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The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei. He is also head of government in his capacity as Prime Minister.[1] Since independence from the British in 1984, only one Sultan has reigned, though the royal institution dates back to the 14th century.[2]

Sultan of Brunei Darussalam
Sultan dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam
Personal Emblem of the Sultan of Brunei.svg
Incumbent
Hassanal Bolkiah
since 5 October 1967
installation 1 August 1968
Details
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentThe Crown Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah
First monarchSultan Muhammad Shah
Formation1363; 656 years ago (1363)
ResidenceIstana Nurul Iman, Bandar Seri Begawan

The Sultan of Brunei can be thought of as synonymous with the ruling House of Bolkiah, with generations being traced from the first sultan, temporarily interrupted by the 13th Sultan, Abdul Hakkul Mubin, who in turn was deposed by a member of the House of Bolkiah. The Sultan's full title is: His Majesty The Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam.[1]

Contents

SultansEdit

Sultans of Brunei since 1368[2]
No. Name Reign start Reign end Notes
1 Muhammad Shah / Awang Alak Betatar 1363[3] 1402 Established the Sultanate.[3]
2 Ahmad / Awang Pateh Berbai 1408 1425
3 Sharif Ali / Sultan Barkat (Blessed Sultan) 1425 1432 No direct genealogical relation to predecessor, but was selected as he was the son-in-law of the previous sultan (Ahmad) and was well versed in Islam.
4 Sulaiman 1432 1485 Son of the previous sultan, Sharif Ali. Abdicated to allow his son Bolkiah to become sultan.
5 Bolkiah / Nakhoda Ragam (The Singing Captain) 1485 1524 Son of the previous sultan, Sulaiman.
6 Abdul Kahar 1524 1530 Son of the previous sultan, Bolkiah
7 Saiful Rijal 1533 1581 Nephew and adopted-son of the previous sultan, Abdul Kahar. Castile War broke out between Brunei and Spain.
8 Shah Berunai 1581 1582 Eldest son of Sultan Saiful Rijal
9 Muhammad Hassan 1582 1598 Younger brother of Shah Berunai.
10 Abdul Jalilul Akbar 1598 1659
11 Abdul Jalilul Jabbar 1659 1660
12 Muhammad Ali 1660 1661 Strangled by his successor Abdul Hakkul Mubin, sparking the Brunei Civil War.
13 Abdul Hakkul Mubin 1660 1673 Started the Brunei Civil War by killing his predecessor Muhammad Ali and was in turn killed by Muhyiddin who succeeded him as Sultan.
14 Muhyiddin 1673 1690 Son of Abdul Jalilul Akbar who avenged the death of his father-in-law Muhammad Ali by killing Abdul Hakkul Mubin, thus ending the Brunei Civil War.
15 Nasruddin 1690 1710
16 Hussin Kamaluddin 1710 1730 He ruled for the second time between 1737 to 1740.
17 Muhammad Alauddin 1730 1737 Instructed Datu Imam Yaakub to write the Silsilah Raja-Raja Berunai or the Genealogy of the Sultans of Brunei.
18 Omar Ali Saifuddin I 1740 1778
19 Muhammad Tajuddin 1778 1807 Ordered Khatib Abdul Latif to inscribe Batu Tarsilah or Stone Tablet.
20 Muhammad Jamalul Alam I 1804 1804
21 Muhammad Kanzul Alam 1807 1826
22 Muhammad Alam 1826 1828
23 Omar Ali Saifuddin II 1828 1852 Brunei ceded some territories of Sarawak to James Brooke. Brunei ceded Labuan to the British.
24 Abdul Momin 1852 29 May 1885 Brunei ceded northwestern part of Borneo to the British. The declaration of Amanat took place in 1884 that vowed not to cede more Brunei territories to foreign powers.
25 Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin 29 May 1885 10 May 1906 United Kingdom established protectorate over Brunei in 1888.
26 Muhammad Jamalul Alam II 10 May 1906 11 September 1924 The Sultan's reign was a short one. An outbreak of malaria claimed his life as well as three members of his family.
27 Ahmad Tajuddin 11 September 1924 4 June 1950 Japanese occupation of Brunei took place.
28 Omar Ali Saifuddien III 4 June 1950 5 October 1967 Signed the Brunei Constitution of 1959. Abdicated voluntarily in favor of his eldest son, Hassanal Bolkiah. Became Brunei's first Minister of Defence after independence in 1984.
29 Hassanal Bolkiah 5 October 1967 Incumbent Brunei regained independence from the United Kingdom in 1984.

UncertaintiesEdit

The earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the poor early documentation of Brunei's history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah from Tarim and Hadhramawt in Yemen. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with verifiable foreign sources.[4] The Batu Tarsilah, the genealogical record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807 CE.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Prime Minister". The Prime Minister's Office of Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Sultan-Sultan Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ a b Elisseeff, Vadime (January 2000). "Chapter 8: A Brunei Sultan of the Early Fourteenth Century – A Study of an Arabic Gravestone". The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. Berghahn Books. pp. 145–157. ISBN 978-1-57181-222-3. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Brunei". 4dw.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.