List of heads of state of Paraguay

  (Redirected from List of Presidents of Paraguay)

This article contains a list of heads of state of Paraguay, since the beginning of the independence (1811) to the present day.

BackgroundEdit

After Paraguay proclaimed independence from the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, its first effective head of state was utopist José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, who ruled the country from 1814 until his death in 1840, with very little outside contact or influence.[1]

Since the establishment of the office of President of the Republic in 1844, during the family dictatorship of the López family (1841–1870), Paraguay had 51 presidents. Between the end of the Paraguayan War in 1870 and the 1954 coup d'état, the country changed 44 presidents; 24 of them were removed from power by force.[2] Eventually, Army General Alfredo Stroessner, supported by the Armed Forces and the right-wing Colorado Party, seized power in the 1954 coup d'état. Relying on the military and the party as the "twin pillars" of his rule,[3] and ruling in the single-party system until 1962,[4] Stroessner was elected for eight consecutive terms before being ousted from power in the 1989 coup d'état. His 35-year-long rule was one of the longest in history by a non-royal leader.

Non-presidential heads of state (1811–1844)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
0  
 
Bernardo de Velasco

José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia

Juan Valeriano de Zevallos
16 May 1811 17 June 1811 Governor Intendants.
0   Fulgencio Yegros
(1780–1821)
17 June 1811 12 October 1813 President of the Superior Governing Junta.
0   José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
(1766–1840)
12 October 1813 12 February 1814 Consul of the Republic.
0   Fulgencio Yegros
(1780–1821)
12 February 1814 12 June 1814 Consul of the Republic.
0   José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
(1766–1840)
12 June 1814 3 October 1814 Consul of the Republic.
3 October 1814 30 May 1816 Supreme Dictator.
30 May 1816 20 September 1840 Perpetual Dictator. Died in office.
0   Manuel Antonio Ortiz
(?–?)
20 September 1840 21 January 1841 President of the Provisional Junta.
0   Juan José Medina

José Gabriel Benítez

José Campos
21 January 1841 9 February 1841 Triumvirate.
0   Mariano Roque Alonzo
(?–1853)
9 February 1841 12 March 1841 General Commander of Arms.
0     Carlos Antonio López

Mariano Roque Alonzo
12 March 1841 13 March 1844 Consuls of the Republic.

Presidents (1844–present)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Election Notes Vice President
1   Carlos Antonio López
(1792–1862)
13 March 1844 13 March 1854 Elected by the Congress for a term of ten years. Post not established
13 March 1854 13 March 1857 Elected by the Congress for a term of three years.
13 March 1857 10 September 1862 Elected by the Congress for a term of ten years. Died in office.
2   Francisco Solano López
(1827–1870)
10 September 1862 16 October 1862 Interim President appointed by the Congress.
16 October 1862 1 March 1870 Elected by the Congress for a term of ten years. Killed in the Paraguayan War.
 

Cirilo Antonio Rivarola

Carlos Loizaga

José Díaz de Bedoya
15 August 1869 31 August 1870 Triumvirate proclaimed by the occupying forces of the Triple Alliance.
3   Facundo Machaín
(1845–1877)
31 August 1870 1 September 1870 Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.
4   Cirilo Antonio Rivarola
(1836–1878)
1 September 1870 25 November 1870 Interim President appointed by the Congress after a coup.
25 November 1870 18 December 1871 1870 Resigned. Cayo Miltos[a]
Vacant[b]
Salvador Jovellanos[c]
5   Salvador Jovellanos
(1833–1881)
18 December 1871 25 November 1874 Vice President under Cirilo Antonio Rivarola, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1870-1874. Vacant
6   Juan Bautista Gill
(1840–1877)
25 November 1874 12 April 1877 1874 Assassinated. Higinio Uriarte
7   Higinio Uriarte
(1843–1909)
12 April 1877 25 November 1878 Vice President under Juan Bautista Gill, assumed the presidency after his assassination. Finished the presidential period 1874-1878. Vacant
8   Cándido Bareiro
(1833–1880)
25 November 1878 4 September 1880 1878 Died in office. Adolfo Saguier
9   Bernardino Caballero
(1839–1912)
4 September 1880 25 November 1882 Interim President appointed by the Congress after the Vice President under Bareiro, Adolfo Saguier, and next president in the succession line, was forced to resign by the military. Finished the presidential period 1878-1882. Vacant
25 November 1882 25 November 1886 1882 Juan Antonio Jara
10   Patricio Escobar
(1843–1912)
25 November 1886 25 November 1890 ANR-Colorado 1886 José del Rosario Miranda
11   Juan Gualberto González
(1851–1912)
25 November 1890 9 June 1894 ANR-Colorado 1890 Forced to resign by a coup. Marcos Morínigo
12   Marcos Morínigo
(1848–1901)
9 June 1894 25 November 1894 ANR-Colorado Vice President under Juan Gualberto González, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1890-1894. Vacant
13   Juan Bautista Egusquiza
(1845–1902)
25 November 1894 25 November 1898 ANR-Colorado 1894 Facundo Ynsfrán Caballero
14   Emilio Aceval
(1853–1931)
25 November 1898 9 January 1902 ANR-Colorado 1898 Forced to resign by a coup. Andrés Héctor Carvallo
15   Andrés Héctor Carvallo
(1862–1934)
9 January 1902 25 November 1902 ANR-Colorado Vice President under Emilio Aceval, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1898-1902. Vacant
16   Juan Antonio Escurra
(1859–1929)
25 November 1902 19 December 1904 ANR-Colorado 1902 Deposed in a coup. Manuel Domínguez
17   Juan Bautista Gaona
(1845–1932)
19 December 1904 9 December 1905 Liberal Interim President appointed by the Congress after Escurra and his Vice President, Manuel Domínguez, resigned in the coup. Deposed in a coup. Vacant
18   Cecilio Báez
(1862–1941)
9 December 1905 25 November 1906 Liberal Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1902-1906.
19   Benigno Ferreira
(1846–1920)
25 November 1906 4 July 1908 Liberal 1906 Deposed in a coup. Emiliano González Navero
20   Emiliano González Navero
(1861–1934)
4 July 1908 25 November 1910 Liberal Vice President under Benigno Ferreira, assumed the presidency after the coup. Finished the presidential period 1906-1910. First term. Vacant
21   Manuel Gondra
(1871–1927)
25 November 1910 17 January 1911 Liberal 1910 First term. Deposed in a coup. Juan Bautista Gaona
22   Albino Jara
(1877–1912)
17 January 1911 5 July 1911 Liberal De facto president after a coup. Resigned. Vacant
23   Liberato Marcial Rojas
(1870–1922)
5 July 1911 14 January 1912 Liberal Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.
 

 
Marcos Caballero Codas

Mario Uscher

Alfredo Aponte
14 January 1912 17 January 1912 De facto triumvirate after a coup.
24   Liberato Marcial Rojas
(1870–1922)
17 January 1912 28 February 1912 Liberal Restoration of its original mandate. Deposed in a coup.
25   Pedro Pablo Peña
(1864–1943)
28 February 1912 22 March 1912 ANR-Colorado Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.
26   Emiliano González Navero
(1861–1934)
22 March 1912 15 August 1912 Liberal Interim President appointed by the Congress. Second term.
27   Eduardo Schaerer
(1873–1941)
15 August 1912 15 August 1916 Liberal 1912 Pedro Bobadilla
28   Manuel Franco
(1871–1919)
15 August 1916 5 June 1919 Liberal 1916 Died in office. José Pedro Montero
29   José Pedro Montero
(1878–1927)
5 June 1919 15 August 1920 Liberal Vice President under Manuel Franco, assumed the presidency after his death. Finished the presidential period 1916-1920. Vacant
30   Manuel Gondra
(1871–1927)
15 August 1920 29 October 1921 Liberal 1920 Second term. Resigned. Félix Paiva
31   Félix Paiva
(1877–1965)
29 October 1921 7 November 1921 Liberal Vice President under Manuel Gondra, assumed the presidency after his resignation. First term. Resigned. Vacant
32   Eusebio Ayala
(1875–1942)
7 November 1921 12 April 1923 Liberal Interim President appointed by the Congress. First term. Resigned during the Civil War of 1922.
33   Eligio Ayala
(1879–1930)
12 April 1923 17 March 1924 Liberal Interim President appointed by the Congress. First term. Resigned.
34   Luis Alberto Riart
(1880–1953)
17 March 1924 15 August 1924 Liberal Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1920-1924.
35   Eligio Ayala
(1879–1930)
15 August 1924 15 August 1928 Liberal 1924 Second term. Manuel Burgos
36   José Patricio Guggiari
(1884–1957)
15 August 1928 25 October 1931 Liberal 1928 Resigned to stand an impeachment. Emiliano González Navero
37   Emiliano González Navero
(1861–1934)
25 October 1931 27 January 1932 Liberal Vice President under José Patricio Guggiari, assumed the presidency during his impeachment. Third term. Vacant
38   José Patricio Guggiari
(1884–1957)
27 January 1932 15 August 1932 Liberal Restoration of its original mandate after being absolved from impeachment. Emiliano González Navero
39   Eusebio Ayala
(1875–1942)
15 August 1932 17 February 1936 Liberal 1932 Second term. Paraguayan victory in the Chaco War. Deposed after the Febrerista Revolution. Raúl Casal Ribeiro
40   Rafael Franco
(1896–1973)
17 February 1936 13 August 1937 Military De facto president after a coup. Deposed after a coup. Vacant
41   Félix Paiva
(1877–1965)
13 August 1937 11 October 1938 Liberal De facto president after a coup. Second term.
11 October 1938 15 August 1939 Interim President appointed by the Congress.
42   José Félix Estigarribia
(1888–1940)
15 August 1939 18 February 1940 Liberal 1939 Luis Alberto Riart
18 February 1940 7 September 1940 De facto president after a self-coup. The new Constitution of 1940 increased the presidential term from 4 to 5 years, allowed a single consecutive reelection, removed the Electoral College and the Vice President post. Died in a plane crash. Vacant[d]
Post abolished[e]
43   Higinio Morínigo
(1897–1983)
7 September 1940 15 August 1943 Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1939-1943.
15 August 1943 3 June 1948 1943 Deposed in a coup.
44   Juan Manuel Frutos
(1879–1960)
3 June 1948 15 August 1948 ANR-Colorado Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1943-1948.
45   Juan Natalicio González
(1897–1966)
15 August 1948 30 January 1949 ANR-Colorado 1948 Deposed in a coup.
46   Raimundo Rolón
(1903–1981)
30 January 1949 26 February 1949 ANR-Colorado Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.
47   Felipe Molas López
(1901–1954)
26 February 1949 14 May 1949 ANR-Colorado De facto president after a coup.
14 May 1949 11 September 1949 1949 Elected to finish the presidential period 1948-1953. Deposed in a coup.
48 Federico Chávez
(1882–1978)
11 September 1949 15 August 1953 ANR-Colorado Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1948-1953.
15 August 1953 4 May 1954 1953 Deposed in a coup d'état.
Vacant
4 May 1954 – 8 May 1954
There was no president in this period.
49 Tomás Romero Pereira
(1886–1982)
8 May 1954 15 August 1954 ANR-Colorado Interim President appointed by the Congress.
50   Alfredo Stroessner
(1912–2006)
15 August 1954 15 August 1958 ANR-Colorado 1954 Elected to finish the presidential period 1953-1958.
15 August 1958 15 August 1963 1958
15 August 1963 15 August 1968 1963 The new Constitution of 1967 allowed Stroessner to run for two more elections.
15 August 1968 15 August 1973 1968
15 August 1973 15 August 1978 1973 The Constitutional Amendment of 1977 allowed indefinite reelections.
15 August 1978 15 August 1983 1978
15 August 1983 15 August 1988 1983
15 August 1988 3 February 1989 1988 Deposed in a coup d'état.
51   Andrés Rodríguez
(1923–1997)
3 February 1989 15 May 1989 ANR-Colorado De facto president after a coup.
15 May 1989 15 August 1993 1989 The new Constitution of 1992 removed the possibility of reelection and reinstated the Vice President post. Elected to finish the presidential period 1988–1993.
52   Juan Carlos Wasmosy
(born 1938)
15 August 1993 15 August 1998 ANR-Colorado 1993 Ángel Seifart
53 Raúl Cubas Grau
(born 1943)
15 August 1998 28 March 1999 ANR-Colorado 1998 Resigned as a result of the Marzo paraguayo. Luis María Argaña[f]
Vacant[g]
54   Luis Ángel González Macchi
(born 1947)
28 March 1999 15 August 2003 ANR-Colorado President of the Senate, as the Vice President, Luis María Argaña, was assassinated 5 days before. Finished the presidential period 1998–2003.
Julio César Franco[h]
Vacant[i]
55   Nicanor Duarte
(born 1956)
15 August 2003 15 August 2008 ANR-Colorado 2003 Luis Alberto Castiglioni[j]
Vacant[k]
Francisco Oviedo[l]
56   Fernando Lugo
(born 1951)
15 August 2008 22 June 2012 Christian Democratic 2008 Impeached. Federico Franco
57   Federico Franco
(born 1962)
22 June 2012 15 August 2013 Authentic Radical Liberal Vice President under Fernando Lugo, assumed the presidency after his impeachment. Finished the presidential period 2008-2013. Vacant[m]
Óscar Denis[n]
58   Horacio Cartes
(born 1956)
15 August 2013 15 August 2018 ANR-Colorado 2013 Juan Afara[o]
Vacant[p]
Alicia Pucheta[q]
59   Mario Abdo Benítez
(born 1971)
15 August 2018 Incumbent ANR-Colorado 2018 Hugo Velázquez Moreno

TimelineEdit

Mario Abdo BenítezHoracio CartesFederico FrancoFernando LugoNicanor DuarteLuis Ángel González MacchiRaúl CubasJuan Carlos WasmosyAndrés RodríguezAlfredo StroessnerTomás Romero PereiraFederico ChavesFelipe Molas LópezRaimundo RolónJuan Natalicio GonzálezJuan Manuel FrutosHiginio MorínigoJosé Félix EstigarribiaRafael FrancoJosé Patricio GuggiariLuis Alberto RiartEligio AyalaEusebio AyalaFélix PaivaJosé Pedro MonteroManuel FrancoEduardo SchaererPedro Pablo PeñaAlfredo AponteMario UscherMarcos Caballero CodasLiberato Marcial RojasAlbino JaraManuel GondraEmiliano González NaveroBenigno FerreiraCecilio BáezJuan Bautista GaonaJuan Antonio EscurraAndrés Héctor CarvalloEmilio AcevalJuan Bautista EgusquizaMarcos MorínigoJuan Gualberto GonzálezPatricio EscobarBernardino CaballeroCándido BareiroHiginio UriarteJuan Bautista GillSalvador JovellanosFacundo MachaínJosé Díaz de BedoyaCarlos LoizagaCirilo Antonio RivarolaFrancisco Solano LópezCarlos Antonio LópezMariano Roque AlonzoJosé CamposJosé Gabriel BenítezJuan José MedinaManuel Antonio OrtizFulgencio YegrosJuan Valeriano de ZevallosJosé Gaspar Rodríguez de FranciaBernardo de Velasco

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 25 November 1870 – 7 January 1871. Died in office.
  2. ^ 7 January 1871 – 9 December 1871.
  3. ^ 9 December 1871 – 18 December 1871. Appointed by the Congress.
  4. ^ 18 February 1940 – 10 July 1940. The post of Vice President is abolished with the Constitution of 1940.
  5. ^ 10 July 1940 – 15 August 1993.
  6. ^ 15 August 1998 – 23 March 1999. Assassinated.
  7. ^ 23 March 1999 – 2 September 2000.
  8. ^ 2 September 2000 – 16 October 2002. Elected in 2000. Resigned to run for presidency.
  9. ^ 16 October 2002 – 15 August 2003.
  10. ^ 15 August 2003 – 4 October 2007. Resigned to run for presidency.
  11. ^ 4 October 2007 – 21 November 2007.
  12. ^ 21 November 2007 – 15 August 2008. Appointed by the Congress.
  13. ^ 22 June 2012 – 27 June 2012.
  14. ^ 27 June 2012 – 15 August 2013. Appointed by the Congress.
  15. ^ 15 August 2013 – 11 April 2018. Resigned to run for Senator.
  16. ^ 11 April 2018 – 9 May 2018.
  17. ^ 9 May 2018 – 15 August 2018. Appointed by the Congress.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ War of The Triple Alliance Archived 7 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine, War of the Pacific. Retrieved 14 November 2010
  2. ^ Hanratty, Dannin M.; Meditz, Sandra W. (1988). "Paraguay: A Country Study". Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "Paraguay: The Twin Pillars of the Stroessner Regime". Library of Congress Country Studies. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009.
  4. ^ "Paraguay: Opposition Parties". Library of Congress Country Studies. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009.

External linksEdit