List of Maldivian monarchs

  (Redirected from List of Sultans of the Maldives)

Maldives was turned into a Sultanate in 1153 when the Buddhist King Dhovemi converted to Islam. Prior to that the Maldives was a Buddhist Kingdom, a Hindu Kingdom and before that a matriarchal society with each atoll ruled by a chief queen according to some accounts or by others, several theocratic societies ruled by priests known as Sawamias of heliolatric, selenolatric and astrolatric religions. All the rulers before King Koimala only ruled over parts of the Maldives or Deeva Maari (and Dheeva Mahal) as it was known then. Koimala was the first king to rule over all the islands of the Maldives as we know today and the island of Maliku.

List of Maldivian monarchs is located in Maldives
Devvadhoo Dynasty
Devvadhoo Dynasty
Huraa Dynasty
Huraa Dynasty
Isdhoo Dynasty
Isdhoo Dynasty
Dhyamigili Dynasty
Dhyamigili Dynasty
Utheemu Dynasty
Utheemu Dynasty
Dynasty origin islands

The formal title of the Sultan up to 1965 was, Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the twelve-thousand islands and Sultan of the Maldives which came with the style Highness. After independence in 1965 the Sultan assumed the title King with the style Majesty.This style was only there for nearly 3 years until 1968 Maldives turned into a republic for the second time. The main official Royal residence of the Sultan was the Etherekoilu, a palace in Malé.

The reigns of Sultans are from three sources. Taarikh by Maldivian chronicler Hasan Taj Al-Din's written in arabic which covers 670 years of Maldives history, the loamaafaanu copper plates and the third source called Raadhavalhi which was written in 1757 using both Dhives (old script) and Thaana (new script) Maldivian languages.

Kingdom of Adeetta Vansa to Theemuge dynastyEdit

  View Family Tree of Queen Damahaar Maha Rehendi
  •   Queen Damahaar Maha Rehendi ( Last Queen of Solar dynasty )
    •   Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna, King Loka Abaruna
      •   King Maha Sandura
        • Princess Kamanhaar
      •   Svasti Sri Buwana Ananda, King Buwana ananda
        •   Svasti Sri Somavamsa Adipati Sri Theemuge Sri Maha Parama Aditya, King Koimala.
        • Princess Henevi Ma'ava'a Kilage.
          •   Prince Dhovemi Kalaminja, Sultan Dhovemi, Dharumavantha Rasgefaanu
          • Prince Sri Kalo
          • Princess Mulee Mava'a Kilege
            •   Prince Muthey Kalaminja, Sultan Muthey
            • Princess Reki Hiriya Mava'a Kilage
              •   Prince Ali Kalaminja, Sultan Ali I
              • Princess Fahi Hiriya Mava'a Kilage
                •   Prince Dinei Kalaminja, Sultan Dhinei
                •   Prince Dihai Kalaminja, Sultan Dhihei
                •   Prince Valla Dio Kalaminja, Sultan Valla Dio
                • Princess Aidigu Mava'a Kilage
                •   Prince Wadi Kalaminja, Sultan Wadi
                  •   Prince Hali Kalaminja, Sultan Hali I
                  •   Prince Keimi Kalaminja, Sultan Keimi
                  •   Prince Audha, Sultan Audha
                    •   Prince Hali, Sultan Hali II
                    •   Prince Yoosuf, Sultan Yoosuf I
                      •   Prince Davud, Sultan Davud
                      •   Prince Salis, Sultan Salis
                        •   Prince Omar, Sultan Omar I
                          •   Prince Ahmed Shihabuddine, Sultan Ahmed Shihabuddine
                          •   Princess Khadijah, Sultana Rehendi Khadijah
                          •   Princess Raadhafathi, Sultana Raadhafathi
                            •   Princess Dhaain, Sultana Dhaain

Homa or Theemuge Dynasty[1]Edit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
King Mahaabarana Adeettiya (Koimala)[2] Suvasthi Shri Theemuge Rasfireyru Mini Abaaruna Mahaaradhun[3] 1117 1141 The first king to rule over the whole of Maldives.
King Dhovemi

Later Sultan Muhammad al-Adil [4]

Siri Bavanditta Maha Radun 1141 1165 Reigned as a Buddhist until 1153. Son of Henevi Maava Kilege, sister of Koimala. A member of the Soma or Homa (Lunar) dynasty. Converted to Islam in 1153, assumed the title Sultan and founded the Theemuge dynasty. He was the famous Dharumavantha Radun[5] or the Benevolent King.
Sultan Mute Kalaminja[4] Bavana Abaruna Maha Radun 1165 1184 Mother's sister's son of Dhovemi
Sultan Ali b. Reke Hiriya[4] Dammara-nanda Maha Radun 1184 1192
Sultan Dinei Kalaminja[4] Fanaditta Maha Radun 1192 1198 The Lōmāfānu was written during Sultan Dhinei's reign
Sultan Dihei Kalaminja[4] Dagata Abaruna Maha Radun 1198 1213 Brother of Sultan Dhinei I.
Sultan Wati Kalaminha[4] Dagata Suvara Maha Radun 1213 1232 Brother of Sultans Dhinei I and Dhinei II.
Sultan Valla Dio[4][6] Rada-rada Suvara Maha Radun 1232 1257 Brother of Sultans Dhinei I, Dhinei II and Wadi.
Sultan Hudei Kalaminja[4] Vira Abaruna Maha Radun 1257 1263
Sultan Aima Kalaminja[4] Loka Suvara Maha Radun 1263 1265
Sultan Hiley ( Ali ) Kalaminja[4] Sinja Abaruna Maha Radun 1265 1267
Sultan Kalaminja b. Aydage[4] Madini Survara Maha Radun 1267 1268
Sultan Uda ( Auda ) Kalaminja[4] Arida Suvara Maha Radun 1268 1277 Son of Sultan Wadi
Sultan Ali Kalamnija[4] Arida Suvara Maha Radun 1277 1287 Son of Sultan Audha
Sultan Yoosuf Kalamnija[4] Bavana Aditta Maha Radun 1287 1293 Brother of Sultan Hali II
Sultan Salah al-Din b. Yusuf[4] Some Sivara Maha Radun 1293 1301 Son of Sultan Yoosuf I
Sultan Da'ud b. Yusuf[4] Sundura Bavana Maha Radun 1301 1306 Son of Sultan Yoosuf I
Sultan Umar Vira ( Abu Fath Jalal al-Din )[4] Loka Abaruna Maha Radun 1306 1340 Son of Sultan Salis
Sultan Shihab al-Din Ahmad[4] Loka Aditta Maha Radun 1340 1347 Son of Sultan Omar I, deposed, banished and assassinated by sister Khadijah[7]
Sultana Rehindi Kabadi Kilege ( Khadija )[4] Rada Abaruna Maha Radun 1347 1362 Deposed by her first husband Mohamed el-Jameel
Sultan Mohamed el-Jamil[4] Bavana Suja Maha Radun 1362 1363 First Husband of Sultana Khadijah. Assassinated by estranged wife Khadijah. He was nicknamed Handsome Mohamed.
Sultana Rehendi ( Khadijah )[4] Rada Abaruna Maha Radun 1363 1373 Second reign on assassination of first husband Sultan Mohamed el-Jameel. Deposed for a second time by her second husband Abdullah.
Sultan Abdullah Kilege[4] Dammaru Aaditta Maha Radun 1373 1376 Second husband of Sultana Khadijah. Assassinated by wife Khadijah
Sultana Rehendi ( Khadijah )[4] Rada Abaruna Maha Radun 1376 1379 Third reign
Sultana Radafati ( Adafate ) Kabadi Kilege[4] Soma Aburana Maha Radun 1379 1380 Daughter of Sultan Omar I, half sister of Sultana Khadijah. Deposed by husband Mohamed.
Sultan Mohamed I[4][8] Sundura Abaruna Maha Radun 1380 1384 Husband of Sultana Raadhafathi. Son of Kaeumani Kaulhanna Kilege.[8] He is from the island of Maakurathu in Raa Atoll hence he is also known as Maakurathu Mohamed Rasgefaan.
Sultana Da'inu Kabadi Kilege[4] Natta Abaruna Maha Radun 1385 1388 Daughter of Sultan Mohamed I. Deposed by husband Abdullah.
Sultan Abdullah[4] Soma Abaruna Maha Radun 1388 1388 Husband of Sultana Dhaain. Some records call him a Regent (Henevi-rasge).
Sultan Uthman al-Fahandavi[4] Sundura Aditta Maha Radun 1388 1388 Former Imam to Raadhafathi and Dhaain. Last of the Lunar dynasty.

Hilaalee dynastyEdit

  View Family Tree of Abbas al-Hilal
  • Abbas al-Hilal
    • Hassan Kuja Malim Kologe
      • Yusuf Handegiri Khadim Ma'abanderi
        •   Sultan Danna Muhammadh
          • Princess Tukkabafaanu
    • Kulhiveru Hilalu Kaivulanna Kaloge + Golavehi Kabulo
      •   Hassan I, Sultan Hassan al-Hilali Sri Dhiru Buwana Maha Radhun
        •   Prince Ibrahim al-Hilali Kalaminja, Sultan Ibrahim I al-Hilali
        •   Prince Usman Ras Kilege, Sultan Usman II ibnu
        •   Prince Abu Bakar Kalaminja, Sultan Abu Bakar I
          • Princess Rekka
            • Dorimena Kilegefaanu
            •   Al-Amir Dombula Ali Farina Kilege, Sultan Ali V
            •   Buraki Rani ( Queen regent or Rani ruled with Sultan Kalu Muhammedh )
            • Reki
          • Princess Kaba Dio
            •   Shaikh Hassan, Sultan Hassan VI
      •   Hussain I, Sultan Husain al-Hilali, Sultan of the Maldives ( Twins with brother Hassan )
        • Ma'afai Kalo Kilege
        • Kaulanna'a Kalo Kilege
        •   Ali Heneve Ras Kilege, Sultan Ali IV
        •   Prince Yusuf Kalaminja, Sultan Yusuf II
          •   Sultan Haji Nasir ul-Mukhatib Hassan III
          •   Prince Umaru Kalaminja, Sultan Umar II
            •   Sultan Yusuf III
              •   Sultan Hassan VII
            •   Prince Hassan Kalaminnja, Sultan Hassan V
              •   Prince Ibrahim Kalaminja Ras Kilege, Sultan Ibrahim II
            •   Prince Yusufu Kalaminja Ras Kilege, Sultan Yusuf III
              •   Sultan Hassan VII
            •   Prince Kalu Muhammad Kalaminja, Sultan Kalu Muhammad
              •   Prince Hassan Dobula Fa'aruna'a, Sultan Hassan VIII
              •   Prince Umar Ma'afai Kilege, Sultan Hilali Muhammad
                •   Sultan Muhammad
                • Prince Hemanin Kalaminja
              • Prince Ahmad Manikufa'anu Kalaminja
                •   Sultan Hilali Hassan IX ( Later Dom Manoel )
                  • Dom Francisco de Malvidas
                  •   Dom João de Malvidas, King H.H. Dom Felipe
                    •   Dom Felipe de Malvidas, King H.H. Dom Felipe
                    • Infanta Dona Inez de Malvidas
                      •   Dom Luís de Souza, King H.H. Dom Luís
                        • Manuel de Sousa da Silva
                      • Dom Manoel Malavis
                  • Dom Pedro de Malvidas
                  • Dona Leonor de Malvidas
                  • Dona Catarina de Malvidas
              •   Princess Aisha Kabafaanu Rani Kilege + Sultan Ali IV
                • Kuda Kalafaanu
                • H.H. Sitti Maryam Ma'ava'a Kuda Kamanafa'anu Rani Kilege (d/o Aisha Kabafa'anu). m. at Malé, 1573, Al-Amir Hassan Rannabanderi Kilegefa'anu, younger son of Kalege Husain Thakuru'fa'anu, Khatib of Uthimu Island, Tiladummati Atoll
                  • Kalege Kalu Hassan, of Bararu, Tiladummati Atoll ( Start of The Uthimu Dynasty )
                    • Kalege Kalu 'Ali Thakurufa'anu, Khatib of Uthimu Island, Tiladummati Atoll
                      • Kalege Husain Thakuru'fa'anu, Khatib of Uthimu + Amina Dio
                        • Kalege 'Ali Thakurufa'anu
                          • Amira Maryam Kamba'adi Kilege
                            • Amira Amina Ma'ava Kilege + Al-Amir 'Umar Ma'afai Kilege
                              •   Kalu Thukkala, H.H. Sultan Shuja'at Muhammad Imad ud-din I, Bodu Rasgefaanu
                                •   H.H. Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I
                                  •   Prince Kuda Muhammad, who succeeded as H.H. Sultan Muhammad I
                                  • Maryam + the son of Thakandhu 'Ali Bandeyri Thakurufa'anu.
                                  • Princess Rendi Kaba'afa'anu
                                • A son, unknown name
                                  • Amira Amina Kamba'adi Kilege + Al-Amir Mahmud Fandiyaru Kilegefa'anu (d. 8 March 1678), Chief Judge 1663-1678, son of Don Boi Naib Thakurufa'anu, the step-son of Addu Bodu Fandiyaru Thakurufa'anu.
                                    • Funadhu Muhammad Siraj ud-din Thakurufa'anu, Khatib.
                                • Princess "Fulana" + Al-Amir Hassan Farina Kilege Dorimena, younger son of H.H. Al-Amir Husain Fa'amuladeri Kilegefa'anu
                                • Princess Mariyam Kaba'adi Kilege
                        •   Kalege Muhammed Bodu Thakurufa'anu Khatib, who succeeded as H.H. Sultan Ghazi Muhammed Thakurufa'anu al-'Azam
                        •   Al-Amir Hassan Thakurufa'anu Khatib + Princess Aisha Kabafa'anu, daughter of Sultan Kalu Muhammad
                          • Kuda Kalafa'anu
                          • H.H. Al-Amira Kuda Kalu Kamanafa'anu
                    • Eduru Thakurufa'anu, Khatib of Bararu, Tiladummati Atoll
                      • Al-Amir 'Umar Oligina Kilege, of Maduvari Island
                        • H.H. Al-Amir Husain Fa'amuladeri Kilegefa'anu
                          • Al-Amir Muhammd Dorimena Kilegefa'anu
                          • Al-Amir Hassan Farina Kilege Dorimena
                            •   Muhammad Manikufa'anu, Sultan Muhammad Muhi ud-din
Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Hasan I[4] Bavana 1388 1398 First of the Hilaaly dynasty. Son of Golhaavahi Kambulo ( Kalavahi Kabulo ) and Kulhiveri Hilaalu Kaeulhanna Kaloge son of Muslim Abbas of Hulhule.
Sultan Ibrahim I[4] Dhammaru Veeru 1398 1398 Son of Sultan Hassan I. Deposed by his uncle Hussain.
Sultan Husayn I[4] Loka Veeru 1398 1409 Brother of Sultan Hassan I. Assumed the throne after deposing his nephew Sultan Ibrahim I.
Sultan Nasir al-Din al-Gulavihi[4] Veeru Abaarana 1409 1411 Introduced the Islamic penal code. Possibly a member of the Lunar dynasty
Sultan Hasan Hilali[4] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1411 1411 Drowned in a tank.
Sultan Isa[4] Bavana Sundhura 1411 1411 Brother of Sultan Hassan II.
Sultan Ibrahim I[4] Dhammaru Veeru 1411 1421 Second reign, first reigned in 1398.
Sultan Uthman II[4] Dhammaru Loaka 1421 1421 Son of Sultan Osman I.
Sultan Muhammad[4] Raadha Bavana 1421 1421 Uncle of Sultan's Hassan I and Hussain I. Prime Minister to Osman I
Sultan Yusuf II[4] Loka Aananadha 1421 1443 Son of Sultan Hassan I
Sultan Abu Bakr I[4] Bavana Sooja 1443 1443 Son of Sultan Hassan I half brother of Sultan Yoosuf II. Killed in battle with the Portuguese who came to summon the Council of Ministers of the Maldives to Cochin.
Sultan Hasan III[4] Raadha Veeru 1443 1467 Son of Sultan Aboobakuru I. Deposed by Sayyid Mohamed while abroad.
Sultan al-Sayyid Muhammad[4] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1467 1467 Possible descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. Deposed by Sultan Hassan III upon returning to Maldives.
Sultan Hasan III[4] Raadha Veeru 1467 1468 Second reign.
Sultan Muhammadh II[4] Bavana Abaarana 1468 1480 Son of Sultan Hasan III.
Sultan Hasan IV[4] Raadha Loka 1480 1480 Son of Sultan Mohamed II. Deposed by Omar II.
Sultan Umar II[4] Loka Sundhura 1480 1484 Son of Sultan Yoosuf II.
Sultan Hasan V[4] Raadha Aanandha 1484 1485 Son of Sultan Omar II.
Sultan Hasan IV[4] Raadha Loka 1485 1491 Second reign.
Sultan al-Shaykh Hasan VI[4] Raadha Fanaveeru 1491 1492 Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru I.
Sultan Ibrahim II[4] Bavana Furasuddha 1492 1492 Son of Omar II.
Sultan Kalu Muhammad[9][4] Dhammaru Bavana 1492 1492 Son of Sultan Omar II. Deposed by his brother Yoosuf.
Sultan Yusuf III[4] Veeru Aanandha 1492 1493 Son of Sultan Omar II.
Sultan Ali II[4] Audha Veeru 1493 1495 Grandson of Sultan Hassan I.
Sultan Kalu Muhammad[9][4] Dhammaru Bavana 1495 1510 Second reign. Son of Sultan Omar II Deposed for a second time, this time by his nephew Hassan.
Sultan Hasan VII[4] Singa Veeeru 1510 1511 Son of Sultan Yoosuf III.
Sultan al-Sharif Ahmad al-Makki[4] Suddha Bavana 1511 1513 An Arab from Mecca. Possible descendant of Muhammad.
Sultan Ali III[4] Aanandha 1513 1513 Killed in a duel with his sister Burecca (Buraki Raani). Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru I. Son of Mohamed Farhana Kalo and Recca daughter of Aboobakuru I
Sultan Kalu Muhammad[9][4] Dhammaru Bavana 1513 1529 Third accession assisted by his wife Queen Burecca who killed her brother Ali III
Sultan Hasan al-Shirazi VIII[4] Ran Mani Loka 1529 1549 Son of Sultan Kalu Mohamed and Fatuma Dio, a concubine from Shiraz in Persia.
Sultan Muhammad III[4] Singa Bavana 1549 1551 Assassinated by his brother Hassan succeeded him. Son of Golhavahi Aysha Rani Kilege and Omar Maafaiy Kilege son of Kalu Mohamed and Aysha Rani Kilege daughter of Korari Kilege. Therefore, Grandson of Sultan Kalu Mohamed.
Sultan Hasan IX[4] Dhirukusa Loka 1551 1552 Brother of Mohamed III. He was the first Maldivian and only member of its royalty to renounce Islam and convert to Christianity. He was deposed upon conversion, and known subsequently by the Lusitanian name of Dom Manoel.
Interregnum 1552 1554 Maldives ruled by a Council of Ministers.
Sultan Abu Bakr II[4] Asaalees Loka 1554 1557 Son of Ibrahim Faarhana Kilege and Sanfa Dio. Former Prime Minister to Dom Manoel.
Sultan Ali IV[4] Audha Siyaaka Katthiri 1557 1558 Killed in battle. Son of Prime Minister Abdur Rahman Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Sitti Rani Kilege. He was married to Princess Aysha Rani Kilege, aunt of Dom Manoel and daughter of Kalu Mohamed.
King Dom Manoel[10] Dhirikusa Loka (in absentia) 1558 1573 Restored as the king. Formerly known as Sultan Hassan IX. A Maldivian Catholic named Andiri Andirin acted as his regent, while Manoel lived in Goa.
Interregnum[10] 1573 1573 Maldives ruled by Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheemu after he assassinated Andiri Andirin, the regent of King Dom Manoel. As per a treaty he got refuge from Ali Raja of Cannanore, Mohamed Thakurufan's base of operation was Minicoy under the sovereignty of Cannanore. Keteeb Mohamed Thakurufan did not honour this promise. The Ali Raja demanded dominion over the Maldives, as promised to him by the Kateeb of Uteem.
The nature of the relationship between Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and the Ali Raja of Cannanore was outlined in a letter sent by a later Ali Raja, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, to the Sultan Mohamed Mueenuddine I of the Maldives. The letter was dated Friday 17 Jamada-el-oula Anno Hegirae 1243 (7 December AD 1827). According to the letter Mohamed Thakurufan had entered into a treaty ceding sovereignty of the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore in the event Thakurufan was established in power in Male. (refer page 294 of Divehi Tarikh).
King Dom Manoel[10] Dhirikusa Loka 1573 1583 Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan concluded a Treaty with King Dom Manoel in order to ward off the Ali Raja of Cannanore with whose help the Kateeb seized power in Male.

Under the treaty, Dom Manoel was restored but remained in Goa. The co-regents were Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheem and his brother Hassan Thakurufan. The kateeb conferred on himself the title of sultan in 1583 upon Dom Manoel's death. This was in breach of the Treaty and was not legally binding.

King Dom João[10] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1583 1603 Son of King Manoel, who remained in Goa. He had two brothers, Dom Francisco and Dom Pedro. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and his brother Hassan Thakurufan ruled for King Dom João as co-regents. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan assumed the title of Sultan following the death of King Dom Manoel. He married a Portuguese Christian noblewoman, Donna Francisca Vasconelles and had two children, Dom Philippe and Dona Inez.

Ibrahim, also known as Kalaafaan[11] (literally "Lord") was the de facto sultan, but legally the regent of Kings Dom João and Dom Philippe who resided in Goa. He reigned from 1585 to 1609. Son of Mohamed Thakurufan, kateeb of Utheemu and Rehendiye Goyye daughter of Cat Fatima of Boarhi Woods in Baarah.

Ibrahim Kalaafaan was the regent at the time of François Pyrard de Laval's[11] detainment in the Maldives after the shipwreck.

King Dom Philippe[10] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1603 1632 Son of King Dom João and Donna Francisca Vasconelles.

Al-Amira Kuda Kalu Kamanafaanu acted as regent from 1607 until 1609.

She was the daughter of Hassan Thakurufaan and Sitti Maryam Maavaa Kuda Kamanafaanu Rani Kilege, daughter of Sultan Ali VI, Sultan of the Maldives, by his wife, Princess Aisha Kabafa'anu, daughter of Sultan Kalu Mohamed[9]

Hussain Faamuladeyri Kilege acted as regent from 1609 to 1620.

Muhammad Imaduddin I acted as regent from 1620 to 1632. De-recognised in the Maldives after an abortive expedition with Portuguese assistance in order to abolish regency and assume power.

Utheemu dynastyEdit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin I[10] Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana 1632 1648 Legally proclaimed sultan in 1632 former regent for King Dom Philippe.
Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I[10] Kula Ran Meeba Katthiri Bavana 1648 1687 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin I.
Sultan Kuda Muhammad[10] Maniranna Loka 1687 1691 Son of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I. His mother Princess Maryam acted as regent due to his age. Killed with his mother while at sea in an explosion.
Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine[10] Naakiree Sundhura 1691 1692 Re-established the Islamic penal code. Son of Dharanboodhoo Kadida Dio and Abu Naibu Hassan Dorhimeyna Kilege son of the Regent Hussain Famuladeyri Kilege.

Hamawi dynastyEdit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen I[10] Mikaalha Madhaadheettha 1692 1692 Arab mentor of Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine. He first visited Male during the reign of Ibrahim Iskandar I. He was Probably poisoned to death. He coutured the re-establishment of the Islamic Penal code held by the previous Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine and assigned Scholars to teach in Mosques. In his Sultanate Maldives was very peaceful and citizens became educated and religious. (refer page 67 to 69 of Divehi Tarikh)

Dhevvadhoo dynastyEdit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Ali IV[4] Kula Ran Mani 1692 1701 First Sultan of the Dhevvadhoo dynasty.[12] Popularly known as Dhevvadhoo Rasgefaanu,[13] son of Ali Mafahaiy Kilege of Dhevvadhoo and Kakuni Dio.[10] Sultan Mohamed IV was married to Khadheeja Kanba, daughter of Ibrahim Shah Bandar of Isdhoo ( Isdhoo Bodu Velaanaa Thakurufaan )

Isdhoo dynastyEdit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Ali VII[4] Kula Ran Muiy 1701 1701 Ali Shah Bandar or Isdu 'Ali Velana Thakuru'fa'anu,[14] first Sultan of the Isdhoo dynasty.

Son of Ibrahim Shah Bandar Kilege of Isdhoo and Aysha Dio.

Sultan Hasan X[4] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1701 1701 Son of Sultan Ali V. Deposed by his cousin Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine.

He is also known as Addoo Hassan Manikfan[15]

Sultan Ibrahim Muzhir al-Din[4] Muthey Ran Mani Loka 1701 1704 Cousin of Sultan Hasan X. Deposed by his Prime Minister Muhammad Imaduddin during the regency of his spouse, Fatima Kabafa'anu, while on the Hajj pilgrimage.

Dhiyamigili dynastyEdit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II[16] Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Saasthura 1704 1720 Prime Minister to Sultan Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine. First of the Dhiyamigili dynasty. Son of Ibrahim Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Amina Dio.
Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II[17] Rannava Loka 1720 1750 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II and Amina Dio of Fenfushi.
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin III[18] Navaranna Keerithi 1750 1757 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II and Amina Dio of Fenfushi. Held captive on Kavaratti island from 1752 until his death in 1757. In 1752 he was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied. The occupation was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. The sultan died in captivity. During this time Maldives was ruled by the captive sultan's niece Amina I of Maldives and his daughter, Amina II. The de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku.
Interregnum 1757 1759 Regency continued in expectation of the return of the deceased sultan's heir from captivity.
Sultana Amina I 1753 1754 Daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II. Amina assumed the role of the ruler (regent) of Maldives in 1753 after Male was recaptured from the Malabars after 17 weeks of occupation. She was the daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II and Aisha Manikfan. She abdicated the throne and moved to Addu Atoll in the south. She was later banished to various islands and eventually became the Ruler of Maldives for the second time as the regent during the reign of her younger brother Sultan Mohamed Ghiyasuddin in 1773.
Sultana Amina II 1757 1759 Daughter of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin III. Amina succeeded her cousin in 1754 as nominal regent for her absent father the age of nine, while Muleegey Hassan Manikfaan managed the political affairs as de facto regent. Her father died in 1757 in Minicoy, after which she formally became monarch and queen regnant. In 1759 Sultan Hassan Izzuddin became monarch because the citizens did not approve of a young female as their head.

Huraa dynastyEdit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din[19] Kula Ran Meeba Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana 1759 1766 Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku or Don Bandaara was the first Sultan of the Huraa Dynasty. Son of Amina Dio daughter of Mohamed Kateeb of Muli and Huraa Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan.

Dhiyamigili dynasty (restored)Edit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Ghiyath al-Din[4] Kula Ranmani Keerithi 1766 1774 Son of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II. Deposed while on the Hajj pilgrimage
Interregnum 1773 1773 Regency by Sultans elder sister Amina I. Her husband Ali Shahbandar took power during the regency, and Dhiyamigili dynasty lost the throne in the cascade of events that followed. Mohamed Manikfaan of Huraa usurped the throne and later abdicated in favour of his nephew who became Sultan Muizzuddin. Amina and her husband were banished to a remote island in Laamu Atoll.

Huraa dynasty (first restoration)Edit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Shams al-Din Iskandar II[4] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1774 1774 Uncle of Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din.
Sultan Muhammad Mu'izz al-Din[4] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1774 1779 Son of Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din. Popularly known as Kalhu Bandaarain
Sultan Hasan Nooraddeen I[4] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1779 1799 Younger brother of Sultan Muhammad Mu'iz ud-din.[20]
Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen I[4] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1799 1835 Son of Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen I.
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen IV[21] Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bovana 1835 1882 Son of Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen I.
Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen[22] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1882 1886 Son of Imaaduddeen IV. Abdicated in favor of his nephew Muhammad Mueenuddeen.
Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen II[23] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1886 1888 Abdicated in favour of his uncle the former Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen.
Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen[24] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1888 1892 Second reign.
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen V[25] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1892 1893 His cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu acted as his regent due to his age. The regent abdicated in his name in favour of his older half brother.
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen III[26] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1893 1893 Brother of Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen V. His cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu acted as his regent due to his age. His cousin abdicated in his name and assumed the throne himself.
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen VI[27] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1893 1902 Former regent for Sultans Muhammad Imaaduddeen V and Muhammad Shamsuddeen III. Deposed while in the Ottoman Empire.
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen III[28] Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana 1902 1934 Second reign and introduced the first Constitution,[29] which ended when he was deposed and exiled.
Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II[30] Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana 1935 1943 Forced to abdicate.
Interregnum 1944 1952 Abdul Majeed Didi was elected Sultan but was never installed and continued to live in Ceylon. Maldives ruled by Council of Regency headed for a time by former Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II. Following the death of Abdul Majeed, and after a national referendum, the Maldives became a republic.

Huraa dynasty (second restoration)Edit

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
King Sir Muhammad Fareed Didi[31] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1954 1968 Grandson of Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen II and eldest son of Sultan Abdul Majeed Didi, took the title of King Muhammad Fareed Didi in 1965, when the British protectorate of the Maldives ended. Deposed by a national referendum which decided to replace the sultanate with a republic.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  • Regnal names are in ancient Maldive language. The names are followed with "Maha Radun" for Kings are "Maha Rehendi" for Queens.[32]
  • Sometimes there were no coronation ceremony and for those they were called "Keerithi Maha Radun" for Kings and "Keeri Maha Rehendi" for Queens.[32]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Legend of Koimala Kalou".
  2. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  3. ^ Maniku, H (1986). "Conversion of Maldives to Islam". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Sri Lanka Branch. New Series. 31: 72–81. JSTOR 23731038.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs Taj al-Din, Hasan. The Maldivian chronicle Ta'rikh.
  5. ^ Mohamed, Naseema (2005). "First Settlers". Note on the Early History of the Maldives. 70 (1): 7–14. doi:10.3406/arch.2005.3970.
  6. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  7. ^ "The Rehla of Ibn Battuta". Maldives. 31 October 1976.
  8. ^ a b "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  9. ^ a b c d M. dos Santos Alves, Jorge (2005). "Kalu Muhammad Hilali, Sultan of the Maldives (1491-1528)". Kalu Muhammad Hilali, Sultan of the Maldives (1491-1528). 70: 53–65. doi:10.3406/arch.2005.3972.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  11. ^ a b Francois, Payard. "The voyage of Francois Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil". The Maldives.
  12. ^ "Decedents of Sultan Mudzuhiruddine - Isdhoo Dynasty". Galehiri.
  13. ^ "Coral Stone Mosques of Maldives".
  14. ^ "Sultan Ali VII".
  15. ^ "Sultan Hassan X".
  16. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  17. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  18. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  19. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  20. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  21. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  22. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  23. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  24. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  25. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  26. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  27. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  28. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  29. ^ "Killed, exiled or deposed".
  30. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  31. ^ "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  32. ^ a b "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117". Archived from the original on 22 February 2013.