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This is a list of inventors from the Russian Federation, Soviet Union, Russian Empire, Tsardom of Russia and Grand Duchy of Moscow, including both ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

This list also includes those who were born in Russia or its predecessor states but later emigrated, and those who were born elsewhere but immigrated to the country or worked there for a considerable time, (producing inventions on Russian soil).

For Russian inventions in chronological order, see the Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records.

Alphabetical listEdit

AEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Bruno Abakanowicz
(1852–1900)
  Russian Empire
  France
(Poland/Lithuania origin)
Integraph, spirograph, parabolagraph[1]
 
Spirograph designs
  Valerian Abakovsky
(1895–1921)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Latvia
aerowagon[2]
Vitaly Abalakov
(1906–1986)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
camming devices, Abalakov thread (V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor[3][4]
  Evgeny Abramyan
(1930)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
  Georgia
halyard for the first extra-vehicular activity
 
Space suit worn by Leonov during the first EVA
Vsevolod Abramovich
(1890–1913)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Abramovich Flyer
Hovannes Adamian
(1879–1932)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(Armenia/Azerbaijan/Germany)
tricolor principle of the color television[5]
Franz Aepinus
(1724–1802)
  Holy Roman Empire
  Russian Empire
achromatic microscope
Georgy Adelson-Velsky
(1922–2014)
  Soviet Union
  Russia
  Israel
AVL tree datastructure, Kaissa (the first World Computer Chess Champion)
Anatoly Alexandrov
(1903–1994)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
anti-mine demagnetising of ships, naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear icebreaker)[6][7]
Alexandre Alexeieff
(1901–1982)
  Russian Empire
  France
pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)[8]
Rostislav Alexeyev
(1916–1980)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
ekranoplan, Soviet high-speed hydrofoils[9][10]
  Zhores Alferov
(born 1930)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
heterotransistor (with Herbert Kroemer), continuous-wave-operating diode laser (with Dmitri Garbuzov)[11][12]
Genrich Altshuller
(1926–1998)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")[13]
 
Structure of TRIZ
  Vasily Andreyev
(1861–1918)
  Russian Empire
standard balalaika[14][15]
 
A souvenir balalaika
  Oleg Antonov
(1906–1984)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
An-series aircraft, including Antonov A-40 winged tank and Antonov An-124 (the largest serial cargo aircraft, later modified to world's largest fixed-wing aircraft Antonov An-225)[16]
 
An-124-100
  Lev Artsimovich
(1909–1973)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first tokamak[17]
 
Tokamak scheme

BEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Georgy Babakin
(1914–1971)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first soft landing space vehicle (Luna 9)[18]
  Vladimir Baranov-Rossine
(1888–1944)
  Russian Empire
  France
(Ukraine)
(self-portrait)
Optophonic Piano, pointillist or dynamic military camouflage[19]
Vladimir Barmin
(1909–1993)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
first rocket launch complex (Baikonur spaceport)[20]
  Nikolay Basov
(1922–2001)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
co-inventor of laser and maser[21]
 
Laser beams
  Ernest Beaux
(1881–1961)
  Russian Empire
  France
Chanel No. 5[22]
  Vladimir Bekhterev
(1857–1927)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Bekhterev’s Mixture (a medicine with a sedative effect)[23]
  Nikolay Benardos
(1842–1905)
  Russian Empire
arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)[24]
 
The first arc welding method, ElectroHephaestus
Alexander Bereznyak
(1912–1974)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(left on photo)
first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)[25]
Georgy Beriev
(1903–1979)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(Georgian origin)
Be-series amphibious aircraft[citation needed]
  Fyodor Blinov
(1827–1902)
  Russian Empire
first tracked vehicle (a wagon on continuous tracks), steam-powered caterpillar tractor[26][27]
 
Blinov's caterpillar steam tractor
Sam Born
  Russian Empire
  United States
lollipop-making machine[28]
 
A particularly large lollipop
  Georgy Bothezat
(1882–1940)
  Russian Empire
  United States
quadrotor helicopter (The Flying Octopus)[29]
 
De Bothezat's quadrotor helicopter.
  Sergey Brin
(born 1973)
  Soviet Union
  United States
with Larry Page, invented Google web search engine[30]
Mikhail Britnev
(1822–1889)
  Russian Empire
first metal-hull icebreaker (Pilot)[31]
 
Icebreaker Pilot on a postage stamp
Nikolay Brusentsov
(born 1925)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
ternary computer (Setun)[32]
Gersh Budker
(1918–1977)
  Soviet Union
electron cooling, co-inventor of collider[33][34]
  Aleksandr Butlerov
(1828–1886)
  Russian Empire
hexamine, formaldehyde, formose reaction (the synthesis of sugar)[35]

CEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Chelomey
(1914–1984)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first space station (Salyut 1), further space stations of Salyut series, Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)[36]
  Pavel Cherenkov
(1904–1990)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Cherenkov detector[37]
Evgeniy Chertovsky
(born 1902)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
pressure suit[38]
Alexander Chizhevsky
(1897–1964)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
air ionizer (Chizhevsky's chandelier)[39]
 
A modern air ionizer
Andrey Chokhov
(c. 1545–1629)
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
Tsar Cannon, the largest bombard by caliber but inoperative[40]

DEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Vasily Degtyaryov
(1880–1949)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first self-loading carbine, Degtyaryov-series firearms, co-developer of Fedorov Avtomat (the first self-loading rifle)[41]
  Akinfiy Demidov
(1678–1745)
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
co-developer of rebar, cast iron cupola, lightning rod (all found in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk)[42]
Yuri Denisyuk
(1927–2006)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
3D holography[43]
 
Denisyuk holography scheme
Aleksandr Dianin
(1851–1918)
  Russian Empire
Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound[44]
 
Bisphenol A formula
  Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky
(1862–1919)
  Russian Empire
(Poland, Germany)
three-phase electric power (first 3-phase hydroelectric power plant, 3-phase electrical generator, 3-phase motor and 3-phase transformer)[45]
 
3-phase electrical generator on exhibition in Frankfurt,1891
Nikolay Dollezhal
(1899–2000)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
AM-1 reactor for the first nuclear power plant and other RBMK-type reactors, pressurized water reactor (VVER)[46]
Alexey Dushkin
(1904–1977)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
deep column station[47]

EEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Ivan Elmanov
  Russian Empire
first monorail (the so-called "Road on Pillars" near Moscow, with horse-drawn carriages)[48]

FEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Peter Carl Fabergé
(1846–1920)
  Russian Empire
Fabergé Eggs[49]
Nicolas Florine
(1891–1972)
  Russian Empire
  Belgium
(born in Georgia)
first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely[50]
 
A modern tandem rotor helicopter
Ivan Fyodorov
(c. 1510–1583)
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
  Poland-Lithuania
invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia[51]
 
Fedorov depicted in his typography
Svyatoslav Fyodorov
(1927–2000)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
radial keratotomy[52]
  Vladimir Fyodorov
(1874–1966)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)[53]

GEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Yakov Modestovich Gakkel
(1874-1945)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first Russian-made aircraft and diesel locomotives[54]
 
The Gakkel-VII
  Boris Borisovich Galitzine
(1862–1916)
  Russian Empire
electromagnetic seismograph[55]
 
An electric seismograph
Dmitri Garbuzov
(1940–2006)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
  United States
continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers[56]
Georgy Gause
(1910–1986)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics[57]
E. K. Gauzen
  Russian Empire
three bolt equipment (early diving costume)[58][59]
 
A Soviet diving helmet
  Andrey Geim
(born 1958)
  Soviet Union
  United Kingdom
graphene[60]
  Nestor Genko
(1839–1904)
  Russian Empire
Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)[61]
  Valentyn Glushko
(1908–1989)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
hypergolic propellant, electric propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)[62]
  Leonid Gobyato
(1875–1915)
  Russian Empire
first modern man-portable mortar[63]
 
Gobyato's mortar
  Igor Gorynin
(born 1926)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminium alloys, radiation-hardened steels[64][65]
Boris Grabovsky
(1901–1966)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube[66][67]
Mikhail Gurevich
(1893–1976)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(left on photo)
MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)[68]

HEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Waldemar Haffkine
(1860–1930)
  Russian Empire
   Switzerland
developed and used first vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague[69][70]
 
An injection of anti-plague vaccine

IEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Gavriil Ilizarov
(1921–1992)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis[71][72][73]
Sergey Ilyushin
(1894–1977)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Il-series fighter aircraft, including Ilyushin Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history)[74]
Aleksei Isaev
(1908–1971)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(second left on photo)
first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Bereznyak)[25]
Isidore
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Russian vodka[75]

JEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Boris Jacobi
(1801–1874)
  Prussia
  Russian Empire
electrotyping (an application of electroplating to typography), electric boat[76]

KEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Mikhail Kalashnikov
(1919–2013)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (produced more than all other types of assault rifles combined)[77]
 
AK-47
Nikolay Kamov
(1902–1973)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
armored military autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters[78]
  Pyotr Kapitsa
(1894–1984)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(left on portrait by Boris Kustodiev, with Nikolay Semyonov right)
first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions[79]
 
The liquid helium in the superfluid phase
Georgii Karpechenko
(1899–1941)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)[80][81]
Eugene Kaspersky
(born 1965)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products[82]
 
Kaspersky Anti-Virus Logo
Adolphe Kégresse
(1879–1943)
  France
  Russian Empire
Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual-clutch transmission[83]
 
Nicholas II Packard Twin-6 with Kégresse track
Alexander Kemurdzhian
(1921–2003)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)
  Yulii Khariton
(1904–1996)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomba
Anatoly Kharlampiyev
(1906–1979)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Sambo (martial art)[84]
Konstantin Khrenov
(1894–1984)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
underwater welding[citation needed]
  Nikolai Kibalchich
(1853–1881)
  Russian Empire
pioneer of rocketry[85]
 
A Soyuz-U, at Baikonur Site 1/5
Semyon Kirlian
(1898–1978)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Kirlian photography
 
Kirlian photo of two coins
  Konstantin Konstantinov
(1817–19 – 1871)
  Russian Empire
device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine[86]
 
Trajectory of a bullet
  Sergei Korolev
(1907–1966)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(born in Ukraine)
first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok programme (including the first human spaceflight)
 
Vostok spacecraft model
  Nikolai Korotkov
(1874–1920)
  Russian Empire
auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement
  Semyon Korsakov
(1787–1853)
  Russian Empire
punched card for information storage
 
Korsakov's linear homeoscope
  Mikhail Koshkin
(1898–1940)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II[87]
  Ogneslav Stepanovich Kostovich
(1851–1916)
  Serbia
  Russian Empire
arborite (high-strength plywood)[88][89]
  Gleb Kotelnikov
(1872–1944)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
knapsack parachute, drogue parachute[90][91]
 
A modern knapsack parachute packed
  Aleksey Krylov
(1863–1945)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
gyroscopic damping of ships
  Ivan Kulibin
(1735–1818)
  Russian Empire
egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, self-rolling carriage (for the first time featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing), an early optical telegraph[92][93][94]
 
Kulibin's project of the one-arch bridge over Neva River.
Igor Kurchatov
(1903–1960)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships

LEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Dmitry Lachinov
(1842–1902)
  Russian Empire
mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, electrolyser[95]
 
The details of electrical insulation tester depicted in a Lachinov's book
Semyon Lavochkin
(1900–1960)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
La-series aircraft, the first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut
Nikolai Lebedenko
  Russian Empire
Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history[96]
  Sergei Lebedev
(1874–1934)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
commercially viable synthetic rubber
Lisitsyns,
Ivan Fyodorovich
and his brother
Nazar Fyodorovich
  Russian Empire
Russian samovar[97]
 
A typical samovar
  Alexander Lodygin
(1847–1923)
  Russian Empire
  United States
electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament
 
Lodygin's lamp draw
  Mikhail Lomonosov
(1711–1765)
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, original Russian hard-paste porcelain (together with Dmitry Vinogradov), re-discovery of smalt[98]
 
Lomonosov's drawings for his discovery of Venus atmosphere
  Yury Lomonosov
(1876–1952)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  United Kingdom
first successful mainline diesel locomotive[99]
 
The Юэ 001 locomotive
Aleksandr Loran
(1849 – after 1911)
  Russian Empire
fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher[100]
 
Modern usage of fire fighting foam.
  Oleg Losev
(1903–1942)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
light-emitting diode, crystadine
 
Red, green and blue LEDs
Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy
(1909–2001)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project[101][102]
 
Buran carried by the An-225
Arkhip Lyulka
(1908–1984)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines[103]

MEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Aleksandr Makarov
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
  Germany
orbitrap[104]
 
Ion trajectories in an Orbitrap
  Stepan Makarov
(1849–1904)
  Russian Empire
Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice
 
Icebreaker Yermak on the Baltic Sea before 1917
  Nestor Makhno
(1888–1934)
  Russian Empire
  France
(Ukraine)
tachanka
Victor Makeev
(1924–1985)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile
 
Scheme of R-27 missile of Makeev
  Dmitri Maksutov
(1896–1964)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Maksutov telescope
  Sergey Malyutin
(1859–1937)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(self-portrait)
matryoshka doll (together with craftsman Vasily Zvyozdochkin)[105]
 
Original matryoshka doll by Malyutin and Zvyozdochkin
Boris Mamyrin
(1919–2007)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
reflectron (ion mirror)[106]
  Ilya Mechnikov
(1845–1916)
  Russian Empire
  France
probiotics
  Dmitri Mendeleev
(1834–1907)
  Russian Empire
Periodic table, a type of pycnometer, pyrocollodion, co-developer of Icebreaker Yermak, also credited with determining the ideal vodka proof as 38% (later rounded to 40%)[107]
Artem Mikoyan
(1905–1970)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(Armenia)
(right on photo)
MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)[68]
Alexander Mikulin
(1895–1985)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank[96][108]
 
Mikulin and his staff presenting Mikulin AM-34
Mikhail Mil
(1909–1970)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)
Pavel Molchanov
(1893–1941)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
radiosonde
Alexander Morozov
(1904–1979)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34[109][110]
  Sergei Mosin
(1849–1902)
  Russian Empire
Mosin–Nagant rifle, one of the most produced ever
Motorins,
Ivan Feodorovich
(1660s – 1735)
and his son
Mikhail Ivanovich
(?–1750)
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
Tsar Bell, the largest bell in the world[111]
  Vera Mukhina
(1889–1953)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
welded sculpture[112]
Yevgeny Murzin
(1914–1970)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
ANS synthesizer

NEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Nadiradze
(1914–1987)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
(born in Georgia)
First meteorological missile "M1-Meteo". First mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), also RSD-10 Pioneer and (RT-2PM Topol)[113]
  Andrey Nartov
(1683–1756)
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge-boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight[114][115][116]
 
An old lathe (b marks the carriage)
Sergey Nepobedimiy
(1921–2014)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry[117]
Nikolai Nikitin
(1907–1973)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower, The Motherland Calls), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)
 
Ostankino Tower (on the left)
  Ludvig Nobel
(1831–1888)
  Sweden
  Russian Empire
first successful oil tanker[118]
 
A modern oil tanker
  Konstantin Novoselov
(born 1974)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
  United Kingdom
graphene[60] (youngest Nobel Laureate since 1973)[119]

OEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Theophil Wilgodt Odhner
(1845–1903)
  Sweden
  Russian Empire
the Odhner Arithmometer (a mechanical pinwheel calculator)
Lucien Olivier
(1838–1883)
  Russian Empire
(Belgian or French origin)
Russian salad (Olivier salad)

PEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Alexey Pajitnov
(born 1956)
  Soviet Union
  United States
Tetris[120]
 
Tetris figures
  Ivan Pavlov
(1849–1936)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
classical conditioning[121]
 
One of the Pavlov’s dogs with an implanted cannula.
  Vasily Petrov
(1761–1834)
  Russian Empire
continuous electric arc, arc welding[122]
  Nikolay Pirogov
(1810–1881)
  Russian Empire
early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations
 
Diethyl ether
  Fyodor Pirotsky
(1845–1898)
  Russian Empire
electric tram
 
Miller's line where Pirotsky's tram was tested
Ivan Plotnikov
(1902–1995)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
kirza leather[123]
 
Kirza boots.
  Nikolai Polikarpov
(1892–1944)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)
Ivan Polzunov
(1728–1766)
  Russian Empire
first two-cylinder steam engine
 
Polzunov's steam engine
  Mikhail Pomortsev
(1851–1916)
  Russian Empire
nephoscope
 
Nephoscope measures the parameters of clouds
  Alexander Popov
(1859–1906)
  Russian Empire
built an early radio receiver in the form of a lightning detector, eastern European countries claim he is the "inventor of radio"
 
Popov and his radio
Nikolay Popov
(1931–2008)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)[124]
  Aleksandr Porokhovschikov
(1892 – c. 1942)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first continuous track amphibious ATV)[125]
 
Vezdekhod tank in 1915
  Alexander Procofieff de Seversky
(1894–1974)
  Russian Empire
  United States
ionocraft, first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, also developed air-to-air refueling
  Alexander Prokhorov
(1916–2002)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
co-inventor of laser and maser
 
Laser beams
  Petro Prokopovych
(1775–1850)
  Russian Empire
(Ukraine)
beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties
 
A shallow super frame filled with honey
  Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
(1863–1944)
  Russian Empire
  France
early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures

REdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Leonid Ramzin
(1887–1948)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
straight-flow boiler (Ramzin boiler)[126]
  Peter I of Russia (Romanov)
(1672–1725)
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)[127][128][129]
 
Sounding line throwing
Ida Rosenthal
(1886–1973)
  Russian Empire
  United States
(born in Belarus, Jewish descent)
modern brassiere (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)[130][131][132]
 
A modern brassiere
  Boris Rosing
(1869–1933)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
CRT television (first TV system using cathode ray tube on the receiving side)[133][134]
Eugene Roshal
(born 1972)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver[135]
 
FAR Manager screenshot

SEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Sablukov
(1783–1857)
  Russian Empire
centrifugal fan[136]
 
Components of a centrifugal fan
Andrei Sakharov
(1921–1989)
  Soviet Union
explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb, co-developer of tokamak
  Franz San Galli
(1824–1908)
  Russian Empire
(Italian and German descent, born in Poland)
radiator, modern central heating[137][138]
 
A household radiator
  Pavel Schilling
(1780–1836)
  Russian Empire
(Estonia)
shielded cable, electric mine and electromagnetic telegraph[139]
 
Cooke and Wheatstone's telegraph, inspired by Schilling's one
  Guy Severin
(1926–2008)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
extra-vehicular activity supporting system[140]
Leonty Shamshurenkov
(1687–1758)
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
a device for lifting the Tsar Bell, the first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge[93][141]
 
A reconstruction of Shamshurenkov's self-running carriage
  Pyotr Shilovsky
(1871 – after 1924)
  Russian Empire
  United Kingdom
gyrocar[142]
 
Shilovsky's gyrocar in 1914, London
  Vladimir Shukhov
(1853–1939)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot[143]
  Pyotr Shuvalov
(1711–1762)
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
invented canister shot mortar, introduced licorne into wide usage
 
A "secret" canister shot mortar
Igor Sikorsky
(1889–1972)
  Russian Empire
  United States
first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters
 
Sikorsky Skycrane carrying a house
Vladimir Simonov
(born 1935)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol[144][145]
  Nikolay Slavyanov
(1854–1897)
  Russian Empire
shielded metal arc welding[146]
Alexander Smakula
(1900–1983)
  Russian Empire
  United States
(Ukraine)
anti-reflective coating
Yefim Smolin
Tsardom of Russia
  Russian Empire
table-glass (stakan granyonyi)[147]
 
A classic table-glass
  Igor Spassky
(born 1926)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
Sea Launch platform and over 200 nuclear submarines, including the world's largest submarines of Typhoon class
  Ladislas Starevich
(1882–1965)
  Russian Empire
  France
(Polish descent)
puppet animation, live-action/animated film[148][149]
 
Scene from The Cameraman's Revenge animation (1911)
Boris Stechkin
(1891–1969)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Lebedenko's Tsar Tank, developer of many Soviet heat and aircraft engines[96][150]
  Aleksandr Stoletov
(1839–1896)
  Russian Empire
first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect
 
A modern solar cell
Pavel Sukhoi
(1895–1975)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Su-series fighter aircraft
Andrei Sychra
(1773–76 – 1850)
  Russian Empire
(born in Lithuania, Czech ancestry)
Russian seven-string guitar
Vladimir Syromyatnikov
(1933–2006)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms
 
The original APAS-75 docking unit draw

TEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Andrey Ternovskiy
(born 1992)
  Russian Federation
creator of Chatroulette, the first random webcam chat website
  Léon Theremin
(1896–1993)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  United States
  Russian Federation
theremin, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)
 
Etherwave Theremin
Andrey Tikhonov
(1906–1993)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
magnetotellurics
Mikhail Tikhonravov
(1900–1974)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks
 
Sputnik 1 replica
Gavriil Tikhov
(1875–1960)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
feathering spectrograph
 
Scheme of a spectrograph work
Fedor Tokarev
(1871–1968)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle (main Soviet guns of World War II)
 
A Soviet soldier with TT-33
  Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,
(1857–1935)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
spaceflight (theory principles that led to numerous inventions, derived the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation)
 
Tsiolkovsky's drawings of astronaut in space
  Mikhail Tsvet
(1872–1919)
  Russian Empire
chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)
 
A modern gas chromatography system
Alexei Tupolev
(1925–2001)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)
  Andrei Tupolev
(1888–1972)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)

UEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Utkin
(1923–2000)
  Soviet Union
  Russian Federation
railcar-launched ICBM (RT-23 Molodets), other Soviet rockets[151]
 
RT-23 in the St Petersburg railway museum

VEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Vakhmistrov
(1897–1972)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
first bomber with a parasite aircraft (Zveno project)
  Viktor Vasnetsov
(1848–1926)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
budenovka military hat
 
Red Army soldiers in budenovkas
Vladimir Veksler
(1907–1966)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron[34][152]
 
A modern synchrotron scheme

WEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Paul Walden
(1863–1957)
  Russian Empire
  Germany
(born in Latvia, Baltic German descent)
Walden inversion, Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)

YEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Pavel Yablochkov
(1847–1894)
  Russian Empire
Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)
 
Yablochkov demonstrates his illumination in Paris, 1878
Alexander Yakovlev
(1906–1989)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)
  Vladimir Yourkevitch
(1885–1964)
  Russian Empire
  France
  United States
modern ship hull design
Sergei Yudin
(1891–1954)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations[153]
 
World War II syringe for blood transfusion

ZEdit

Portrait Person Inventions Image
  Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof
(1859–1917)
  Russian Empire
(Poland)
Esperanto language
  Yevgeny Zavoisky
(1907–1976)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopy[154]
 
Simulated EPR spectrum of the CH3 radical.
Nikolay Zelinsky
(1861–1953)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
the first effective filtering activated charcoal gas mask in the world
 
A modern Russian gas mask
  Nikolai Zhukovsky
(1847–1921)
  Russian Empire
  Russian SFSR
an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank[96][155]
 
A modern wind tunnel
  Vladimir Zvorykin
(1889–1982)
  Russian Empire
  United States
pioneer of television technology Iconoscope, kinescope
 
Zworykin's draft of a UV-microscope, similar to iconoscope
  Vasily Zvyozdochkin
(1876–1956)
  Russian Empire
  Soviet Union
matryoshka doll (together with painter Sergey Malyutin)[156]
 
Matryoshka doll taken apart

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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