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List of United States Army four-star generals

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Army four-star general

This is a complete list of four-star generals in the United States Army, past and present. The rank of general (or full general, or four-star general) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Army. It ranks above lieutenant general (three-star general) and below General of the Army (five-star general).

There have been 240 four-star generals in the history of the U.S. Army. Of these, 221 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Army; eight were promoted after retirement; five were promoted posthumously; and one (George Washington) was appointed to that rank in the Continental Army, the U.S. Army's predecessor. Generals entered the Army via several paths: 153 were commissioned via the U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 47 via Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university, 16 via direct commission (direct), 13 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), seven via ROTC at a senior military college, one via ROTC at a military junior college, one via direct commission in the Army National Guard (ARNG), one via the aviation cadet program, and one via battlefield commission.

Contents

List of generalsEdit

Entries in the following list of four-star generals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Army. Each entry lists the general's name, date of rank,[1] active-duty positions held while serving at four-star rank,[2] number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank (Yrs),[3] year commissioned and source of commission,[4] number of years in commission when promoted to four-star rank (YC),[5] and other biographical notes.[6]

The list is sortable by last name, date of rank, number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank, year commissioned, and number of years in commission when promoted to four-star rank.

# Photo Date of rank [1] Position [2] Yrs [3] Commission [4] YC [5] Notes [6]
* George Washington   15 Jun 1775   8 1775 (direct) 0 (1732–1799) [7] Promoted to General of the Armies, July 4, 1976. U.S. President, 1789–1797. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1776.
1 Ulysses S. Grant   25 Jul 1866   5 1843 (USMA) 23 (1822–1885) [8] U.S. President, 1869–1877. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1863. Married great-aunt of Navy four-star admiral U. S. Grant Sharp Jr.
2 William Tecumseh Sherman   04 Mar 1869   14 1840 (USMA) 29 (1820–1891) Superintendent, Louisiana Seminary of Learning and Military Academy, 1860–1861. Brother of U.S. Secretary of State John Sherman.
3 Philip Sheridan   01 Jun 1888   0 1853 (USMA) 35 (1831–1888) Died in office.
4 Tasker H. Bliss   06 Oct 1917   2 1875 (USMA) 42 (1853–1930) [9][10] Governor, U.S. Soldiers' Home, 1920–1927.
5 John J. Pershing   06 Oct 1917   7 1886 (USMA) 42 (1860–1948) Promoted to General of the Armies, 03 Sep 1919. Chairman, Tacna-Arica Plebiscitary Commission, 1925–1926. Awarded Pulitzer Prize for History, 1932; Congressional Gold Medal, 1946.
6 Peyton C. March   20 May 1918   2 1888 (USMA) 30 (1864–1955) [10]
7 Charles Pelot Summerall   23 Feb 1929   1 1892 (USMA) 37 (1867–1955) [11] President, The Citadel, 1931–1953.
8 Douglas MacArthur   21 Nov 1930   15 1903 (USMA) 27 (1880–1964) [12] Promoted to general of the Army, 18 Dec 1944. Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1919–1922. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1942; Congressional Gold Medal, 1962. Relieved, 1951.
9 Malin Craig   02 Oct 1935   8 1898 (USMA) 37 (1875–1945) [13]
10 George C. Marshall Jr.   01 Sep 1939   6 1901 (VMI) [14] 38 (1880–1959) [15] Promoted to general of the Army, 16 Dec 1944. Special Representative of the President in China, 1945–1947; U.S. Secretary of State, 1947–1949; President, American Red Cross, 1949–1950; U.S. Secretary of Defense, 1950–1951. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1946; Nobel Peace Prize, 1953.
* John L. Hines   15 Jun 1940  
  • (retired)
0 1891 (USMA) 49 (1868–1968) [16] Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 1924–1926.
11 Dwight D. Eisenhower   11 Feb 1943   6 1915 (USMA) 28 (1890–1969) [17] Promoted to general of the Army, 20 Dec 1944. President, Columbia University, 1948–1953; U.S. President, 1953–1961.
12 Henry H. Arnold   19 Mar 1943   3 1907 (USMA) 36 (1886–1950) [18] Promoted to general of the Army, December 21, 1944; to general of the Air Force, May 7, 1949.
13 Joseph W. Stilwell   01 Aug 1944   2 1904 (USMA) 40 (1883–1946) Died in office.
14 Walter Krueger   05 Mar 1945   1 1901 (direct) 44 (1881–1967) [19]
15 Brehon B. Somervell   06 Mar 1945   1 1914 (USMA) 31 (1892–1955) [20]
16 Joseph T. McNarney   07 Mar 1945   7 1915 (USMA) 30 (1893–1972) [18]
17 Jacob L. Devers   08 Mar 1945   4 1909 (USMA) 36 (1887–1979)
18 George Kenney   09 Mar 1945   6 1917 (cadet) 28 (1889–1977) [18]
19 Mark W. Clark   10 Mar 1945   8 1917 (USMA) 28 (1896–1984) [21] President, The Citadel, 1954–1966.
20 Carl Andrew Spaatz   11 Mar 1945   3 1914 (USMA) 31 (1891–1974) [18]
21 Omar Bradley   12 Mar 1945   8 1915 (USMA) 30 (1893–1981) Promoted to general of the Army, 22 Sep 1950. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1977.
22 Thomas T. Handy   13 Mar 1945   9 1916 (VMI)[14] 29 (1892–1982)
23 George S. Patton   14 Apr 1945   0 1909 (USMA) 36 (1885–1945) Died in office. Father-in-law of Army four-star general John K. Waters.
24 Courtney Hodges   15 Apr 1945   4 1909 (direct) 36 (1887–1966)
25 Jonathan M. Wainwright   05 Sep 1945   1 1906 (USMA) 39 (1883–1953) Awarded Medal of Honor, 1945.
26 Lucius D. Clay   28 Mar 1947   2 1918 (USMA) 29 (1897–1978) Special Representative of the President in Berlin, 1961–1962. Son of U.S. Senator Alexander S. Clay; father of Air Force four-star general Lucius D. Clay Jr.
27 J. Lawton Collins   24 Jan 1948   7 1917 (USMA) 31 (1896–1987) U.S. Special Representative to Vietnam, 1954–1955.
28 Wade H. Haislip   01 Oct 1949   2 1912 (USMA) 37 (1889–1971) Governor, U.S. Soldiers' Home, 1951–1966.
* Walton Walker   02 Jan 1951  
  • (posthumous)
0 1912 (USMA) 39 (1889–1950) [22] Died in office. Father of Army four-star general Sam S. Walker.
29 Matthew Ridgway   11 May 1951   4 1917 (USMA) 34 (1895–1993) Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1986; Congressional Gold Medal, 1990.
30 Walter Bedell Smith   01 Jul 1951   2 1917 (direct) 34 (1895–1961) U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1946–1949; U.S. Under Secretary of State, 1953–1954.
31 John E. Hull   30 Jul 1951   4 1917 (direct) 34 (1895–1975)
32 James A. Van Fleet   31 Jul 1951   2 1915 (USMA) 36 (1892–1992) Special Representative of the President in the Far East, 1954.
33 Alfred Gruenther   01 Aug 1951   5 1917 (USMA) 34 (1899–1983) President, American Red Cross, 1957–1964.
34 John R. Hodge   05 Jul 1952   1 1917 (direct) 35 (1893–1963)
35 Maxwell D. Taylor   23 Jun 1953   9 1922 (USMA) 31 (1901–1987) [23] Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1945–1949; U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam, 1964–1965; President, Institute for Defense Analyses, 1966–1969.
36 Charles L. Bolte   30 Jul 1953   2 1917 (direct) 36 (1895–1989)
37 William M. Hoge   23 Oct 1953   2 1916 (USMA) 37 (1894–1979)
* Robert L. Eichelberger   19 Jul 1954  
  • (retired)
0 1909 (USMA) 45 (1886–1961) [24] Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1940–1942.
* Lucian Truscott   19 Jul 1954  
  • (retired)
0 1917 (direct) 37 (1895–1965) [24]
* Leonard T. Gerow   19 Jul 1954  
  • (retired)
0 1911 (VMI) [14] 43 (1888–1972) [24]
* William Hood Simpson   19 Jul 1954  
  • (retired)
0 1909 (USMA) 45 (1888–1980) [24]
* Ben Lear Jr.   19 Jul 1954  
  • (retired)
0 1901 (direct) 53 (1879–1966) [24]
* Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.   19 Jul 1954  
  • (posthumous)
0 1908 (USMA) 46 (1886–1945) [24] Killed in action. Son of Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner Sr.
* Alexander Patch   19 Jul 1954  
  • (posthumous)
0 1913 (USMA) 41 (1889–1945) [24] Died in office.
* Lesley J. McNair   19 Jul 1954  
  • (posthumous)
0 1904 (USMA) 50 (1883–1944) [24] Killed in action.
* John L. DeWitt   19 Jul 1954  
  • (retired)
0 1898 (direct) 56 (1880–1962) [24]
* Albert Coady Wedemeyer   19 Jul 1954  
  • (retired)
0 1918 (USMA) 36 (1897–1989) [24] Special Representative of the President in China and Korea, 1947. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1985.
* Robert C. Richardson Jr.   19 Jul 1954  
  • (posthumous)
0 1904 (USMA) 50 (1882–1954) [24]
38 John E. Dahlquist   18 Aug 1954   2 1917 (direct) 37 (1896–1975)
39 Anthony McAuliffe   01 Mar 1955   1 1918 (USMA) 37 (1898–1975)
40 Lyman Lemnitzer   25 Mar 1955   14 1920 (USMA) 35 (1899–1988) [25] Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1987.
41 Williston B. Palmer   01 May 1955   7 1919 (USMA) 36 (1899–1973) [26] Brother of Army four-star general Charles D. Palmer.
42 Isaac D. White   22 Jun 1955   6 1922 (Norwich) 33 (1901–1990)
43 Willard G. Wyman   01 Mar 1956   2 1919 (USMA) 37 (1898–1969)
44 Cortlandt V.R. Schuyler   18 May 1956   3 1922 (USMA) 34 (1900–1993) Commissioner, New York State Office of General Services, 1960–1971.
45 George Decker   31 May 1956   6 1924 (ROTC) 32 (1902–1980)
46 Henry I. Hodes   01 Jun 1956   3 1920 (USMA) 36 (1899–1962)
47 Bruce C. Clarke   01 Aug 1958   4 1925 (USMA) 33 (1901–1988)
48 Clyde D. Eddleman   01 Apr 1959   3 1924 (USMA) 35 (1902–1992)
49 Carter B. Magruder   01 Jul 1959   2 1923 (USMA) 36 (1900–1988)
50 Charles D. Palmer   01 Oct 1959   3 1924 (USMA) 35 (1902–1999) Brother of Army four-star general Williston B. Palmer.
51 Clark L. Ruffner   01 Mar 1960   2 1924 (VMI) 36 (1903–1982)
52 James Edward Moore   21 Apr 1960   3 1924 (USMA) 36 (1902–1986) U.S. High Commissioner, Ryukyu Islands, 1955–1958.
53 Herbert B. Powell   01 Oct 1960   3 1926 (ROTC) 34 (1903–1998) U.S. Ambassador to New Zealand, 1963–1967.
54 James Francis Collins   01 Apr 1961   3 1927 (USMA) 34 (1905–1989) President, American Red Cross, 1964–1970.
55 Guy S. Meloy Jr.   01 Jul 1961   2 1927 (USMA) 34 (1903–1964)
56 Paul D. Adams   03 Oct 1961  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Strike Command (USCINCSTRIKE), 1961–1963.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Strike Command/U.S. Commander in Chief, Middle East, Africa south of the Sahara, and South Asia (USCINCSTRIKE/USCINCMEAFSA), 1963–1966.
5 1928 (USMA) 33 (1906–1987)
57 Paul D. Harkins   02 Jan 1962   2 1929 (USMA) 33 (1904–1984)
58 Earle Wheeler   01 Mar 1962   8 1932 (USMA) 30 (1908–1975) Widow married Army four-star general Frank S. Besson Jr.
59 Barksdale Hamlett   02 Apr 1962   2 1930 (USMA) 32 (1908–1979) President, Norwich University, 1966–1972.
60 Paul L. Freeman Jr.   01 May 1962   5 1929 (USMA) 33 (1907–1988)
61 Robert J. Wood   01 Sep 1962  
  • Director of Military Assistance, 1962–1965.
3 1930 (USMA) 32 (1905–1986)
62 John K. Waters   28 Feb 1963   3 1931 (USMA) 32 (1906–1989) Son-in-law of Army four-star general George S. Patton
63 Andrew P. O'Meara   06 Jun 1963   4 1930 (USMA) 33 (1907–2005)
64 Theodore W. Parker   01 Jul 1963   6 1931 (USMA) 32 (1909–1994) Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation, 1969–1972.
65 Hamilton H. Howze   01 Aug 1963   2 1930 (USMA) 33 (1908–1998)
66 Hugh P. Harris   01 Mar 1964   1 1931 (USMA) 33 (1909–1979) President, The Citadel, 1965–1970.
67 Frank S. Besson Jr.   27 May 1964   6 1932 (USMA) 32 (1910–1985) [27] Incorporator, National Rail Passenger Corporation, 1970–1971; Member, Board of Directors, AMTRAK, 1971–1974. Married widow of Army four-star general Earle G. Wheeler.
68 Harold Keith Johnson   03 Jul 1964   4 1933 (USMA) 31 (1912–1983)
69 William Westmoreland   01 Aug 1964   8 1936 (USMA) 28 (1914–2005) Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1960–1963; candidate for Republican Party nomination for Governor of South Carolina, 1974.
70 Creighton Abrams   04 Sep 1964   10 1936 (USMA) 28 (1914–1974) Died in office. Father of Army four-star generals John N. Abrams and Robert B. Abrams.
71 Robert W. Porter Jr.   18 Mar 1965   4 1930 (USMA) 35 (1908–2000)
72 Dwight E. Beach   01 Jul 1965   3 1932 (USMA) 33 (1908–2000)
73 Charles H. Bonesteel III   01 Sep 1966   3 1931 (USMA) 35 (1909–1977)
74 Theodore J. Conway   01 Nov 1966  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Strike Command/U.S. Commander in Chief, Middle East, Africa south of the Sahara, and South Asia (USCINCSTRIKE/USCINCMEAFSA), 1966–1969.
3 1933 (USMA) 33 (1909–1990)
75 James H. Polk   31 May 1967   4 1933 (USMA) 34 (1911–1992) Distant cousin of U.S. President James K. Polk.
76 Ralph E. Haines Jr.   01 Jun 1967   6 1935 (USMA) 32 (1913–2011)
77 James K. Woolnough   01 Jul 1967   3 1932 (USMA) 35 (1910–1996)
78 Andrew Goodpaster   03 Jul 1968   6 1939 (USMA) 29 (1915–2005) [28] Staff Secretary/Defense Liaison Officer to the President, 1954–1961; Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1977–1981; President, Institute for Defense Analyses, 1983–1985. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1961 and 1984.
79 Ben Harrell   04 Jul 1968   3 1933 (USMA) 35 (1911–1981)
80 Berton E. Spivy Jr.   31 Jul 1968   3 1934 (USMA) 34 (1911–1997)
81 Bruce Palmer Jr.   01 Aug 1968   6 1936 (USMA) 32 (1913–2000)
82 George R. Mather   01 Mar 1969   2 1932 (USMA) 37 (1911–1993)
83 Ferdinand J. Chesarek   10 Mar 1969   1 1938 (USMA) 31 (1914–1993)
84 William B. Rosson   15 May 1969   6 1940 (ROTC) 29 (1918–2004)
85 John L. Throckmorton   01 Aug 1969  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Strike Command/U.S. Commander in Chief, Middle East, Africa south of the Sahara, and South Asia (USCINCSTRIKE/USCINCMEAFSA), 1969–1972.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Readiness Command (USCINCRED), 1972–1973.
4 1935 (USMA) 34 (1913–1986)
86 John H. Michaelis   01 Oct 1969   3 1936 (USMA) 33 (1912–1985)
87 Lewis Blaine Hershey   23 Dec 1969  
  • Presidential Advisor on Manpower Mobilization, 1970–1973.
4 1913 (ARNG) 56 (1893–1977) [29] Director, Selective Service System, 1941–1970.
88 Frederick C. Weyand   31 Oct 1970   6 1938 (ROTC) 32 (1916–2010)
89 Henry A. Miley Jr.   01 Nov 1970   5 1940 (USMA) 30 (1915–2010)
90 Frank T. Mildren   01 Apr 1971   2 1939 (USMA) 32 (1913–1990)
91 Michael S. Davison   26 May 1971   4 1939 (USMA) 32 (1917–2006) Aunt married Navy four-star admiral Arthur W. Radford.
92 George V. Underwood Jr.   01 Oct 1971   2 1937 (USMA) 34 (1913–1984)
93 Donald V. Bennett   01 Sep 1972   2 1940 (USMA) 32 (1915–2005) Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1966–1969; Director, Defense Intelligence Agency, 1969–1972.
94 Alexander Haig   Jan 1973   5 1947 (USMA) 26 (1924–2010) Deputy National Security Advisor, 1970–1973; U.S. Secretary of State, 1981–1982; candidate for Republican Party nomination for U.S. President, 1988.
95 Walter T. Kerwin Jr.   01 Feb 1973   5 1939 (USMA) 34 (1917–2008) Married widow of Marine Corps four-star general Keith B. McCutcheon.
96 William E. DePuy   01 Jul 1973   4 1941 (ROTC) 32 (1919–1992)
97 Richard G. Stilwell   31 Jul 1973   3 1938 (USMA) 35 (1917–1991) U.S. Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, 1981–1985.
98 Melvin Zais   01 Aug 1973   3 1937 (ROTC) 36 (1916–1981)
99 Bernard W. Rogers   07 Nov 1974   13 1943 (USMA) 31 (1921–2008)
100 John J. Hennessey   08 Nov 1974   5 1944 (USMA) 30 (1921–2001)
101 John R. Deane Jr.   12 Feb 1975   2 1942 (USMA) 33 (1919–2013)
102 George S. Blanchard   01 Jul 1975   4 1944 (USMA) 31 (1920–2006)
103 William A. Knowlton   01 Jun 1976   4 1943 (USMA) 33 (1920–2008) Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1970–1974. Father-in-law of Army four-star general David H. Petraeus.
104 Frederick Kroesen   01 Oct 1976   7 1943 (OCS) 33 (1923–       )
105 John William Vessey Jr.   01 Nov 1976   9 1944 (battlefield) 32 (1922–2016) Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1992.
106 Donn A. Starry   01 Jul 1977   6 1948 (USMA) 29 (1925–2011)
107 Sam S. Walker 1977   1 1946 (USMA) 31 (1925–2015) Superintendent, Virginia Military Institute, 1981–1988. Son of Army four-star general Walton H. Walker.
108 John R. Guthrie   01 May 1977   4 1942 (ROTC) 35 (1921–2009)
109 Robert M. Shoemaker   22 Aug 1978   4 1946 (USMA) 32 (1924–2017)
110 Edward C. Meyer   22 Jun 1979   4 1951 (USMA) 28 (1928–       )
111 John A. Wickham Jr.   10 Jul 1979   8 1950 (USMA) 29 (1928–       )
112 Volney F. Warner   01 Aug 1979   2 1950 (USMA) 29 (1926–       )
113 Glenn K. Otis   01 Aug 1981   7 1953 (USMA) 28 (1929–2013)
114 Donald R. Keith   01 Sep 1981   3 1949 (USMA) 32 (1927–2004)
115 Richard E. Cavazos   19 Feb 1982   2 1951 (ROTC) 31 (1929–2017)
116 Robert W. Sennewald   24 May 1982   4 1951 (ROTC) 31 (1929–       )
117 Roscoe Robinson Jr.   30 Aug 1982   3 1951 (USMA) 31 (1928–1993) First African-American to achieve the rank of general in the Army.
118 William R. Richardson   28 Feb 1983   3 1951 (USMA) 32 (1929–       )
119 Paul F. Gorman   25 May 1983   2 1950 (USMA) 33 (1927–       )
120 Wallace H. Nutting   25 May 1983   2 1950 (USMA) 33 (1928–       )
121 Maxwell R. Thurman   23 Jun 1983   7 1953 (ROTC) 30 (1931–1995)
122 William J. Livsey   03 May 1984   3 1952 (ROTC) 32 (1931–2016)
123 Richard Horner Thompson   29 Jun 1984   3 1950 (direct) 34 (1926–2016)
124 Robert Kingston   06 Nov 1984   1 1949 (OCS) 35 (1928–2007)
125 John R. Galvin   25 Feb 1985   7 1954 (USMA) 31 (1929–2015) U.S. Special Representative to Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1994.
126 Fred K. Mahaffey   17 Jun 1985   1 1955 (ROTC) 30 (1934–1986) Died in office.
127 Jack N. Merritt   01 Dec 1985   2 1953 (OCS) 32 (1930–2018)
128 Carl E. Vuono   01 Jul 1986   5 1957 (USMA) 29 (1934–       )
129 Joseph T. Palastra Jr.   01 Jul 1986   3 1954 (USMA) 32 (1931–2015)
130 James J. Lindsay   10 Oct 1986   4 1953 (OCS) 33 (1932–       )
131 Louis C. Wagner Jr.   13 Apr 1987   2 1954 (USMA) 33 (1932–       )
132 Frederick F. Woerner Jr.   06 Jun 1987   2 1955 (USMA) 32 (1933–       ) Relieved, 1989.
133 Arthur E. Brown Jr.   24 Jun 1987   2 1953 (USMA) 34 (1929–       )
134 Louis C. Menetrey   24 Jun 1987   3 1953 (ROTC) 34 (1929–2009)
135 Crosbie E. Saint   24 Jun 1988   4 1958 (USMA) 30 (1936–2018)
136 Norman Schwarzkopf Jr.   23 Nov 1988   3 1956 (USMA) 32 (1934–2012)[30] Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1991; Congressional Gold Medal, 1991.
137 Robert W. RisCassi   17 Jan 1989   4 1958 (ROTC) 31 (1936–       )
138 Colin Powell   04 Apr 1989   4 1958 (ROTC) 31 (1937–       ) Deputy National Security Advisor, 1987; National Security Advisor, 1987–1989; U.S. Secretary of State, 2001–2005. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1991; Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1991 and, with distinction, 1993.
139 John W. Foss   02 Aug 1989   2 1956 (USMA) 33 (1933–       )
140 Edwin H. Burba Jr.   27 Sep 1989   4 1959 (USMA) 30 (1936–       )
141 William G. T. Tuttle Jr.   01 Oct 1989   3 1958 (USMA) 31 (1935–       )
142 Gordon R. Sullivan   04 Jun 1990   5 1959 (Norwich) 31 (1937–       )
143 Carl Stiner   01 Jul 1990   3 1958 (ROTC) 32 (1936–       )
144 George Joulwan   21 Nov 1990   7 1961 (USMA) 29 (1939–       )
145 Dennis Reimer   21 Jun 1991   8 1962 (USMA) 29 (1939–       )
146 Frederick M. Franks Jr.   23 Aug 1991   3 1959 (USMA) 32 (1936–       )
147 Jimmy D. Ross   01 Feb 1992   2 1958 (ROTC) 34 (1936–2012)
148 John Shalikashvili   24 Jun 1992   5 1959 (OCS) 33 (1936–2011) Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1997.
149 David M. Maddox   09 Jul 1992   2 1960 (VMI) 32 (1938–       )
150 J. H. Binford Peay III   26 Mar 1993   4 1962 (VMI) 31 (1940–       ) Superintendent, Virginia Military Institute, 2003–present.
151 Wayne A. Downing   20 May 1993   3 1962 (USMA) 31 (1940–2007) Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism, 2001–2002.
152 Gary E. Luck   01 Jul 1993   3 1960 (ROTC) 33 (1937–       )
153 Leon E. Salomon   11 Feb 1994   2 1959 (OCS) 35 (1936–       )
154 Barry R. McCaffrey   17 Feb 1994   2 1964 (USMA) 30 (1942–       ) Director, National Drug Control Policy, 1996–2001.
155 John H. Tilelli Jr.   19 Jul 1994   5 1963 (PMC) [31] 31 (1941–       )
156 William W. Hartzog   01 Dec 1994   4 1963 (Citadel) 31 (1941–       )
157 William W. Crouch   01 Jan 1995   3 1963 (ROTC) 32 (1941–       )
158 Ronald H. Griffith   06 Jun 1995   2 1960 (ROTC) 35 (1936–2018)
159 Henry Shelton   01 Mar 1996   5 1964 (ROTC) 32 (1942–       ) Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 2002.
160 Johnnie E. Wilson   01 May 1996   3 1967 (OCS) 29 (1944–       )
161 Wesley Clark   21 Jun 1996   4 1966 (USMA) 30 (1944–       ) Candidate for Democratic Party nomination for U.S. President, 2004. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2000.
162 David A. Bramlett   01 Sep 1996   2 1964 (USMA) 32 (1941–       )
163 Eric Shinseki   05 Aug 1997   6 1965 (USMA) 32 (1942–       ) U.S. Secretary of Veterans Affairs, 2009–2014[32]
164 Peter Schoomaker   04 Oct 1997   7 1969 (ROTC) 28 (1946–       ) [33] Brother of Eric Schoomaker
165 Thomas A. Schwartz   31 Aug 1998   4 1967 (USMA) 31 (1945–       )
166 John N. Abrams   14 Sep 1998   4 1968 (OCS) 30 (1946–2018) Son of Army four-star general Creighton Abrams and brother of Army four-star general Robert B. Abrams.
167 Montgomery C. Meigs   10 Nov 1998  
  • Commanding General, U.S. Army Europe and Seventh Army (CG USAREUR), 1998–2002.
4 1967 (USMA) 31 (1945–       ) Director, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, 2005–2007. Distant cousin of Navy four-star admiral Montgomery M. Taylor and great-great-great grandnephew of Montgomery C. Meigs.
168 Jack Keane   22 Jan 1999   4 1966 (ROTC) 33 (1943–       )
169 John G. Coburn   14 May 1999   2 1963 (ROTC) 36 (1941–       )
170 John W. Hendrix   23 Nov 1999   2 1965 (ROTC) 34 (1942–       )
171 William F. Kernan   Jul 2000   2 1968 (OCS) 32 (1946–       )
172 Tommy Franks   06 Jul 2000   3 1967 (OCS) 33 (1945–       ) Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2004.
173 Larry R. Ellis   2001   3 1969 (ROTC) 32 (1946–       )
174 Paul J. Kern   30 Oct 2001   3 1967 (USMA) 34 (1945–       )
175 Leon J. LaPorte   01 May 2002   4 1968 (ROTC) 34 (1946–       )
176 James T. Hill   18 Aug 2002   2 1968 (ROTC) 34 (1946–       )
177 Kevin P. Byrnes   07 Nov 2002   3 1969 (OCS) 33 (1950–       ) [34] Relieved, 2005.
178 Burwell B. Bell III   03 Dec 2002   6 1969 (ROTC) 33 (1947–       )
179 John P. Abizaid   27 Jun 2003   4 1973 (USMA) 30 (1951–       )
180 Bryan D. Brown   25 Aug 2003   4 1970 (OCS) 33 (1948–       )
181 George W. Casey Jr.   01 Dec 2003   8 1970 (ROTC) 33 (1948–       )
182 Richard A. Cody   24 Jun 2004   4 1972 (USMA) 32 (1950–       )
183 Dan K. McNeill   01 Jul 2004   4 1968 (ROTC) 36 (1946–       )
184 Benjamin S. Griffin   05 Nov 2004   4 1970 (OCS) 34 (1946–       )
185 Bantz J. Craddock   01 Jan 2005   4 1971 (ROTC) 33 (1949–       )
186 William S. Wallace   13 Oct 2005   3 1969 (USMA) 36 (1946–       )
187 David D. McKiernan   14 Dec 2005   4 1972 (ROTC) 33 (1950–       ) Resigned, 2009.
188 William E. Ward   03 May 2006   5 1971 (ROTC) 35 (1949–       ) U.S. Security Coordinator, Israel-Palestinian Authority, 2005.
189 Charles C. Campbell   09 Jan 2007   3 1970 (ROTC) 37 (1948–2016)
190 David Petraeus   10 Feb 2007   4 1974 (USMA) 33 (1952–       ) Director, Central Intelligence Agency, 2011–2012. Son-in-law of Army four-star general William A. Knowlton.
191 Walter L. Sharp   02 Jun 2008   3 1974 (USMA) 34 (1952–       )
192 Peter W. Chiarelli   04 Aug 2008   4 1972 (ROTC) 36 (1950–       )
193 Carter F. Ham   28 Aug 2008   5 1976 (ROTC) 32 (1952–       )
194 Raymond T. Odierno   16 Sep 2008   7 1976 (USMA) 32 (1954–       ) [35]
195 Ann E. Dunwoody   14 Nov 2008   4 1975 (direct) 33 (1953–       ) First woman to achieve four-star rank in any service.
196 Martin E. Dempsey   08 Dec 2008   7 1974 (USMA) 34 (1952–       )
197 Stanley A. McChrystal   15 Jun 2009   1 1976 (USMA) 33 (1954–       ) Resigned, 2010.
198 Keith B. Alexander   21 May 2010   4 1974 (USMA) 36 (1952–       ) Director, National Security Agency, 2005–2014.
199 James D. Thurman   03 Jun 2010   3 1975 (ROTC) 35 (1953–       )
200 Lloyd J. Austin III   01 Sep 2010   6 1975 (USMA) 35 (1953–       )
201 Robert W. Cone   29 Apr 2011   3 1979 (USMA) 32 (1957–2016)
202 Charles H. Jacoby Jr.   03 Aug 2011   3 1978 (USMA) 33 (1954–       )
203 David M. Rodriguez   12 Sep 2011   5 1976 (USMA) 35 (1954–       )
204 Dennis L. Via   07 Aug 2012   4 1980 (ROTC) 32 (1958–       )
205 Frank J. Grass   07 Sep 2012   4 1981 (OCS) 31 (1951–       ) Served 12 years in the enlisted ranks before receiving his commission in 1981. First Army National Guard officer to achieve the rank of general.
206 John F. Campbell   08 Mar 2013   3 1979 (USMA) 34 (1957–       )
207 Daniel B. Allyn   10 May 2013   4 1981 (USMA) 32 (1959–       )
208 Vincent K. Brooks   02 Jul 2013   5 1980 (USMA) 33 (1958–       )
209 Curtis M. Scaparrotti   02 Oct 2013   6 1978 (USMA) 35 (1956–       )
210 David G. Perkins   14 Mar 2014   5 1980 (USMA) 34 (1957–       )
211 Mark A. Milley   15 Aug 2014   5 1980 (ROTC) 34 (1958–       )
212 Joseph L. Votel   28 Aug 2014   5 1980 (USMA) 34 (1958–       )
213 Robert B. Abrams   10 Aug 2015   4 1982 (USMA) 33 (1960–       ) Son of Army four-star general Creighton Abrams and brother of Army four-star general John N. Abrams.
214 John W. Nicholson Jr.   02 Mar 2016   2 1982 (USMA) 34 (1957–       )
215 Raymond A. Thomas III   30 Mar 2016   3 1980 (USMA) 36 (1958–       )
216 Robert B. Brown   30 Apr 2016   3 1981 (USMA) 35 (1959–       )
217 Gustave F. Perna   30 Sep 2016   3 1979 (VFMAC) 37 (1960–       )
218 James C. McConville   16 Jun 2017   2 1981 (USMA) 36 (1959–       )
219 Stephen J. Townsend   02 Mar 2018   1 1982 (ROTC) 36 (1959–       )
220 Paul M. Nakasone   04 May 2018   1 1986 (ROTC) 32 (1963–       )
221 Stephen R. Lyons   24 Aug 2018   1 1983 (ROTC) 35 (c. 1962–       )
222 John M. Murray   24 Aug 2018   1 1982 (ROTC) 36 (19??–       )
223 Austin S. Miller   02 Sep 2018   1 1983 (USMA) 35 (1961–       )
224 Michael X. Garrett   21 Mar 2019   0 1984 (ROTC) 35 (1961–       )
225 Richard D. Clarke   29 Mar 2019   0 1984 (USMA) 35 (1962–       )
226 Paul E. Funk II   21 Jun 2019   0 1984 (ROTC) 35 (1962–       )

TimelineEdit

1775–1799Edit

In 1775, George Washington was appointed "General and Commander in Chief of the United Colonies" and all its forces. Although Washington ranked as a full general in the Continental Army, he resigned his commission prior to the establishment of the U.S. Army in 1784 and he is therefore considered never to have held the U.S. Army rank of general.[36] In 1798, Washington was commissioned lieutenant general in the U.S. Army and appointed Commander in Chief of the armies of the United States. The following year, Congress created the rank of General of the Armies of the United States, but Washington died before accepting it and the rank lapsed until 1866.[37] Washington was finally promoted to General of the Armies in 1976.

George Washington 

1866–1941Edit

The grade of General of the Armies of the United States was revived in 1866, under the name "General of the Army of the United States" to honor the Civil War achievements of Ulysses S. Grant, the commanding general of the U.S. Army (CGUSA).[38] When Grant resigned his commission to become President in 1869, William T. Sherman was promoted to fill the vacant grade. Congress specified in 1870 that the rank would expire upon Sherman's retirement, but made an exception in 1888 to promote an ailing Philip H. Sheridan. This title is not to be confused with the later five-star rank of General of the Army.[39]

In 1917, the rank of general was recreated in the National Army, a temporary force of conscripts and volunteers authorized for the duration of the World War I emergency. To give American commanders parity of rank with their Allied counterparts, Congress allowed the President to appoint two emergency generals in the National Army, specified to be the chief of staff of the Army (CSA), Tasker H. Bliss and later Peyton C. March; and the commander of United States forces in France, John J. Pershing.[40] When March replaced Bliss as chief of staff, Bliss was continued in four-star rank by brevet as the U.S. military representative to the Supreme War Council.[41] In contrast to the previous grade of general held by Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan, which was a permanent promotion, this new rank was a temporary appointment that was lost when the officer vacated the position bearing that rank, and while Pershing was ultimately advanced to General of the Armies in 1919, March and Bliss reverted to their permanent grades of major general in the Regular Army when the National Army disbanded in 1920.[42]

In 1929, the temporary rank of general in the Regular Army was reauthorized for the office of chief of staff, whose occupant reverted to major general at the end of his term but was allowed to retire as a full general. When the draft force was reconstituted for World War II as the Army of the United States in 1941, the President was authorized to appoint as many temporary generals in that organization as he deemed necessary. As with the National Army emergency generals, these appointments expired after the end of the war, although postwar legislation allowed officers to retire in their highest active-duty rank.[43]

George MarshallMalin CraigDouglas MacArthurCharles P. SummerallPeyton C. MarchJohn J. PershingTasker H. BlissPhilip H. SheridanWilliam T. ShermanUlysses S. Grant 

1947–presentEdit

The modern rank of general was established by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, which authorized the President to designate certain positions of importance to carry that rank. Officers appointed to such positions bear temporary four-star rank while so serving, and are allowed to retire at that rank if their performance is judged satisfactory.[44] The total number of active-duty four-star generals in the Army is limited to a fixed percentage of the number of Army general officers serving at all ranks.[45]

Within the Army, the chief of staff (CSA) and vice chief of staff (VCSA) are four-star generals by statute. Since World War II, the commanders of the Army formations in Europe (USAREUR) and East Asia (FECOM/USFK) have been designated four-star generals by reason of importance. Other designated four-star Army commands have included the various training, readiness, and materiel organizations.

The Army also competes with the other services for a number of joint four-star positions, the most prestigious[citation needed] of which are the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) and the NATO supreme allied commander in Europe (SACEUR). Other joint four-star positions have included unified combatant commanders; certain NATO staff positions; and the wartime theater commanders in Vietnam (MACV), Iraq (MNF-I), and Afghanistan (ISAF/RS).

Donald V. BennettGeorge V. Underwood Jr.Michael S. DavisonFrank T. MildrenHenry A. Miley Jr.Frederick C. WeyandLewis B. HersheyJohn H. MichaelisJohn L. ThrockmortonWilliam B. RossonFerdinand J. ChesarekGeorge R. MatherBruce Palmer Jr.Berton E. Spivy Jr.Ben HarrellAndrew J. GoodpasterJames K. WoolnoughRalph E. Haines Jr.James H. PolkTheodore J. ConwayCharles H. Bonesteel IIIDwight E. BeachRobert W. Porter Jr.Creighton W. Abrams Jr.William C. WestmorelandHarold K. JohnsonFrank S. Besson Jr.Hugh P. HarrisHamilton H. HowzeTheodore W. ParkerAndrew P. O'MearaJohn K. WatersRobert J. WoodPaul L. Freeman Jr.Barksdale HamlettEarle G. WheelerPaul D. HarkinsPaul D. AdamsGuy S. Meloy Jr.James F. CollinsHerbert B. PowellJames E. MooreClark L. RuffnerCharles D. PalmerCarter B. MagruderClyde D. EddlemanBruce C. ClarkeGeorge H. DeckerHenry I. HodesCortlandt V.R. SchuylerWillard G. WymanIsaac D. WhiteWilliston B. PalmerLyman L. LemnitzerAnthony C. McAuliffeJohn E. DahlquistWilliam M. Hoge Jr.Charles L. BolteMaxwell D. TaylorJohn R. HodgeAlfred M. GruentherJames Van FleetJohn E. HullWalter Bedell SmithMatthew B. RidgwayWade H. HaislipJ. Lawton CollinsLucius D. ClayJonathan M. Wainwright IVCourtney H. HodgesGeorge S. Patton Jr.Thomas T. HandyOmar N. BradleyCarl A. SpaatzMark W. ClarkGeorge C. KenneyJacob L. DeversJoseph T. McNarneyBrehon B. SomervellWalter KruegerJoseph W. StilwellHenry H. ArnoldDwight D. EisenhowerGeorge C. Marshall Jr.Malin CraigDouglas MacArthur 
Paul E. Funk IIRichard D. ClarkeMichael X. GarrettAustin S. MillerJohn M. MurrayStephen R. LyonsPaul M. NakasoneStephen J. TownsendJames C. McConvilleGustave F. PernaRobert Brooks BrownRaymond A. ThomasJohn W. Nicholson Jr.Robert B. AbramsJoseph VotelMark A. MilleyDavid G. PerkinsCurtis ScaparrottiVincent K. BrooksDaniel B. AllynJohn F. Campbell (general)Frank J. GrassDennis L. ViaDavid M. RodriguezCharles H. Jacoby Jr.Robert W. ConeLloyd AustinJames D. ThurmanKeith B. AlexanderStanley A. McChrystalMartin DempseyAnn E. DunwoodyRaymond T. OdiernoCarter HamPeter W. ChiarelliWalter L. SharpDavid H. PetraeusCharles C. Campbell (general)William E. WardDavid D. McKiernanWilliam S. WallaceBenjamin S. GriffinRichard A. CodyDan K. McNeillBantz J. CraddockGeorge W. Casey Jr.Bryan D. BrownJohn AbizaidBurwell B. Bell IIIJames T. HillLeon J. LaPorteKevin P. ByrnesLarry R. EllisPaul J. KernWilliam F. KernanTommy R. FranksJohn W. HendrixJohn G. CoburnJohn M. KeaneThomas A. SchwartzMontgomery Meigs (born 1945)John N. AbramsPeter J. SchoomakerEric K. ShinsekiDavid A. BramlettHenry H. SheltonWesley K. ClarkJohnnie E. WilsonRonald H. GriffithWilliam W. CrouchWilliam W. HartzogJohn H. Tilelli Jr.Barry R. McCaffreyLeon E. SalomonGary E. LuckWayne A. DowningJ. H. Binford Peay IIIDavid M. MaddoxJohn M.D. ShalikashviliJimmy D. RossDennis J. ReimerFrederick M. Franks Jr.George A. JoulwanCarl W. StinerGordon R. SullivanWilliam G.T. Tuttle Jr.Edwin H. Burba Jr.John W. FossColin L. PowellRobert W. RisCassiH. Norman SchwarzkopfCrosbie E. SaintArthur E. Brown Jr.Louis C. MenetreyFrederick F. Woerner Jr.Louis C. Wagner Jr.James J. LindsayJoseph T. Palastra Jr.Carl E. VuonoJack N. MerrittFred K. MahaffeyJohn Galvin (soldier)Robert C. KingstonRichard H. ThompsonWilliam J. LivseyMaxwell R. ThurmanWallace H. NuttingPaul F. GormanWilliam R. Richardson (general)Roscoe Robinson Jr.Robert W. SennewaldRichard E. CavazosGlenn K. OtisDonald R. KeithVolney F. WarnerJohn A. Wickham Jr.Edward C. MeyerRobert M. ShoemakerSam S. WalkerDonn A. StarryJohn R. GuthrieJohn W. Vessey Jr.Frederick J. Kroesen Jr.William A. KnowltonGeorge S. BlanchardJohn R. Deane Jr.John J. HennesseyBernard W. RogersMelvin ZaisRichard G. StilwellWilliam E. DePuyWalter T. Kerwin Jr.Alexander M. Haig Jr. 

Four-star positionsEdit

 

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Army register of active and retired commissioned officers, or from the World Almanac and Book of Facts. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to general.
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to general. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to four-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty four-star assignments is not counted, nor is time spent on special duty as an unassigned general of the Army.
  4. ^ a b Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Military Academy (USMA); Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university; ROTC at a senior military college such as the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Norwich University (Norwich), Pennsylvania Military College (PMC), or Widener University (Widener); Officer Candidate School (OCS); the aviation cadet program (cadet); the Army National Guard (ARNG); direct commission (direct); and battlefield commission (battlefield).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to four-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with other four-star officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.
  7. ^ Commissioned general in the Continental Army, 1775; resigned, 1783; commissioned lieutenant general in the U.S. Army, 1798; promoted to General of the Armies, October 11, 1976, with date of rank July 4, 1976 (Public Law 94-479).
  8. ^ Resigned, 1869, to serve as President; reappointed general and placed on the retired list, March 3, 1885.
  9. ^ Brevetted general, May 1918.
  10. ^ a b Reverted to major general upon expiration of wartime legislation, June 30, 1920; advanced to general on the retired list, June 21, 1930, as highest grade held during World War I.
  11. ^ Reverted to major general, November 20, 1930; retired as general, March 31, 1931.
  12. ^ Reverted to major general, October 1, 1935; retired as general, December 31, 1937; recalled as major general, July 26, 1941; promoted to lieutenant general, July 27, 1941; promoted to general, December 18, 1941, with rank from September 16, 1936; promoted to general of the Army, December 18, 1944; rank made permanent, April 11, 1946; restored to active list, July 9, 1948; relieved of all commands, April 11, 1951.
  13. ^ Retired as general, August 1939; recalled as major general, September 1941.
  14. ^ a b c Received a direct commission following graduation from a military college prior to the creation of ROTC.
  15. ^ Promoted to general of the Army, December 16, 1944; rank made permanent, April 11, 1946; retired as general of the Army, February 28, 1947; restored to active list, March 1, 1949.
  16. ^ Advanced to general on the retired list, June 15, 1940, as former chief of staff of the Army.
  17. ^ Retired from active service as general of the Army, 1948; recalled as general of the Army, December 1950; resigned, 1952, to run for President; reappointed general of the Army, March 1961.
  18. ^ a b c d Transferred to U.S. Air Force, September 18, 1947.
  19. ^ Retired as major general, January 31, 1945; recalled February 1, 1945; promoted to general, March 5, 1945; advanced to general on the retired list, July 12, 1946; retired, July 20, 1946.
  20. ^ Retired as major general, April 30, 1946; advanced to general on the retired list, June 4, 1948.
  21. ^ Nomination as U.S. Ambassador to Vatican City withdrawn, 1951.
  22. ^ Died in car crash, December 23, 1950; posthumously promoted to general, January 2, 1951.
  23. ^ Retired as general, July 1959; recalled as general, July 1961.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Advanced to general on the retired list, July 19, 1954, as a lieutenant general who, during World War II, commanded Army Ground Forces, commanded an army in any of the Theaters of Operations, was commanding general of U.S. forces in China and chief of staff to Chiang Kai-shek, or commanded Western Defense Command (Public Law 83-508).
  25. ^ Retired as general, August 1963; recalled as general, September 1963.
  26. ^ Retired as general, December 1959; recalled as general, January 1960.
  27. ^ Retired as general, July 1970; recalled as general, August 1970.
  28. ^ Retired as general, December 1974; recalled as lieutenant general, June 1977; retired as general, July 1981.
  29. ^ Transferred from Army National Guard, 1920; retired, 1947; retained on active duty until 1973; advanced to general on the retired list, February 1970, with date of rank December 23, 1969.
  30. ^ "'Stormin' Norman' Schwarzkopf, lauded Gulf War commander, dies - CNN.com". CNN. 2012-12-28.
  31. ^ Graduated from Pennsylvania Military College, which was reorganized as a civilian institution in 1972 and is now Widener University.
  32. ^ https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/30/shinseki-va-veteran-scandal-health-care-delays/9758061/
  33. ^ Retired as general, November 2000; recalled as general, August 2003.
  34. ^ Relieved, July 2005, and retired as lieutenant general.
  35. ^ Nomination as Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Army (VCSA) withdrawn, 2008.
  36. ^ "Washington Never a General of U.S. Army; Rank Created for Him, but Not Conferred", The New York Times, p. N8, February 2, 1936
  37. ^ "45 U.S. Officers Outrank George Washington", The Associated Press, September 27, 1953
  38. ^ Office of the Judge Advocate General, United States Army (1915), The military laws of the United States, 1915, Volume 1, Issue 915 (also The military laws of the United States, 1915, Volume 1, Issue 915), Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
  39. ^ Bell, pp. 19–24 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ Public Law 65-12, Section 8 (May 18, 1917), Missing or empty |title= (help); Public Law 65-90, Section 3 (October 6, 1917), Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ "Rank Of General For Bliss And March; Former Gets Brevet Title for Services Abroad — Latter Becomes Chief of Staff", The New York Times, p. 6, May 21, 1918
  42. ^ "March to Lose Two Stars on June 30; Going Back to Rank of Major General", The New York Times, p. 13, June 23, 1920
  43. ^ Officer Personnel Act of 1947 (Public Law 80-381), Sections 504(b,d) (August 7, 1947), Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  44. ^ 10 USC 601, Positions of importance and responsibility: generals and lieutenant generals; admirals and vice admirals
  45. ^ 10 USC 525, Distribution of commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades

ReferencesEdit