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List of Turkic dynasties and countries

The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both. There are currently six recognized Turkic sovereign states. Additionally, there are six federal subjects of Russia in which a Turkic language is a majority, and three where Turkic languages are the minority, and also Crimea, a disputed territory between Ukraine and Russia where Turkic languages are the minority. There have been numerous Turkic confederations, dynasties, and empires throughout history across the Eurasian continent.

World map with present-day independent recognized Turkic countries highlighted in red

Contemporary entities with at least one Turkic language recognized as official

Current independent states

Name Years Republic Day
  Turkey 1923 75% Turkish October 29, 1923
  Azerbaijan 1991 91.6% Azerbaijanis, 0.43% Turkish, 0.29% Tatars.[1] May 28, 1918
  Kazakhstan 1991 63.1% Kazakhs, 2.9% Uzbeks, 1.4% Uyghurs, 1.3% Tatars, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijanis, 0.1% Kyrgyz.[2] June 19, 1925
  Kyrgyzstan 1991 70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghurs, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakhs, 0.6% Tatars, 0.3% Azerbaijanis.[3] October 14, 1924
  Turkmenistan 1991 75.6% Turkmens, 9.2% Uzbeks, 2.0% Kazakhs, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatars[4] October 27, 1991
  Uzbekistan 1991 71.4% Uzbeks, 4.1% Kazakhs, 2.4% Tatars, 2.1% Karakalpaks, 1% Crimean Tatars, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmens, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijanis, 0.2% Uyghurs, 0.2% Bashkirs.[5] October 27, 1924

De facto state

Recognized only by Turkey.

Name Years
  Northern Cyprus[6] 1983 67.54% Turkish Cypriots, 32.45% Turkish[citation needed]

Federal subjects of Russia

Turkic nations where Turkic peoples are a majority
  Bashkortostan 2010 – 29.5% Bashkirs, 25.4% Tatars, 2.7% Chuvash
  Chuvashia 2010 – 67.7% Chuvash, 2.8% Tatars
  Karachay-Cherkessia 2010 – 41.0% Karachays, 3.3% Nogais
  Tatarstan 2010 – 53.2% Tatars, 3.1% Chuvash
  Tuva 2010 – 82% Tuvans, 0.4% Khakas
  Sakha Republic 2010 – 49.9% Yakuts, 0.2% Dolgans, 0.9% Tatars
Federal subjects of Russia where Turkic peoples are a minority
  Altai Republic 2010 – 34.5% Altais, 6.2% Kazakhs
  Kabardino-Balkaria 2010 – 12.7% Balkars
  Crimea 2014 – 12.6% Crimean Tatars, 2.3% Tatars
  Khakassia 2010 – 12.1% Khakas
  Dagestan 2010 – 14.9% Kumyks

Autonomous regions

  Gagauzia in Moldova 2004 – 82.1% Gagauz.[7]
  Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan 36% Uzbeks, 32% Karakalpaks, 25% Kazakhs[8]
  Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan 99% Azerbaijanis[9]
  Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District in Krasnoyarsk, Russia 2010 – 15.7% Dolgans
  Xinjiang 2000 – 45.21% Uyghurs, 6.74% Kazakhs, 0.86% Kyrgyz, 0.066% Uzbeks, 0.024% Chinese Tatars, 0.02% Salars
  Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture 2010 – 64.68% Uyghurs, 27.32% Kyrgyz
  Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture Kazakhs
  Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County Kazakhs
  Mori Kazakh Autonomous County Kazakhs
  Xunhua Salar Autonomous County 2000 – 61.14% Salars
  Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County Salars
  Sunan Yugur Autonomous County Yugur
  Aksay Kazakh Autonomous County Kazakhs

Historical Turkic confederations, dynasties, and states

Tribal confederations

Tiele people Dingling Yenisei Kirghiz[12] Cumans Basmyl Chigils
Onogurs Ashina Toquz Oghuz Kipchaks Kankalis Yagma
Oghuz Sabir people Bulgars Shatuo Karluks Alat

Turkic dynasties and states

Name Notes Years Capital map
  Turkic Khaganate 552–ca. 580
Western Turkic Khaganate 593–659 Suyab  
Eastern Turkic Khaganate 581–630 Ordu Baliq  
Xueyantuo 628–646
Kangar union 659–750 Located in Ulutau mountains  
 Turk Shahi 665–850 Kabul  
Türgesh 699–766 Balasagun  
Kimek–Kipchak confederation 743–1220 Khagan-Kimek Imekia  
  Uyghur Khaganate 744–848 Ordu Baliq  
Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055 Yangikent  
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Suyab later Balasagun  
  Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212 Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand  
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Zhangye  
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335 Gaochang, Beshbalik  
  Pechenegs 860–1091  
  Cuman–Kipchak confederation[13][14] 900–1220  
  Anatolian Beyliks 11th–16th century Many such as Karaman, Sinop, Adana, Alanya, Kahramanmaraş.  
Ahmadilis 1122–1209 Maragha  
Eldiguzids ca.1135–1225 Nakhchivan (city) and Hamadan
Salghurids 1148–1282 Fars Province
  Ottoman Empire Also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia 1299–1923 Söğüt 1299–1335, Bursa 1335–1413, Edirne 1413–1453, Istanbul 1453–1922  
Sufids 1361–1379
Emirate of Kasgharia A short lived emirate in Kashgar region.[15] 1865–1877 Kashgar


Name Notes Years Capital Map
Khazar Empire The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Kaganate.[16] 6th–11th century Balanjar 650–720 ca., Samandar (city) 720s–750, Atil 750-ca.965–969  
  Great Bulgaria 632–668 Phanagoria 632–665  
  First Bulgarian Empire Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization;[17] became Slavic post-Christianization 681–1018 Pliska 681–893, Preslav 893–972, Skopje 972–992, Ohrid 992–1018  
Volga Bulgaria 7th century–1240s Bolghar, Bilär
Terter dynasty 1280–1323  

Middle East and North Africa

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Tulunids The Tulunids were a dynasty of Turkic origin[18] and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria. 868–905 al-Qatta'i  
Ikhshidid Dynasty Founded by a Turkic[19][20][21] slave soldier, was appointed governor by the Abbasid Caliph.[22] 935–969  
Burid Dynasty 1104–1154 Damascus  
Zengid Dynasty Dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin.[23] 1127–1250 Aleppo  
  Bahri dynasty The first half of the Mamluk Sultanate was dominated by the Kipchak Turkic Bahri dynasty, after the Mongol conquest of the Kipchak steppes. 1250–1389 Cairo  
Assaf dynasty Controlled region between Beirut and Jbeil 1306–1591 Ghazir

Maghreb region

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Karamanli dynasty The Karamanli dynasty was an independent or quasi-independent,[24] who ruled from 1711 to 1835 in Tripolitania (Tripoli and its surroundings in present-day Libya). At their peak, the Karamanlis' influence reached Cyrenaica and Fezzan, covering most of Libya. The founder of the dynasty was Pasha Ahmed Karamanli, a descendant of the Karamanids. 1711–1835 Tripoli  

Indian subcontinent

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi) 1206–1290 Delhi  
Qarlughid Dynasty 1224–1266 Ghazna, Binban
Khalji Dynasty 1290–1320 Delhi  
Tughlaq Dynasty 1320–1414 Delhi  
Ilyas Shahi dynasty 1342–1487 Sonargaon  
Bahmani Sultanate 1347–1527 Gulbarga (1347–1425)
Bidar (1425–1527)
  Bengal Sultanate 1342–1538

Malwa Sultanate 1392–1562 Dhar and Mandu
Bidar Sultanate 1489–1619  
Adil Shahi dynasty 1490–1686 Bijapur  
  Qutb Shahi Dynasty 1518–1687 Golconda / Hyderabad  
  Mughal Empire Founded by Turco-Mongol ruler Babur, adopted the Persian language in later periods.[25][26][27][28] 1526–1857 Agra 1526–1571, Fatehpur Sikri 1571–1585, Lahore 1585–1598, Agra 1598–1648, Shahjahanabad/Delhi 1648–1857  
Tarkhan Dynasty 1554–1591 Sindh
  Asaf Jahi Dynasty 1724–1948 Hyderabad  

Sinicized Turkic dynasties

The Shatuo Turks founded several sinicized dynasties in northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names.

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Great Yan General An Lushan rebelled against Tang Dynasty 756–763 Luoyang 756–757, Yecheng 757–759, Fanyang 759, Luoyang 759–762
Later Tang 923–936 Daming County 923, Luoyang 923–936  
Later Jin[29] The Later Jin founder, Shi Jingtang, claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. 936–947 Taiyuan 936, Luoyang 937, Kaifeng 937–947  
Later Han Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[30] 947–951 Kaifeng
Northern Han Same family as Later Han. Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[30] 951–979 Taiyuan

Turko-Persian states

The Turko-Persian tradition was an Islamic tradition of the interpretation of literary forms, practiced and patronized by Turkic rulers and speakers. Many Turko-Persian states were founded in modern-day Eastern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.[31]

Name Years Capital Map
Ghaznavid Empire Ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin[32][33] 962–1186 Ghazna 977–1163, Lahore 1163–1186  
Seljuk Empire Ruled by a clan[34] of originally Oghuz Turkic descent.[32][35][36][37] 1037–1194 Nishapur 1037–1043, Rey, Iran 1043–1051, Isfahan 1051–1118, Hamadan Western capital 1118–1194, Merv Eastern capital (1118–1153)  
Sultanate of Rûm Persianized Oghuz Turkic dynasty[38] 1077–1307 İznik, Iconium (Konya)  
Khwarazmian dynasty Ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.[39] 1077–1231/1256 Gurganj 1077–1212, Samarkand 1212–1220, Ghazna 1220–1221, Tabriz 1225–1231  
Kara Koyunlu Kara Koyunlu was an Oghuz Turkic tribal federation. 1375–1468 Tabriz  
Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu was an tribal federation from Bayandur clan of the Oghuz Turks[40] 1378–1501 Diyarbakır 1453–1471, Tabriz 1468 – January 6, 1478  

Turco-Mongol states

Turco-Mongol is a term describing the synthesis of Mongol and Turkic cultures by several states of Mongol origin throughout Eurasia. These states adopted Turkic languages, either among the populace or among the elite, and converted to Islam, but retained Mongol political and legal institutions. Two of these states founded by the Timurid dynasty, specifically the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, were influenced by the Persian and Indian cultures.

Name Years Capital Notes Map
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s Almaliq, Qarshi  
  Golden Horde 1240s–1502 Sarai Batu Founded as an appanage of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde gradually became Turkicized after the Empire's fragmentation  
 Timurid Empire 1370–1506 Samarkand 1370–1505, Herat 1505–1507 Belonging to Barlas were a Mongol and later Turkicized nomadic confederation in Central Asia.  
  Shaybanid Khanate 1428–1599
  Kazan Khanate 1438–1552 Kazan  
  Crimean Khanate 1441–1783 Bakhchisaray  
  Nogai Khanate 1440s–1634 Saray-Jük  
  Kazakh Khanate 1456–1847 Turkistan  
Great Horde 1466–1502 Sarai  
  Astrakhan Khanate 1466–1556 Xacitarxan  
Siberia Khanate 1490–1598 Tyumen until 1493, Qashliq from 1493  
  Khanate of Bukhara 1500–1785 Bukhara  
  Khanate of Khiva Yadigarids: 1511–1804[41] Qungrats 1804–1920 Khiva  
Yarkent Khanate 1514–1705 Yarkent  
Arghun dynasty 1520–1554 Bukkur
Lesser Nogai Horde 1449 or 1557–1783 Voli Sarai
Budzhak Horde 17th century–18th century  
  Khanate of Kokand 1709–1876 Kokand  
  Emirate of Bukhara 1785–1920 Bukhara  

Vassal khanates

The following list is only of vassal khanates of Turkic origin, which were ruled by of another descent peoples.

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Qasim Khanate Turco-Mongol state 1452–1681 Kasimov  
Kumul Khanate Turco-Mongol state 1696–1930 Hami City  

Former Provisional Governments and Republics

Name Notes Years Map Capital
  Provisional Government of Western Thrace later Independent Government of Western Thrace Republic of Western Thrace was a small, short-lived partially recognized republic established in Western Thrace from August 31 to October 25, 1913. It encompassed the area surrounded by the rivers Maritsa (Evros) in the east, Mesta (Nestos) in the west, the Rhodope Mountains in the north and the Aegean Sea in the south. Its total territory was c. 8.600 km².[42] 1913 Komotini
  Crimean People's Republic 1917–1918 Bakhchysarai
  Idel-Ural State 1917–1918
  Alash Autonomy A provisional autonomous Kazakh-Kyrgyz administration. Later integrated into Soviet Union under Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic umbrella. 1917–1920 Semey
  Republic of Aras 1918–1919 Nakhchivan (city)
  Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus 1918–1919 Kars
  Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1918–1920   Ganja, Azerbaijan until Sep 1918, Baku
  Government of the Grand National Assembly A provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence. 1920–1923   Ankara
  People's Republic of Tannu Tuva 1921–1944   Kyzyl
  First East Turkestan Republic First East Turkestan Republic was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933. It was centered on the city of Kashgar in what is today the People's Republic of China-administered Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 1933–1934   Kashgar
  Republic of Hatay Also known informally as the Republic of Hatay as Hatay State. 1938–1939   Antakya
  East Turkistan Republic 1944–1949   Ghulja
  Azerbaijan People's Government Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the APG's capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War. 1945–1946   Tabriz
  Turkish Cypriot General Committee[43] 1963–1967   Nicosia
  Provisional Cypriot Turkish Administration[43] 1967–1974   Nicosia
  Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration 1974–1975   Nicosia
  Turkish Federated State of Cyprus 1975–1983   Nicosia

Soviet Republics

Name Notes Years Map Capital
  Khorezm People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924   Khiva
  Bukhara People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924   Bukhara
  Azerbaijan SSR 1920–1991   Baku
  Uzbek SSR 1924–1991   Samarkand 1924–1930, Tashkent 1930–1991
  Turkmen SSR 1924–1991   Ashgabat
  Kazakh SSR 1936–1991   Almaty
  Kyrgyz SSR 1936–1991   Bishkek

Autonomous Soviet Republics

Name Notes Years Map Capital
  Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1918–1924   Tashkent
  Bashkir ASSR 1919–1990 Ufa
  Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1920–1925 Orenburg
  Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1920–1990 Kazan
  Yakut ASSR 1922–1991   Yakutsk
  Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921–1924   Vladikavkaz
  Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921–1990   Nakhchivan (city)
  Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1925–1936   Almaty
  Chuvash ASSR 1925–1992 Cheboksary
  Karakalpak ASSR 1932–1992 Nukus
  Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1936–1991   Nalchik
  Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1944–1957
  Crimean ASSR 1921–1945 Simferopol
  Tuvan ASSR 1961–1992  
  Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992   Gorno-Altaysk

Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union

Name Notes Years Map Capital
Chuvash Autonomous Oblast 1920–1925 Cheboksary
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast 1921–1936 Nalchik
Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast 1922–1926 Cherkessk
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast 1922–1991
Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast 1924–1936 Bishkek
Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast 1925–1932 To‘rtko‘l
Karachay Autonomous Oblast 1926–1957   Mikoyan Shakhar
Khakassian Autonomous Oblast 1930–1992
Tuvan Autonomous Oblast 1944–1961   Kyzyl

See also


  1. ^ Demographics of Azerbaijan.
  2. ^ Demographics of Kazakhstan.
  3. ^ Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
  4. ^ Demographics of Turkmenistan
  5. ^ Demographics of Uzbekistan
  6. ^ Recognized only by Turkey and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, see Cyprus dispute.
  7. ^ Gagauzia
  8. ^ Der Fischer Weltalmanach 2011, Artikel „Karakalpakstan“, S. 496
  9. ^
  10. ^ Veronika Veit, ed. (2007). The role of women in the Altaic world: Permanent International Altaistic Conference, 44th meeting, Walberberg, 26–31 August 2001. Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 61. ISBN 3-447-05537-5. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  11. ^ Michael Robert Drompp (2005). Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire: a documentary history. Volume 13 of Brill's Inner Asian library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 126. ISBN 9004141294. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  12. ^ The Yenisei Kirghiz Khagans claimed to be of agnatic Chinese descent from Li Ling[10][11]
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
  14. ^ Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ Sneath 2007, p. 25.
  17. ^ Peter Sarris (2011). Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700. p. 308.
  18. ^ The Emergence of Muslim Rule in India: Some Historical Disconnects and Missing Links, Tanvir Anjum, Islamic Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Summer 2007), 233.
  19. ^ Abulafia, David (2011). The Mediterranean in History. p. 170.
  20. ^ Haag, Michael (2012). The Tragedy of the Templars: The Rise and Fall of the Crusader States.
  21. ^ Bacharach, Jere L. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. p. 382.
  22. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 62.
  23. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 191.
  24. ^ Marshall Cavendish (2006). World and Its Peoples. p. 1213.
  25. ^ Thackston 1996
  26. ^ Findley 2005
  27. ^ Saunders 1970, p.177
  28. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Archived from the original on 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2011-07-06.; "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  29. ^ Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in the early 3rd century.
  30. ^ a b According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
  31. ^ Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  32. ^ a b M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Archived 2007-03-11 at the Wayback Machine): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  33. ^ Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
  34. ^ Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
  35. ^ K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
  36. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  37. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine)
  38. ^ 1.Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, 29; "Even when the land of Rum became politically independent, it remained a colonial extension of Turco-Persian culture which had its centers in Iran and Central Asia","The literature of Seljuk Anatolia was almost entirely in Persian...".
  39. ^ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  40. ^ C.E. Bosworth and R. Bulliet, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual , Columbia University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-231-10714-5, p. 275.
  41. ^ Compiled after Y. Bregel, ed. (1999), Firdaws al-iqbal; History of Khorezm. Leiden: Brill.
  42. ^ "Panayotis D. Cangelaris – The Western Thrace Autonomous Government "Muhtariyet" Issue (1913) Philatelic Exhibit". Retrieved 2016-09-25.

Further reading