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List of Prime Ministers of Nepal

This is a list of the Prime Ministers and other heads of government of the Kingdom of Nepal and later Democratic Republic of Nepal.

The position of Prime Minister of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री; Nēpālakō pradhānamantrī) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history. At the time of the Shah dynasty, the Mulkajis (Chief Kajis) or Chautariya served the function of Prime Ministers in a council of 4 Chautariyas, 4 Kajis, and sundry officers. These Bharadars (officers) were drawn from high caste and politically influential families such as Pande dynasty, Basnyat dynasty, Thapa dynasty, etc. The nobility of Gorkha was mainly based from Chhetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs.[1] All of the Prime Minister of Nepal between 1768 to 1950 were Chhetris with the exception of Ranga Nath Poudyal, being a Brahmin.[2] The executive power allocation was fluctuating between Kajis and Chautariyas. In 1804, a single authoritative position of Mukhtiyar was created by Rana Bahadur Shah which carried the executive powers of nation.[3] Mukhtiyar held the position of Executive Head till adoption of title of Prime Minister on November 1843 A.D. by Mathabar Singh Thapa who became Mukhtiyar as well as Prime Minister and Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese army.[4][5] During the Rana dynasty, the position of Prime Minister was hereditary and the officeholder held additional titles — Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Nepal and Grand Master of the Royal Orders of Nepal.

After Revolution of 1951, non-aristocratic citizens like Matrika Prasad Koirala held the position of Prime Minister still under the declaration of the King of Nepal. The first election of Primeministership was held on 1959 and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala became the first elected Prime Minister of Nepal. Subsequently, he was deposed and imprisoned in 1960 by King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah who went on to establish the oligarchic authoritative regime of Panchayat system and Nepal did not have a democratic government until 1990. After the Jana Andolan movement in 1990, the country became a constitutional monarchy. The monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly.

Contents

Chief Ministers of Kingdom of Nepal (1768-1803)Edit

Kajis equivalent to Prime Minister of Nepal (1768-1803)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Position
Took Office Left Office
1   Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c.1776 c.1779 Dewan[note 1]
2 Swarup Singh Karki
(1751–1785)
c.1776 c.1777 Dewan[note 2]
3 Sarbajit Rana Magar
(??–1778)
1778 1778 Kaji/Mulkaji[note 3]
1   Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c.1782 c.1785 Dewan/Mantri-Nayak[note 4]
4   Abhiman Singh Basnyat
(1744–1800)
c.1785 April 1794 Mulkaji[note 5]
5   Kirtiman Singh Basnyat
(??–1801)
1794 28 September, 1801 Mulkaji[note 6]
6 Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat
(??–??)
1801 February 1803 Mulkaji[note 7]

Chautariyas equivalent to Prime Minister of Nepal (1768-1803)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Position
Took Office Left Office
1 Bahadur Shah of Nepal
(1757–1797)
July 1785 April 1794 Mul-Chautariya[note 8]
2 Ranodyot (Ranodhoj) Shah
(1794–??)
April 1794 ?? Mul-Chautariya[note 9]

Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Nepal (1803–2008)Edit

Mul-Kajis and Muktiyars during the Shah expansion era and before the Rana eraEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
1   Damodar Pande
(1752–1804)
February 1803 March 1804 Independent Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah
(8 March 1799-20 November 1816)
  Rana Bahadur Shah
(1775–1806)
1804 [note 10] 26 April 1806 Independent
2   Bhimsen Thapa
(1775–1839)
1806 July 1837 Independent Rajendra Bikram Shah
(20 November 1816-12 May 1847)
3   Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
1st time
1837 1837 Independent
4   Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–?)
1st time
October 1837 August 1838 Independent
5   Chautariya Puskhar Shah
(1784–1846)
October 1838 1839 Independent
(3)   Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
2nd time
April 1839 1840 Independent
(4)   Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–?)
2nd time
1840 1840 Independent
6   Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
1st time
November 1840 January 1843 Independent
7   Mathabar Singh Thapa
(1798–1845)
November 1843 25 December 1843 Independent

Prime Ministers before the Rana era (1845–1846)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
7   Mathabar Singh Thapa
(1798–1845)
25 December 1843 17 May 1845 Independent Rajendra Bikram Shah
(20 November 1816-12 May 1847)
(6)   Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
2nd time
September 1845 14 September 1846 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Rana era (1846–1951)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
8   Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
1st time
15 September 1846 1 August 1856 Independent Surendra Bikram Shah
(12 May 1847-17 May 1881)
9   Bam Bahadur Kunwar
(1818–1857)
1 August 1856 25 May 1857 Independent
  Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana
(1823–1863)
Acting Prime Minister
25 May 1857 28 June 1857 Independent
(8)   Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
2nd time
28 June 1857 25 February 1877 Independent
10   Ranodip Singh Kunwar
(1825–1885)
27 February 1877 22 November 1885 Independent
11   Bir Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1852–1901)
22 November 1885 5 March 1901 Independent Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah
(17 May 1881-11 December 1911)
12   Dev Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1862–1914)
5 March 1901 27 June 1901 Independent
13   Chandra Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1863–1929)
27 June 1901 26 November 1929 Independent Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(11 December 1911-13 March 1955)
14   Bhim Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1865–1932)
26 November 1929 1 September 1932 Independent
15   Juddha Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1875–1952)
1 September 1932 29 November 1945 Independent
16   Padma Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1882–1961)
29 November 1945 30 April 1948 Independent
17   Mohan Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1885–1967)
30 April 1948 12 November 1951 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Transition era (1951–1960)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
18   Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
1st time
16 November 1951 14 August 1952 Nepali Congress Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(11 December 1911–13 March 1955)
  Direct rule by King
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(1906–1955)
14 August 1952 15 June 1953
(18)   Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
2nd time
15 June 1953 14 April 1955 Rastriya Praja Party
  Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
14 April 1955 27 January 1956 Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(14 March 1955–31 January 1972)
19   Tanka Prasad Acharya
(1912–1992)
27 January 1956 26 July 1957 Nepal Praja Parishad
20   Kunwar Inderjit Singh
(1906–1982)
26 July 1957 15 May 1958 United Democratic Party
21 Subarna Shamsher Rana
(1910–1977)
15 May 1958 27 May 1959 Nepali Congress
22   Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala
(1914–1982)
27 May 1959 26 December 1960 Nepali Congress

Prime Ministers during the Panchayat era (1960–1990)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
  Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
26 December 1960 2 April 1963 Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(14 March 1955–31 January 1972)
23   Tulsi Giri
(1926–)
1st time
2 April 1963 23 December 1963 Independent
24 Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
1st time
23 December 1963 26 February 1964 Independent
(23)   Tulsi Giri
(1926–)
2nd time
26 February 1964 26 January 1965 Independent
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
2nd time
26 January 1965 7 April 1969 Independent
25   Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
1st time
7 April 1969 13 April 1970 Independent
Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari
(1923–1994)
Acting Prime Minister
13 April 1970 14 April 1971 Independent
(25)   Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
2nd time
14 April 1971 16 July 1973 Independent Birendra Bir Bikram Shah
(31 January 1972–1 June 2001)
26   Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
1st time
16 July 1973 1 December 1975 Independent
(23)   Tulsi Giri
(1926–)
3rd time
1 December 1975 12 September 1977 Independent
(25)   Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
3rd time
12 September 1977 30 May 1979 Independent
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
3rd time
30 May 1979 12 July 1983 Independent
27   Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
1st time
12 July 1983 21 March 1986 Independent
(26)   Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
2nd time
21 March 1986 15 June 1986 Independent
28   Marich Man Singh Shrestha
(1942–2013)
15 June 1986 6 April 1990 Independent
(27)   Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
2nd time
6 April 1990 19 April 1990 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Constitutional monarchy (1990–2008)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office Days
29   Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
1st time
19 April 1990 26 May 1991 402 Nepali Congress Birendra Bir Bikram Shah
(31 January 1972–1 June 2001)
30   Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
1st time
26 May 1991 30 November 1994 1284 Nepali Congress
31   Man Mohan Adhikari
(1920–1999)
30 November 1994 12 September 1995 286 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
32   Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
1st time
12 September 1995 12 March 1997 547 Nepali Congress
(27)   Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
3rd time
12 March 1997 7 October 1997 209 Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Chand)
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
4th time
7 October 1997 15 April 1998 190 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(30)   Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
2nd time
15 April 1998 31 May 1999 411 Nepali Congress
(29)   Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
2nd time
31 May 1999 22 March 2000 296 Nepali Congress
(30)   Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
3rd time
22 March 2000 26 July 2001 491 Nepali Congress
(32)   Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
2nd time
26 July 2001 4 October 2002 435 Nepali Congress Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(4 June 2001–28 May 2008)
  Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1947–)
4 October 2002 11 October 2002 7
(27)   Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
4th time
11 October 2002 5 June 2003 237 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
5th time
5 June 2003 3 June 2004 364 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(32)   Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
3rd time
3 June 2004 1 February 2005 243 Nepali Congress (Democratic)
  Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1947–)
1 February 2005 25 April 2006 448
(30)   Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
4th time
25 April 2006 28 May 2008 764 Nepali Congress

Prime Ministers of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008–present)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Cabinet President of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
(1. Term of Office)
(2. Political Party)
Took Office Left Office Days
(30)   Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
5th time
28 May 2008[19][20][21] 18 August 2008[20][21] 82 Nepali Congress Girija Prasad Koirala

Head of state of Nepal
(1. 15 January 2007-23 July 2008
(2. Nepali Congress)

33   Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(1954–)
1st time
18 August 2008 25 May 2009 280 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 2008 Dahal Cabinet Ram Baran Yadav
(1. 23 July 2008-29 October 2015)
(2. Nepali Congress)
34   Madhav Kumar Nepal
(1953–)
25 May 2009 6 February 2011 622 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2009 Madhav Nepal Cabinet
35   Jhala Nath Khanal
(1950–)
6 February 2011 29 August 2011 204 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2011 Khanal Cabinet
36   Baburam Bhattarai
(1954–)
29 August 2011 14 March 2013 563 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 2011 Bhattarai Cabinet
  Khil Raj Regmi
(1949–)
Acting Prime Minister
14 March 2013 11 February 2014 334 Independent 2013 Regmi Interim Cabinet
37   Sushil Koirala
(1939–2016)
11 February 2014 12 October 2015 608 Nepali Congress 2013 Koirala Cabinet
38   Khadga Prasad Oli
(1952–)
1st time
12 October 2015 4 August 2016 297 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2015 Oli Cabinet Bidhya Devi Bhandari
(1. 29 October 2015-)
(2. Nepal Communist Party)
(33)   Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(1954–)
2nd time
4 August 2016[22] 7 June 2017 307 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 2016 Dahal Cabinet
(32)   Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
4th time
7 June 2017[23] 15 February 2018[24][25] 253 Nepali Congress 2017 Deuba Cabinet
(38)   Khadga Prasad Oli
(1952–)
2nd time
15 February 2018[26] Incumbent 269 Nepal Communist Party 2018 Oli Cabinet

Living former prime ministersEdit

As of November 2018, there are following living former prime ministers:

President Term of office Date of birth Portrait
Tulsi Giri 1963–1963; 1964-1965; 1975-1977 (1926-09-26) September 26, 1926 (age 92)
Lokendra Bahadur Chand 1983–1986; 1990-1990; 1997-1997; 2002-2003 (1940-02-15) February 15, 1940 (age 78)
Sher Bahadur Deuba 1995–1997; 2001-2002; 2004-2005; 2017-2018 (1946-06-13) June 13, 1946 (age 72)
Prachanda (Pushpa Kamal Dahal) 2008-2009; 2016-2017 (1954-12-11) December 11, 1954 (age 63)
Madhav Kumar Nepal 2009-2011 (1953-03-06) March 6, 1953 (age 65)
Jhala Nath Khanal 2011-2011 (1950-05-20) May 20, 1950 (age 68)
Baburam Bhattarai 2011-2013 (1954-06-18) June 18, 1954 (age 64)
Khil Raj Regmi 2013-2014 (acting) (1949-05-31) May 31, 1949 (age 69)

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August, 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[6]
  2. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August, 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[6]
  3. ^ Historian Dilli Raman Regmi asserts that Sarbajit was chosen as Chief Kazi.[7] Historian Rishikesh Shah asserts that Sarbajit was appointed only a Kaji [8] and was the head of the Nepalese government for a short period in 1778.[9]
  4. ^ Daniel Wright mentions him as the Mantri-Nayak (Prime Minister) under the King Rana Bahadur Shah (1777-1799).[10]
  5. ^ Abhiman Singh Basnyat was replaced by Kirtiman Singh Basnyat as Mul-Kaji[11] after the dismissal of government on maturity of King Rana Bahadur Shah on 1794 AD.[12]
  6. ^ Though the position of Mulkaji (Chief Kaji) was bestowed on Kirtiman Singh in 1794, Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji.[12] and Damodar lead the military forces and the second government to prevent the re-estabishment of royal authority of self-renounced King Rana Bahadur Shah in 1799.[13][14]
  7. ^ Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, brother of assassinated Kirtiman Singh, was then given the post of Mulkaji.[15]
  8. ^ On Shrawan 1842 B.S. (i.e. July 1785), after the death of Regent Queen Rajendra Laxmi, Bahadur Shah assumed the regency and administration on the call of Bharadars.[16] Prince Ranodyot Shah replaced Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal as Chief Chautariya (Mul-Chautariya) in Baisakh 1851 B.S. (i.e. April 1794). The Chief Chautariya carried the functions of a Prime Minister.[17]
  9. ^ Prince Ranodyot Shah replaced Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal as Chief Chautariya (Mul-Chautariya) in Baisakh 1851 B.S. (i.e. April 1794). The Chief Chautariya carried the functions of a Prime Minister.[17] Kumar Pradhan mentions his name as Ranodhoj Shah[12] as written by prominent historian Baburam Acharya.[18]
  10. ^ The position of Mukhtiyar was formed and ruled by renounced King Rana Bahadur Shah on the year 1804 A.D.[18]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Pahari 1995, p. 632.
  2. ^ Raj 1996, p. 5.
  3. ^ Nepal, Gyanmani (2007). Nepal ko Mahabharat (in Nepali) (3rd ed.). Kathmandu: Sajha. p. 314. ISBN 9789993325857.
  4. ^ Regmi 1971, p. 17.
  5. ^ Kandel, Devi Prasad (2011). Pre-Rana Administrative System. Chitwan: Siddhababa Offset Press. p. 95.
  6. ^ a b Regmi 1975, p. 272.
  7. ^ D.R. Regmi 1975, p. 285.
  8. ^ Shaha 1990, p. 46.
  9. ^ Shaha 2001, p. 21.
  10. ^ Wright 1877, p. 260.
  11. ^ Karmacharya 2005, p. 56.
  12. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 12.
  13. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 13.
  14. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 28-32.
  15. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 35.
  16. ^ Vaidya & Bajracharya 1991, p. 9.
  17. ^ a b Regmi 1971, p. 12.
  18. ^ a b Pradhan 2012, p. 25.
  19. ^ "Girija Prasad koirla prime minister". nepalnews. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  20. ^ a b "Girija prasad, acting head of state of nepal". cnn. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  21. ^ a b bbc http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7475112.stm. Retrieved 2017-12-12. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ "Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda sworn in as new Nepal PM". Hindustan Times. 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  23. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba sworns in as Prime Minister". thehimalayantimes.com. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  24. ^ "PM Deuba announces resignation". The Kathmandu Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  25. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba resigns, KP Oli to take over as Nepal PM". The Indian Express. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  26. ^ "Newly appointed PM KP Sharma Oli takes oath of office". The Kathmandu Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15.

BooksEdit

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit