank 1990, p. 4) gives 3.790 litres. This value is incorrect: Frank appears to have taken π as 3.12, thus with bore x stroke = 90 * 100 mm: 3.12/4 = 0.78, * (8,100 * 100 * 6) / 1,000,000 = 3.790. Taking Maybach's value of π as 355÷113, and bore x stroke of 90 * 100 mm, the correct value is 3.817 litres.
  29. ^ A 100 hp Maybach engine was experimentally used in early Schnellbooten nos. S2–5 as an auxiliary power source which could operate the central propeller for silent running, but was found not to be needed. Source: Paterson, Lawrence (2015). Schnellboote: A Complete Operational History. Barnsley, Yorkshire: Seaforth Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 9781848320833.
  30. ^ (Frank 1990, p. 4). This value is incorrect. Frank appears to have taken π as 3.12, thus: 3.12/4 = 0.78, * (8,100 * 110 * 6) / 1,000,000 = 4.16988 = 4.170
  31. ^ Possibly an error for 100
  32. ^ The Sd.Kfz. 10 chassis had a hull like a tank, (unlike the other half-tracks which had a frame chassis), and therefore used a dry sump (TR) engine because of the engine bay's restricted height.
  33. ^ The figure 4.198 litres (taken from the manual) is arrived at by taking π as 355 ÷ 113, and bore * stroke = 90 x 110 mm (from the manual) : capacity = (0.78539823 * 8,100 * 110 * 6) / 1,000,000 = 4.198 litres.
  34. ^ According to Jentz and Doyle, they were specially designed for the schwerer Wehrmachtsschlepper (s.W.S.), the successor to the Sd.Kfz. 5. The engines were built only by Auto Union.[72]
  35. ^ A prototype VK 6.01 with an HL45 P and Maybach Variorex VG 15 319 (8+1 gears) was designed to achieve 65 km/hr @3,200 rpm. Basic chassis tested for 17 km on an Autobahn in May 1942.[105]
  36. ^ The engines for the early and production models of the Panzer II (La.S.100) and the Sd.Kfz. 7 were developed and manufactured in tandem as TR and TU (dry and wet sump) types: the HL52, HL57 TR, and HL62 TR for the tanks; and the HL52 TU, HL57 TU, and HL62 TU/TUK for the half-tracks. Maybach made a total of 3,083 of all three types from 1936 to 1942: HL57 TR engine numbers from 16101–16280 and HL62 TR numbers starting at 16281. Nordbau made a total of 6311 HL62 series from 1937 to 1942 with engine numbers starting at 510001.[109]
  37. ^ bore * stroke = 100 x 115 mm.[85]
  38. ^ Sawicki & Ledwoch 2007, p. 53 state 84.6 kW (115.0 PS)
  39. ^ After about 700 engines had been completed, the compression ratio was lowered (with a new cylinder head and shorter pistons) after October 1938 to run on OZ 74 gasoline.[116]
  40. ^ (Jentz, Doyle & Friedli 2013, p. 22-4–73) state that this engine was fitted to later m 11 models of the Sd.Kfz. 7. Around 2,800 were built by Krauss-Maffei. However, the performance figures they give (140 PS @2,600 rpm are no better than the HL62 TUK in earlier models. Both Milsom 1975, p. 12 and Spielberger 1993, pp. 162–3 state that the HL62 TUK developed 140 PS @2,600 rpm. Neither of them mention the HL64 TUK.
  41. ^ Based on model number
  42. ^ According to John Milsom, the Sd.Kfz. 7 KM m 12 was a projected 1939 variant, similar to the KM m 11 but fitted with a prototype HL80 engine.[117]
  43. ^ This may be a similar engine to one described as a "6-cylinder Maybach S5 of approx. 7 litres", used to power motor boats used in bridging and rafting operations. See US War Department Technical Manual TM-E 30-451: Handbook on German Military Forces (March 1945), Chapter 8, p. VIII-93. The power output of 80 hp seems to be a misprint for 180.
  44. ^ Bore x stroke = 94*168, compression ratio=1:5.7. Engine capacity in litres = (π/4 * bore2 (mm) * stroke (mm) * no. of cylinders) ÷ 1,000,000. Maybach used π=355÷113.
    (0.78539823 * 8836 * 168 * 6) ÷ 1,000,000 = 6.995
  45. ^ bore * stroke = 95 x 115mm.[124]
  46. ^ Spielberger 1993, p. 165 gives 220 PS @ 2600 rpm, and 250 PS @3000 rpm from later models. Milsom 1975, p. 13 states 230.
  47. ^ bore * stroke = 100 x 115[124]
  48. ^ Spielberger 1994, p. 21 gives 230 PS @ 2600 rpm: and 270 PS @ 3000 rpm in Spielberger 1993, p. 165, quoting his sources from original documents. Perrett 1980, p. 5 states 250 PS.
  49. ^ An 'HL120 TRM 112' is mentioned by Spielberger 1993c as being installed in the Wirbelwind & Ostwind, and in the Wirbelwind only by Jentz & Doyle (1998), Flakpanzer & Flak Selbstfahrlafetten, Panzer Tracts 12: but Jentz & Doyle 2010 correct this to a standard 'HL120 TRM' in all Flakpanzer IVs including the Möbelwagen and those already mentioned, plus the Kugelblitz of which only a small handful were completed. Thus it seems that the '112' may be some sort of original transcription error or typo (perhaps for V-12?), and a Maybach 'HL120 TRM 112' appears not to have existed.
  50. ^ The HL230 P30 was installed from the 251st Panther Ausf. D during May 1943.[138] This figure of 251 has no connection (as some web sources claim) with chassis number (German: Fahrgestell Nummer) 210254 which MAN didn't produce until September 1943.[138] Four firms made the first Panther Ausf. Ds: MAN, Daimler-Benz, Henschel and MNH (Maschinenfabrik Niedersaschen Hannover [de]). Each firm used a different chassis number sequence, starting 210xxxx to 213xxxx. By the end of April 1943 they had completed 174 tanks between them, and in May a further 194: total = 386 vehicles.[138]
    Walter Spielberger[139] states that Maybach also built 20 HL210 engines for pre-series Panthers.
  51. ^ Manufacturer's figures were given in litres. Exact engine capacities may vary slightly due to different values of π (Maybach used 355÷113), conversion into US customary units, rounding errors, etc. Details of engines fitted to a small number of prototypes are often vague. To work out engine capacity:
    Engine capacity in litres = (π/4 * bore2 (mm) * stroke (mm) * no. of cylinders) ÷ 1,000,000
    eg The Maybach HL85 has a bore and stroke of 95mm x 100mm. Taking π as 355÷113 (Maybach's own value),
    Engine capacity = (0.78539823 * 9,025 * 100 * 12) ÷ 1,000,000 = 8.505 litres.
  52. ^ Manufacturer's values for engine power were originally stated in PS (metric horsepower), which is approximately equivalent to imperial/US horsepower (1 hp = 1.04 PS, 0.7457 kW). Stated figures in various sources can vary considerably, especially where later non-series test models (Versuchsmotoren) are concerned.
  53. ^ These are manufacturer's maximum rpm figures. Under normal operating conditions, recommended revs were sometimes a couple of hundred rpm less - e.g. 2,600 rather than 2,800 rpm. HL230s were governed to 2,600 rpm from 1943
  54. ^ Some sources put the figure as high as 150 or 180 PS, but these figures seem unlikely,
  55. ^ Prototypes only?
  56. ^ This and the HL100 were intended to power various self-propelled guns based on the Panzer IV chassis, eg. 10.5 cm leFH 43 or the 10 cm Kanone. Krupp also designed a "leFH 18/1 (sf)Gw IV b (Sd.Kfz. 165/1)" powered by the HL90, but only 8 vehicles were ever built.(Spielberger 1993c, pp. 131–2)
  57. ^ Approx. capacity based on the model number
  58. ^ Spielberger states 350 and 320 HP on consecutive pages.(Spielberger 1993c, pp. 131–2)
  59. ^ Only three prototype Heuschrecke vehicles were ever constructed, 1942-3. Details are vague. Photos of engine at "Maybach Motoren: Maybach HL 90". Fahrzeuge der Wehrmacht (in German). Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  60. ^ Maybach produced a total of 14 HL90s, 1 in 1941, 5 in 1942, 7 in 1943 and 1 in 1944. Source: Jentz & Doyle, Panzerkampfwagen II Ausf.G, H, J, L, and M. Panzer Tracts 2-2. p. 2-2-15.
  61. ^ Maybach produced three HL116 engines in 1940, eleven in 1941, three in 1942 and one in 1943, making 18 in total.[147]
  62. ^ Developed in 1941-2 for the Entwicklung series of new generation tanks, and new halftracks.
  63. ^ bore * stroke = 125 x 150mm[124]
  64. ^ Spielberger unfortunately contradicts himself on p. 86, saying it developed 300 PS. Milsom 1975, p. 62 states 250 PS.
  65. ^ Jentz 1995, p. 11 also names an HL115 as an alternative motor for the VK 20.01 (K), but this is the only mention of such an engine and there seem to be no further details at all.
  66. ^ This engine and the HL174 appear only to have been fitted in a few prototypes, and there seem to be few reliable sources about them.
  67. ^ Some sources claim 19.144 litres, but this figure should be around 17.4 litres according to the manufacturer's designation
  68. ^ Maybach had only completed two HL174 engines in 1942. Only a single VK 3601 chassis was ever completed.[151]
  69. ^ Adjusted estimate
  70. ^ Fuel injection engine, due to be completed by August 1945, but perhaps only one test engine was ever constructed. See "Interrogation of Dr. Stiele von Heydekampf", June 1945, in (Estes 2018, Appendix II, p. 7)
  71. ^ from model number
  72. ^ One example, captured in Friedrichshafen at the end of the war was tested in a post-war French AMX-50 heavy tank prototype. Weighing 57 tonnes, it failed to live up to expectations, with a road speed of 51 km/h, and only 20 km/h cross-country.[155]
  73. ^ Although the T-34 and KV tanks were almost impervious to the German 37mm anti-tank guns and the guns of the Panzer III and IVs,[159] they were not the primary reason why the German offensive ground to a halt by the end of 1941. Both sides suffered huge losses of personnel and matériel. The Battle of Smolensk delayed the German push towards Moscow.[160] Despite staggering losses including the Battle of Bryansk, the Red Army (backed up by physical defences constructed by innumerable civilian forces, both women and men, and the implacable weather - the rasputitsa) kept the invading forces at bay for long enough to keep re-located tank production going over the winter.[161]
  74. ^ The HL210 P30 is externally almost identical to the HL210 P45, apart from the hot coolant ducts (to radiator) at the flywheel end. On the P30 they are visually similar mirror images, and each duct is separately piped to the radiators on either side. On the P45 they are of unequal appearance, and are linked over the top of the fan drive housing into a 'Y'-fitting: a single pipe feeds the top of the offside radiator, which is coupled at the bottom to the top of the nearside radiator. The lower outlet of this feeds the oil cooler and then the water pump at the flywheel end. Photos make this much clearer.[140][136]
  75. ^ The four large central grey fittings are ducts to improve air flow in the engine bay.
  76. ^ The different cooling duct arrangements were carried over to their respective vehicles, and both designs received central twin magnetos, a new placement of the oil filter, and twin air filters in place of the triple cyclone housings.
  77. ^ Most of the information about this engine comes from the Report on the Interrogation of Dipl.-Ing. Ernest Kniepkamp (a.F.Vs.) by W. J. Semmons for British Intelligence Objectives Sub-committee (BIOS) c.1946 (Final Report No. 34). Typescript reproduced in Appendix III of Estes 2018, pp. 157–163 §
  78. ^ This auxiliary engine may have been the HL10, bore * stroke 100mm x 70mm, 1.0996 litres, 70 PS @5000 rpm.[172]
  1. ^ a b Frank 1990, p. 20.
  2. ^ "Maybach NL 38 und HL 42 Motor TUKRR TUKRM TRKM TUKRRM Ersatzteilliste". (in German). Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  3. ^ Spielberger 1993b, pp. 14–16.
  4. ^ a b Milsom 1975, p. 88.
  5. ^ "'Nordbau': Norddeutsche Motorenbau GmbH Niederschöneweide". Fotowiesel (in German). Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  6. ^ a b U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey 1947, p. 4.
  7. ^ U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey 1947, p. 3.
  8. ^ Dietrich, B. (1930). Vereinigte Stahlwerke. (= Stätten deutscher Arbeit.) (In German). Berlin: Widder-Verlag, pp. 97ff.
  9. ^ Schaffers 1910, p. 813.
  10. ^ a b Speer 1970, pp. 234–5.
  11. ^ Müller-Hillebrand 1982, pp. 2–4.
  12. ^ Müller-Hillebrand 1982, p. 4.
  13. ^ a b c d Müller-Hillebrand 1982, p. 25.
  14. ^ Müller-Hillebrand 1982, p. 21.
  15. ^ Spielberger 1993b, p. 23.
  16. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix I, p. 4; II, p. 11.
  17. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix II, p. 3.
  18. ^ U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey 1947, pp. 3, 11.
  19. ^ U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey 1947, pp. 9–10.
  20. ^ U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey 1947, pp. 8–9.
  21. ^ Spielberger 1993b, p. 141.
  22. ^ Müller-Hillebrand 1982, p. 3.
  23. ^ Müller-Hillebrand 1982, p. 28.
  24. ^ Munch 2005, p. 172, 187.
  25. ^ Ankerstjerne, Christian (9 April 2016). "Homeland Armor Maintenance". Panzerworld. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  26. ^ Müller-Hillebrand 1982, pp. 19, 25.
  27. ^ Munch 2005, pp. 138–9.
  28. ^ Milsom 1975, p. 9.
  29. ^ a b Müller-Hillebrand 1982, pp. 24–25.
  30. ^ a b Jentz 1995, pp. 61–62.
  31. ^ Müller-Hillebrand 1982, p. 43.
  32. ^ Hughes & Mann 1999, p. 34.
  33. ^ U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey 1947, pp. 5–6.
  34. ^ U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey 1947, pp. 3–4.
  35. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix III, p. 4.
  36. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix II, p. 7, III p. 3.
  37. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix I, p. 5.
  38. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix II, p. 8.
  39. ^ Photos of various front covers at "Maybach HL 62 TUK 6-cylinder Vergasermotor Owner's Manual Brochure". Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  40. ^ a b Photo (with Solex carburetter above, and fuel pump below l.) at "Maybach Sechszylindermotor HL 42". flickr. 11 November 2014. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  41. ^ Photos of Solex 40 carbs (end of page) at "Panzer IV Ausf.G (früh)". (in German). Archived from the original on 15 May 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  42. ^ Illustration in Koch 2000, p. 27.
  43. ^ Maybach HL42 TUKRM engine number. Fahrzeuge der Wehrmacht (in German). Retrieved 21 May 2018. Photo hosted at Fahrzeuge der Wehrmacht Archived 2021-01-30 at the Wayback Machine.
  44. ^ Lloyd, Balkwill & Johnston 2008, p. 166.
  45. ^ a b Hand-cranking various tanks Archived 2020-02-28 at the Wayback Machine (Youtube)
  46. ^ a b c "Comparative table of various types of German half-tracked vehicles". TM-E 30-451: Handbook on German Military Forces. (Online version hosted at U.S. War Department. 1945. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
  47. ^ See Lubrication chart and photos of the model build at FAMO - Schwerer Zugkraftwagen 18 t - SdKfz 9 - Crane and cargo version Archived 2019-11-27 at the Wayback Machine by Panzerserra, retrieved 10 December 2019.
  48. ^ a b Good cutaway diagram here: "Автострадные танки… по-немецки" [Avtostradnye tanki... po-nemetski]. (in Russian). Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  49. ^ a b c Koch 2000, p. 20.
  50. ^ a b Photos, diagrams (some in English) and explanations here: "О крайней упоротости Pz.III ausf.E-G. Почему Pz.III ausf.E-G упороты (Flaws in the Panzer III ausf. E-G)". Kedoki (in Russian). Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018. (Russian website, but machine translation is not too bad these days).
  51. ^ Perrett 1999, p. 5.
  52. ^ Spielberger 1994, diagrams p.36; 40.
  53. ^ a b Anderson 2016, p. 25.
  54. ^ Spielberger 1994, p. 40.
  55. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2000, p. 32.
  56. ^ Photos at "Tiger II Maybach Olvar EG 401216 B transmission unit". Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  57. ^ a b Diagrams and explanations here: Hamby, Alan. "Transmission & Steering". Tiger I Information Centre. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  58. ^ Many detailed photos at Lebert, Ron. "Sd.Kfz. 6/2 with 37mm Flak 36: air brake details". Missing-Lynx. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  59. ^ "15 cm sFH 18 German field howitzer". Panzerserra Bunker. 10 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  60. ^ Photo of HL62 TUK at Spielberger 1993, p. 67
  61. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2008, p. 3.
  62. ^ Jentz 2009, pp. 8, 20.
  63. ^ Milsom 1975, p. 10.
  64. ^ Photos at Schwabe, W. (30 December 2019). "Surviving SdKfz.10 D7 Demag Half-Tracks" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2020. and Schwabe, W. (15 January 2020). "Surviving SdKfz. 250 Half-Tracks" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020. (search both for MM Park, La Wantzenau)
  65. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2005, p. 15-2-2.
  66. ^ Ashley, Terry. "German WWII Maybach HL 42 TUKRM Engine". PMMS. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  67. ^ Couderc, Nicolas (April–May 2010). "Les Sd.Kfz.251 Ausf. A, B, C et D". Véhicules Militaires Magazine (in French) (32): 18–19. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  68. ^ Photo at "Maybach NL-38". Fahrzeuge der Wehrmacht (in German). Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  69. ^ Photo of damaged HL120 TRM: Koch 2000, p. 18
  70. ^ Kroes, Michael (1995). Aircraft Powerplants. New York: Glencoe. p. 180.
  71. ^ Juhrig, Mark (2016). "Magnetzündsysteme". Aerokurier (in German) (8/2016). Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  72. ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 2010b, p. 22-3-38.
  73. ^ a b "Which vehicles used the Maybach SHL 66 petrol engine?". Axis History Forum. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  74. ^ a b Milsom 1975, p. 13.
  75. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2006, pp. 3–32, 3–39, 3–70.
  76. ^ Ludvigsen 2005, pp. 159–160.
  77. ^ Ludvigsen 2005, p. 160.
  78. ^ "Arsenalen Försvarsfordonsmuseum". Arsenalen Försvarsfordonsmuseum (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  79. ^ Photos on Wikimedia Commons: Landsverk L-30
  80. ^ A clearer photo is here: "Tiger 131 restoration: the final stages?". The Tiger Collection. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  81. ^ a b Zima 1987, p. needed, as reviewed by NF (4 March 2019). "Разработка танковых двигателей фирмы Maybach в 1930-1940-е годы" [Development of Maybach tank engines in the 1930s-1940s]. Альтернативная история (Alternative history) (in Russian). Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  82. ^ See, for example, Jentz & Doyle 2001 and Jentz & Doyle 2002a.
  83. ^ a b Milsom 1975, p. 94.
  84. ^ "Leichte Wehrmachtsschlepper Adler leWS". Achtung Panzer!. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  85. ^ a b c Sawicki & Ledwoch 2007, p. 53.
  86. ^ Sawicki & Ledwoch 2007, pp. 52–3.
  87. ^ Photo at "Maybach Motoren". Fahrzeuge der Wehrmacht (in German). Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  88. ^ Perrett 1998, pp. 6, 8.
  89. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 10, 88.
  90. ^ a b c Milsom 1975, p. 11.
  91. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 11–12.
  92. ^ "m. Zgkw. 5t (Sd. Kfz. 6): Medium Semitrack Prime Mover". Catalog of Enemy Ordnance Materiel, Volume 1: German. pp. 52, 53. Retrieved 22 April 2018. [NB includes pages missing/redacted from's copy of CoEO (G) 1945.]
  93. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 11, 90.
  94. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 88–89.
  95. ^ Photo at "Mittlerer gepanzerter Mannschaftstransportwagen (Sd.Kfz. 251) Typ Hkl 6p". (in German). Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  96. ^ CoEO (G) 1945, p. 46•1 [pdf 28].
  97. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 90–91.
  98. ^ Photos of 1943 manual: "Mittlere Zugkraftwagen 5t (Sd.Kfz. 6)". (in German). Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. bore * stroke: 90 x 110 mm, 4.198 litres, compression ratio 1:6.6
  99. ^ Milsom 1975, p. 75.
  100. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2002b, p. 1-160.
  101. ^ Bore * stroke 95 x 100 mm[100]
  102. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2002b, p. 1-153.
  103. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2002b, pp. 1–153, 158, 170.
  104. ^ Perrett 1998, pp. 6–7.
  105. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2002b, pp. 1–153, 155.
  106. ^ "HKp 602/603". Achtung Panzer!. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  107. ^ a b "HKp 602 / 603, HKp 605 / 606". Vehicles of the Wehrmacht 1939-1945. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  108. ^ Photo at Milsom 1975, p. 40
  109. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2008a, p. 2-1-36.
  110. ^ a b Milsom 1975, p. 92.
  111. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 12, 90.
  112. ^ Perrett 1998, p. 9.
  113. ^ a b Milsom 1975, pp. 12, 92.
  114. ^ Perrett 1998, p. 9; plate D.
  115. ^ Perrett 1998, p. 14.
  116. ^ a b Jentz, Doyle & Friedli 2013, p. 22-4–70.
  117. ^ a b Milsom 1975, p. 12.
  118. ^ a b Jentz, Doyle & Friedli 2013, p. 22-4–73.
  119. ^ Perrett 1998, p. 12.
  120. ^ Photo at Kuhn 2017, p. 16
  121. ^ a b Spielberger 1978, p. 198.
  122. ^ Bore * stroke = 95mm x 100mm: see Sd.Kfz. 8 manual
  123. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 13, 92.
  124. ^ a b c d e f g Spielberger 1993, p. 165.
  125. ^ Perrett 1980, p. 5.
  126. ^ Perrett 1999, pp. 5–6.
  127. ^ Spielberger 1994, p. 21.
  128. ^ Milsom 1975, p. 14.
  129. ^ Anderson 2021, p. 33.
  130. ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 2010, p. 12-1-20.
  131. ^ Perrett 1980, pp. 6–9.
  132. ^ Perrett 1999, p. 6.
  133. ^ Spielberger 1993c, p. 122.
  134. ^ Spielberger 1993c, p. 160.
  135. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2010, pp. 12-1-20, 33, 41, 150.
  136. ^ a b c d e "The Maybach Engine". The Tiger I Information Center. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  137. ^ Bore * stroke 125 mm x 145 mm. Taking Maybach's value of π as 355÷113, engine capacity = (0.78539823 * 15,625 * 145 * 12) ÷ 1,000,000 = 21.353 litres.
  138. ^ a b c Jentz 1995, pp. 28–29, 36.
  139. ^ Spielberger (1993b), p. 27.
  140. ^ a b c d Tech. info and labelled diagrams at Eberl, E. (3 February 2015). "Motor & Transmission". Panther 1944 (in German and English). Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  141. ^ The intended HL230 P30 was not ready. (Doyle & Jentz 1997, pp. 5–6).
  142. ^ Informative labelled photos from Musée des Blindés, Saumur, at "The engine (HL230 P30)". Archived from the original on 4 November 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  143. ^ Bore and stroke, 130 mm × 145 mm (5.1 in × 5.7 in)"German Armor Engines". PanzerWorld. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
    Taking Maybach's value of π as 355÷113, engine capacity = (0.78539823 * 16,900 * 145 * 12) ÷ 1,000,000 = 23.095 litres.
  144. ^ Doyle & Jentz 1997, pp. 6, 7, 8.
  145. ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 1993, p. 12.
  146. ^ "Heuschrecke 10". The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. 1, p. 540. Sterling Publishing Company. ISBN 1-58663-762-2.
  147. ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 2000, p. 15.
  148. ^ Milsom 1975, p. 62.
  149. ^ Jentz 1995, p. 11.
  150. ^ a b "King Tiger development". Swiss Military Museum Full. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  151. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2000, p. 20.
  152. ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 1997, pp. 145–6.
  153. ^ a b Doyle & Jentz 1997, p. 10.
  154. ^ a b c d e Jentz & Doyle 2001, p. 20-18.
  155. ^ a b Mercillon n.d., pp. 26–7.
  156. ^ Albrecht 1997, pp. 119–20.
  157. ^ Perrett 1981, pp. 3–4.
  158. ^ a b Doyle & Jentz 1997, p. 4.
  159. ^ Zaloga 1994, pp. 14–15.
  160. ^ Bellamy 2007, p. 240.
  161. ^ Zaloga 1994, pp. 14–17, 18–21.
  162. ^ a b Perrett 1981, p. 4.
  163. ^ Saeed et al. 2013, p. 640.
  164. ^ Eberl, E. "The production periods of the Panther versions and the technical changes over the production periods". Panther 1944. Retrieved 16 May 2020. NB Engine changes half-way down in light grey.
  165. ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 2000, pp. 75–6.
  166. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2002, p. 14.
  167. ^ Jentz & Doyle 2000, pp. 76.
  168. ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 2000, p. 70.
  169. ^ From graph in Spielberger 1993b, p. 175 At the time Germany used the Kilopondmetre abbreviated as mkp or mkg. 1 mkp = 9.80665 N·m = 7.233 lb·ft.
  170. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix II, p. 7.
  171. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix II, p. 7, III p. 2.
  172. ^ Spielberger 1998, p. 209.
  173. ^ a b c Estes 2018, Appendix III p. 4.
  174. ^ Estes 2018, Appendix III p. 3.
  175. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 7–8.
  176. ^ Milsom 1975, pp. 6–7.


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