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Some of the many recurring and regular characters in The Simpsons.

Along with the Simpson family, The Simpsons includes a large array of characters: co-workers, teachers, family friends, extended relatives, townspeople, local celebrities, and as well as fictional characters. The creators originally intended many of these characters as one-time jokesters or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them have gained expanded roles and subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to creator Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the Canadian sketch comedy show Second City Television.[1]

The main characters, the Simpson family, are listed first; all other characters are listed in alphabetical order. Only main, supporting, and recurring characters are listed. For one-time and other recurring characters, see List of recurring The Simpsons characters and List of one-time The Simpsons characters.

CharactersEdit

Character Voice actor(s) Character's role Episode debut Original air date
Homer Simpson Dan Castellaneta[2] Husband of Marge; father of Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. "Good Night (The Simpsons short)" 1987-04-19
Marge Simpson Julie Kavner[2] Wife of Homer; mother of Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. "Good Night (The Simpsons short) 1987-04-19
Bart Simpson Nancy Cartwright[2] Oldest child and only son of Homer and Marge; brother of Lisa and Maggie. "Good Night (The Simpsons short)"[3] 1987-04-19
Lisa Simpson Yeardley Smith[2] Middle child and eldest daughter of Homer and Marge; sister of Bart and Maggie. "Good Night (The Simpsons short)"[3] 1987-04-19
Maggie Simpson Liz Georges
Gábor Csupó
Harry Shearer
Yeardley Smith
Nancy Cartwright
Elizabeth Taylor
James Earl Jones
Jodie Foster
Youngest child and daughter of Homer and Marge; sister of Bart and Lisa. "Good Night (The Simpsons short)"[3] 1987-04-19
Akira George Takei,[4] Hank Azaria[2] Waiter at The Happy Sumo;[5] karate teacher.[6] "One Fish, Two Fish, Blowfish, Blue Fish" 1991-01-24
Ms. Albright Tress MacNeille[7] Sunday school teacher. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25
Aristotle Amadopolis Jon Lovitz,[8] Dan Castellaneta[2] Owner of the Shelbyville Nuclear Power Plant.[9] "Homer Defined" 1991-10-17
Atkins, State Comptroller Harry Shearer,[10] Hank Azaria[11] State comptroller.[12] "Lisa Gets an "A"" 1998-11-22
Mary Bailey Maggie Roswell[7] Governor of Springfield's state. "Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish" 1990-11-01
Birchibald "Birch" T. Barlow Harry Shearer[7] Radio talk show host; Fox News anchor. "Sideshow Bob Roberts" 1994-10-09
Jasper Beardly Harry Shearer[7] Grampa's closest neighbor at the Retirement Castle. "Bart the General" 1990-01-21
Benjamin, Doug, and Gary Harry Shearer,[7] Hank Azaria,[2] and Dan Castellaneta[2] Springfield University students. "Homer Goes to College" 1993-10-14
Bill and Marty Dan Castellaneta[2] and Harry Shearer[7] KBBL Radio co-hosts. "Bart vs. Thanksgiving" 1990-10-11
Blinky Unvoiced Three-eyed fish. "Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish" 1990-11-01
Blue Haired Lawyer[13] Dan Castellaneta[13] Attorney. "Bart Gets Hit by a Car" 1991-01-10
Boobarella Tress MacNeille Host of late night TV monster movies. "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can" 2003-02-16
Wendell Borton Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990-01-21
Jacqueline Bouvier Julie Kavner[2] Mother of Selma and Patty Bouvier and Marge Simpson, Grandmother of Bart, Lisa, Maggie and Ling. "Bart vs. Thanksgiving" 1990-02-11
Patty Bouvier Julie Kavner[2] Twin sister of Selma and older sister of Marge. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Selma Bouvier Julie Kavner[2] Twin sister of Patty and older sister of Marge. Adoptive mother of Ling. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Kent Brockman Harry Shearer[7] Channel 6 News anchor. "Krusty Gets Busted" 1990-04-29
Bumblebee Man Hank Azaria[2] Star of slapstick sketch comedy show on Canal Ocho. "Itchy & Scratchy: The Movie" 1992-11-03
Charles Montgomery Burns Christopher Collins (early season 1), Harry Shearer[7] Owner of the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Capital City Goofball Tom Poston[14] Mascot of the Capital City Capitals baseball team.[15] "Dancin' Homer" 1990-11-08
Carl Carlson Hank Azaria[2] Springfield Nuclear Power Plant employee. "Homer's Night Out" 1990-03-25
Crazy Cat Lady Tress MacNeille[10] Mentally ill owner of many cats. Name revealed as Eleanor Abernathy in "See Homer Run". "Girly Edition" 1998-04-19
Gary Chalmers Hank Azaria[2] Public schools superintendent. "Whacking Day" 1993-04-29
Charlie Dan Castellaneta[16] Springfield Nuclear Power Plant employee. "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990-03-18
Chase (Pyro) Hank Azaria[13] Luann Van Houten's ex-boyfriend; American Gladiator. "A Milhouse Divided" 1996-12-01
Scott Christian Dan Castellaneta[2] News co-anchor. "Krusty Gets Busted" 1990-04-29
Comic Book Guy Hank Azaria[2] Proprietor of The Android's Dungeon comic book store. Name revealed to be Jeff Albertson in "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass". "Three Men and a Comic Book" 1991-05-09
Mr. Costington Hank Azaria[11] President of Costington's Department Store. "Trash of the Titans" 1998-04-26
Database Nancy Cartwright[2] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart's Comet" 1995-02-05
Declan Desmond Eric Idle Documentary filmmaker. "'Scuse Me While I Miss the Sky" 2003-03-20
Disco Stu Hank Azaria[11] Disco aficionado. "Two Bad Neighbors" 1996-01-14
Dolph Tress MacNeille[7] Springfield Elementary School bully. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25
Lunchlady Doris Doris Grau (1991-1995) Tress MacNeille (1996-present) [7] Springfield Elementary School lunch lady. "Lisa's Pony" 1991-11-07
Duffman Hank Azaria[13] Spokes-mascot for Duff Beer. His real name is Barry Duffman. "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson". 1997-09-21
Eddie and Lou Harry Shearer[7] and Hank Azaria[2] Springfield police officers. "There's No Disgrace Like Home" 1990-01-28
Fat Tony Joe Mantegna Mob boss. "Bart the Murderer" 1991-10-10
Maude Flanders Maggie Roswell[7] Ned Flanders's wife (dies on Season 11). "Dead Putting Society" 1990-11-15
Ned Flanders Harry Shearer[7] The Simpson family's next door neighbor; owner of The Leftorium (until it closes on Season 29), Bart Simpson's teacher at Springfield Elementary School (Season 29 onwards, substituting the void left by former deceased teacher Edna Krabappel, whom was previously married to Flanders from Seasons 23 to 25).[17][18] "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Rod Flanders Pamela Hayden[7] Ned and Maude Flanders's oldest son. "The Call of the Simpsons" 1990-02-18
Todd Flanders Nancy Cartwright[2] Ned and Maude Flanders's younger son. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Francesca Maria Grazia Cucinotta[2] Sideshow Bob's Italian wife. "The Italian Bob" 2005-12-11
Frankie the Squealer Dan Castellaneta[11] Informant for Fat Tony.[19] "Insane Clown Poppy" 2000-11-12
Professor John Frink Hank Azaria[2] Scientist, inventor. "Old Money" 1991-03-28
Baby Gerald Unvoiced One-eyebrowed baby. Arch-nemesis of Maggie Simpson. "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" 1994-04-28
Ginger Flanders Tress MacNeille[10] Ned Flanders's "Vegas wife."[20] "Viva Ned Flanders" 1999-01-10
Gino Terwilliger Tress MacNeille[10] Sideshow Bob's toddler son. "The Italian Bob" 2005-12-11
Alice Glick Cloris Leachman,[21] Tress MacNeille Elderly. "Three Men and a Comic Book" 1991-05-09
Gloria Jailbird Julia Louis-Dreyfus Snake's pregnant girlfriend. "A Hunka Hunka Burns in Love" 2001-12-02
Barney Gumble Dan Castellaneta[2] Homer's drunken old pal. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Gil Gunderson Dan Castellaneta[13] Unsuccessful salesman. "Realty Bites" 1997-12-07
The Happy Little Elves Dan Castellaneta,[11] Hank Azaria,[11] and Harry Shearer[22] Children's cartoon series characters. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-02-12
Judge Constance Harm Jane Kaczmarek Springfield judge. "The Parent Rap" 2001-11-11
Herman Hermann Harry Shearer[7] Owner of Herman's Military Antiques shop.[23] "Bart the General" 1990-02-04
Bernice Hibbert Tress MacNeille[10] Dr. Hibbert's wife. "Bart's Dog Gets an "F"" 1991-03-07
Dr. Julius Hibbert Harry Shearer[7] Medical doctor. "Bart the Daredevil" 1990-12-06
Elizabeth Hoover Maggie Roswell[7] Lisa Simpson's teacher at Springfield Elementary School. "Brush with Greatness" 1991-04-11
Lionel Hutz Phil Hartman[24] Attorney. "Bart Gets Hit by a Car" 1991-01-10
Itchy & Scratchy Dan Castellaneta[2] and Harry Shearer[7] Cartoon cat and mouse. "There's No Disgrace Like Home"[25] 1988-11-20
Jacques Albert Brooks[26] Bowling instructor.[27] "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990-03-18
Jimbo Jones Pamela Hayden[7] Springfield Elementary School bully. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25
Rachel Jordan Shawn Colvin[28] Lead singer of the Christian Rock band Kovenant.[29] "Alone Again, Natura-Diddily" 2000-02-13
Kang and Kodos Harry Shearer[7] and Dan Castellaneta[2] Extraterrestrials. "Treehouse of Horror" 1990-10-25
Princess Kashmir Maggie Roswell[7] Belly dancer.[30] "Homer's Night Out" 1990-03-25
Edna Krabappel Marcia Wallace[7] Bart Simpson's teacher at Springfield Elementary School (until season 25), and Ned Flanders wife (Seasons 23-25, when the character is revealed to have died).[31] "Bart the Genius" 1990-01-14
Rabbi Hyman Krustofski Jackie Mason and Dan Castellaneta Rabbi; father of Krusty the Clown.[32] "Like Father, Like Clown" 1991-10-24
Krusty the Clown Dan Castellaneta[2] TV show clown host, original name Herschel Shmoikel Pinchas Yerucham Krustofski.[33] "The Telltale Head" 1989-01-15
Cookie Kwan Tress MacNeille[10] Real estate agent.[34] "Realty Bites" 1997-12-07
Dewey Largo Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Elementary School's music teacher. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Legs and Louie Hank Azaria[2] and Dan Castellaneta[2] Fat Tony's henchmen. "Bart the Murderer" 1991-10-10
Leopold Dan Castellaneta[7] Superintendent Chalmers' assistant. "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" 1994-04-28
Lenny Leonard Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Nuclear Power Plant employee; one of Homer Simpson's friends. "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990-03-18
Lewis Clark Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Helen Lovejoy Maggie Roswell[7] Reverend Lovejoy's wife. "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990-03-18
Reverend Timothy Lovejoy Harry Shearer[7] Minister of the First Church of Springfield. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25
Coach Lugash Dan Castellaneta[11] Gymnastics instructor.[35] "Children of a Lesser Clod" 2001-05-13
Lurleen Lumpkin Beverly D'Angelo,[36] Doris Grau[7] Country music singer-songwriter. "Colonel Homer" 1992-03-26
Otto Mann Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Elementary School bus driver. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990-01-21
Captain Horatio McCallister Hank Azaria[2] Sea captain. "New Kid on the Block" 1992-11-12
Roger Meyers, Jr. Alex Rocco,[37] Dan Castellaneta[2] Chairman of Itchy & Scratchy International. "Itchy & Scratchy & Marge" 1990-12-20
Troy McClure Phil Hartman[38] Actor. "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" 1991-02-07
Hans Moleman Dan Castellaneta[2] Misfortunate man. "Principal Charming" 1991-02-14
Dr. Marvin Monroe Harry Shearer[7] Psychotherapist. "There's No Disgrace Like Home" 1990-01-28
Nelson Muntz Nancy Cartwright Bully. "Bart the General" 1990-02-04
Captain Lance Murdock Dan Castellaneta[2] Daredevil. "Bart the Daredevil" 1990-12-06
Bleeding Gums Murphy Ron Taylor[39] Blues musician.[40] "Moaning Lisa" 1990-02-11
Lindsey Naegle Tress MacNeille[10] Corporate executive. "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show" 1997-02-09
Apu Nahasapeemapetilon Hank Azaria[2] Operator of the Kwik-E-Mart. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25
Manjula Nahasapeemapetilon Jan Hooks(1997-2002) Tress MacNeille (2014-present)[41] Apu Nahasapeemapetilon's wife. "Much Apu About Nothing" 1997-11-16
Sanjay Nahasapeemapetilon Harry Shearer[10] Apu Nahasapeemapetilon's older brother. "Dog of Death" 1997-11-16
Jake[42] Dan Castellaneta,[42] Harry Shearer[22] Barber. "Simpson and Delilah" 1987-11-15
Old Jewish Man Hank Azaria[13] Springfield Retirement Castle resident. "Krusty Gets Kancelled" 1993-05-13
Patches and Poor Violet Pamela Hayden[10] and Tress MacNeille[10] Orphans.[43] "Miracle on Evergreen Terrace" 1997-12-21
Arnie Pye Dan Castellaneta[2] Channel 6 helicopter reporter. "Homer Alone" 1992-02-06
Herbert Powell Danny DeVito[44] Homer Simpson's half-brother.[45] "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" 1991-02-21
Janey Powell Pamela Hayden[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Moaning Lisa" 1990-02-04
Ruth Powers Pamela Reed[46] The Simpsons' next door neighbor.[47] "New Kid on the Block" 1992-11-12
Martin Prince Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart the Genius" 1990-01-14
Loren Pryor Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Elementary's school psychologist. "Bart the Genius" 1990-01-14
Mayor "Diamond" Joe Quimby Dan Castellaneta[2] Mayor of Springfield. "The Call of the Simpsons" 1990-10-11
Radioactive Man Harry Shearer Comic book superhero. "Three Men and a Comic Book" 1990-01-14
The Rich Texan Dan Castellaneta[13] Philanthropist. "$pringfield (Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Legalized Gambling)" 1993-12-16
Richard Pamela Hayden,[7] Nancy Cartwright[2] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart the Genius" 1990-01-14
Luigi Risotto Hank Azaria[13] Italian restaurant proprietor. "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" 1994-04-28
Dr. Nick Riviera Hank Azaria[2] Incompetent medical doctor. Injured at the end of the movie by a falling chunk of glass, and brought back in the twentieth season. "Bart Gets Hit by a Car" 1991-01-10
Santa's Little Helper Dan Castellaneta,[2] Frank Welker[22] The Simpson family's pet dog. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Sherri and Terri Russi Taylor[7] Identical twins; Students at Springfield Elementary School. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990-01-21
Dave Shutton Harry Shearer[7] Reporter for The Springfield Shopper. "Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish" 1990-11-01
Robert Terwilliger Kelsey Grammer[48] Criminal mastermind and Krusty the Clown Show ex-operator and sidekick. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25
Sideshow Mel Dan Castellaneta[2] The Krusty the Clown Show sidekick. "Itchy & Scratchy & Marge" 1990-12-20
Grampa Simpson Dan Castellaneta[2] Homer Simpson's father; Bart, Lisa, and Maggie Simpson's grandfather. "Grampa and the Kids" (The Simpsons shorts)[49] 1988-01-10
Amber Simpson Pamela Hayden[10] Homer Simpson's deceased "Vegas wife."[20] "Viva Ned Flanders" 1999-01-10
Mona Simpson Glenn Close,[50] Tress MacNeille,[10] Maggie Roswell[51] Estranged mother of Homer Simpson and wife of Abe Simpson. "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" 1991-02-21
Agnes Skinner Tress MacNeille[7] Seymour Skinner's mother. "The Crepes of Wrath" 1990-04-15
Seymour Skinner Harry Shearer[7] Principal of Springfield Elementary School. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Waylon Smithers Harry Shearer[7] Mr. Burns's personal assistant. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1990-01-21
Snake Jailbird Hank Azaria[2] Recidivist. "The War of the Simpsons" 1991-05-02
Snowball II Frank Welker The Simpson family's pet cats. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Roy Snyder Harry Shearer[10] Springfield judge. "Krusty Gets Busted" 1990-04-29
Jebediah Springfield Harry Shearer[7] Founder of Springfield; local hero. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25
Cletus Spuckler Hank Azaria[2] Slack-Jawed Yokel. "Bart Gets an Elephant" 1994-03-31
Brandine Spuckler Tress MacNeille[7] Cletus Spuckler's wife and sister. "Scenes from the Class Struggle in Springfield" 1996-02-04
Squeaky-Voiced Teen Dan Castellaneta[13] Service industry. "Dog of Death" 1991-02-14
Moe Szyslak Hank Azaria[2] Owner of Moe's Tavern. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Drederick Tatum Hank Azaria[2] Professional boxer, a caricature of Mike Tyson.[52] "Homer vs Lisa and the 8th Commandment" 1991-02-07
Allison Taylor Winona Ryder, Pamela Hayden Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Lisa's Rival" 1994-09-11
Mr. Teeny Dan Castellaneta[13] The Krusty the Clown Show trained monkey. "Like Father, Like Clown" 1991-10-24
Cecil Terwilliger David Hyde Pierce[53] Sideshow Bob's younger brother.[54] "Brother from Another Series" 1997-02-23
Johnny Tightlips Hank Azaria[11] One of Fat Tony's henchmen.[19] "Insane Clown Poppy" 2000-11-12
Üter Zörker Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Treehouse of Horror IV" 1993-10-28
Kirk Van Houten Hank Azaria[2] Milhouse Van Houten's father; factory worker. "Bart's Friend Falls in Love" 1992-05-07
Luann Van Houten Maggie Roswell[7] Kirk Van Houten's wife; Milhouse's mother. "Homer Defined" 1991-10-17
Milhouse Van Houten Pamela Hayden[7] Bart Simpson's best friend; Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989-12-17
Dr. Velimirovic Hank Azaria[11] Plastic surgeon.[55] "Pygmoelian" 2000-02-27
Police Chief Clancy Wiggum Hank Azaria[2] Springfield Chief of Police. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990-01-21
Ralph Wiggum Nancy Cartwright[2] Son of Police Chief Clancy Wiggum. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1991-02-07
Sarah Wiggum Pamela Hayden[10] Chief Wiggum's wife; Ralph Wiggum's mother. "Duffless" 1993-02-18
Groundskeeper Willie Dan Castellaneta[2] Janitor of Springfield Elementary School. "Principal Charming" 1991-02-14
Raphael Hank Azaria[11] Service industry. "The Way We Was" 1991-01-31
Rainier Wolfcastle (McBain) Harry Shearer[7] Actor; star of McBain films. "The Way We Was" 1991-01-31
The Yes Guy[11] Dan Castellaneta[11] Service industry. "Mayored to the Mob" 1998-12-20
Artie Ziff Jon Lovitz,[56] Dan Castellaneta[42] Former billionaire and Marge's prom date.[57] "The Way We Was" 1991-01-31
Kearney Zzyzwicz Nancy Cartwright[2] Springfield Elementary School bully. "The Telltale Head" 1990-02-25

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rabin, Nathan (26 April 2006). "Matt Groening: Interview". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 178.
  3. ^ a b c Groening, Matt (19 April 1987). "Good Night". The Simpsons shorts. Season 1. Episode 1. Fox. 
  4. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 45.
  5. ^ Scovell, Nell; Archer, Wesley (24 January 1991). "One Fish, Two Fish, Blowfish, Blue Fish". The Simpsons. Season 2. Episode 11. Fox. 
  6. ^ Vitti, Jon; Reardon, Jim (3 October 1991). "When Flanders Failed". The Simpsons. Season 3. Episode 3. Fox. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 179.
  8. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 66.
  9. ^ Gewirtz, Howard; Kirkland, Mark (17 October 1991). "Homer Defined". The Simpsons. Season 3. Episode 40. Fox. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gimple, p. 87
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McCann, p. 116
  12. ^ Maxtone-Graham, Ian; Anderson, Bob (22 November 1998). "Lisa Gets an "A"". The Simpsons. Season 10. Episode 7. Fox. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gimple, p. 86
  14. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 39.
  15. ^ Levine, Ken and David Isaacs; Kirkland, Mark (8 November 1990). "Dancing Homer". The Simpsons. Season 2. Episode 5. Fox. 
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  18. ^ http://www.denofgeek.com/us/tv/the-simpsons/273252/the-simpsons-season-29-episode-19-review-left-behind
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  20. ^ a b Stern, David M.; Affleck, Neil (10 January 1999). "Viva Ned Flanders". The Simpsons. Season 10. Episode 10. Fox. 
  21. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 57.
  22. ^ a b c McCann, p. 117
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  24. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 44.
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  26. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 25.
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  28. ^ McCann, p. 38
  29. ^ Maxtone-Graham, Ian; Reardon Jim (13 February 2000). "Alone Again, Natura-diddily". The Simpsons. Season 11. Episode 14. Fox. 
  30. ^ Vitti, Jon; Moore, Rich (25 March 1990). "Homer's Night Out". The Simpsons. Season 1. Episode 10. Fox. 
  31. ^ Kaiser, Rowan (2012-05-14). "The Simsons "Ned 'n Edna's Blend"". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2012-05-21. 
  32. ^ Kogen, Jay and Wallace Wolodarsky; Lynch, Jeffrey with Brad Bird (24 October 1991). "Like Father, Like Clown". The Simpsons. Season 3. Episode 6. Fox. 
  33. ^ Cohen, Joel H.; Kruse, Nancy (2003-12-07). "Today I Am a Clown". The Simpsons. Season 15. Episode 6. Fox. 
  34. ^ Greaney, Dan; Scott III, Swinton O. (7 December 1997). "Realty Bites". The Simpsons. Season 9. Episode 9. Fox. 
  35. ^ Jean, Al; Polcino, Mike (13 May 2001). "Children of a Lesser Clod". The Simpsons. Season 12. Episode 20. Fox. 
  36. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 85.
  37. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 43.
  38. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 200.
  39. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 22.
  40. ^ Jean, Al and Mike Reiss; Archer, Wesley (11 February 1990). "Moaning Lisa". The Simpsons. Season 1. Episode 6. Fox. 
  41. ^ Gimple, p. 64
  42. ^ a b c Castellaneta, Dan; Gewirtz, Howard; Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Kirkland, Mark; Reiss, Mike. The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season DVD Video Collector's Edition commentary for the episode "Homer Defined" (DVD). Twentieth Century Fox. 
  43. ^ Hauge, Ron; Anderson, Bob (21 December 1997). "Miracle on Evergreen Terrace". The Simpsons. Season 9. Episode 10. Fox. 
  44. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 50.
  45. ^ Martin, Jeff; Archer, Wesley (21 February 1991). "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?". The Simpsons. Season 2. Episode 15. Fox. 
  46. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 126.
  47. ^ O'Brien, Conan; Archer, Wesley (12 November 1992). "New Kid on the Block". The Simpsons. Season 4. Episode 8. Fox. 
  48. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 121.
  49. ^ Groening, Matt (10 January 1988). "Grampa and the Kids". The Simpsons shorts. Season 2. Episode 19. Fox. 
  50. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 189.
  51. ^ Appel, Richard; Groening, Matt; Oakley, Bill; Silverman, David; Weinstein, Josh. The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season DVD Video Collector's Edition commentary for the episode "Mother Simpson" (DVD). Twentieth Century Fox. 
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  53. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 229.
  54. ^ Keeler, Ken; Michels, Pete (23 February 1997). "Brother from Another Series". The Simpsons. Season 8. Episode 16. Fox. 
  55. ^ Doyle, Larry; Kirkland, Mark (27 February 2000). "Pygmoelian". The Simpsons. Season 11. Episode 16. Fox. 
  56. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 47.
  57. ^ Castellaneta, Dan and Deb Lacusta; Kruse, Nancy (14 March 2004). "The Ziff Who Came to Dinner". The Simpsons. Season 15. Episode 14. Fox. 

BibliographyEdit