List of Orientalist artists

The Slave Market, a well-known Orientalist painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme.

This an incomplete list of artists who have produced works on Orientalist subjects, drawn from the Islamic world or other parts of Asia.[1] Many artists listed on this page worked in many genres, and Orientalist subjects may not have formed a major part of their body of work. For example, the list includes some portrait painters based in Europe who on occasion painted sitters wearing "oriental" costume. The list also includes Orientalist photographers, engravers and lithographers. The list includes links to the English Wikipedia, and where no English article exists, named artists are linked to foreign language versions of Wikipedia, where available.

Note: This listing uses Spanish naming customs: the first family name is the paternal name and the second is the maternal family name. Artists are listed alphabetically by their paternal family name. For example, the Spanish artist, Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, is listed under "S" for Sorolla, the paternal family name.

AEdit

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GEdit

HEdit

IEdit

JEdit

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LEdit

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PEdit

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SEdit

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UEdit

VEdit

WEdit

YEdit

ZEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ This is a composite listing compiled from multiple sources including: Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005; Juler, C., Les Orientalistes de l'Ecole Italienne, Edicion Internationale, Paris, ACR,1994; Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994; Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994; Meagher, J., "Orientalism in Nineteenth-Century Art," [The Metropolitan Museum of Art Essay], Online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/euoAckerr/hd_euor.htm; Orientalist Painting http://www.visual–arts–cork.com/history–of–art/orientalist–painting.htm; Pouillon, F., Dictionnaire des Orientalistes de Langue Française, KARTHALA, 2008; Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013; Abykayeva-Tiesenhausen, A. and Hannavy, J. (eds), Central Asia in Art: From Soviet Orientalism to the New Republics, I.B.Tauris, 2016 and Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850–1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010; Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 <Online:https://journals.openedition.org/mcv/2821> (translated from Spanish); Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997 (translated from French); Haja,M., Between Dream and Reality: Austrian Orientalist Painters in the Nineteenth Century, Salzburg, E. Mayer-Oehring, 1997; The Greek Painters from the 19th Century to the 20th Century, Volume One, Melissa, 1974. Reference has also been made to Wikipedia articles for Orientalist artists for whom notability has been established.
  2. ^ Vidal-Bué, M.(ed.), L'Algérie des peintres: 1830–1960, Paris-Méditerranée, 2002, p. 103
  3. ^ Dean, S., European paintings of the 19th and early 20th centuries in the National Gallery of Victoria, National Gallery of Victoria, 1995, p. 17
  4. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272 (translated from French)
  5. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 18–19
  6. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  7. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272
  8. ^ Thorton, L. (ed.), Orientalists: Painter-travellers, ACR edition, 1994, p. 69
  9. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272
  10. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 273
  11. ^ Thorton, L. (ed.), Orientalists: Painter-travellers, ACR edition, 1994, p. 19
  12. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  13. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 26
  14. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  15. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 273
  16. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 273
  17. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 26, 52, 70, 100–119
  18. ^ Holloway, S.W., Orientalism, Assyriology and the Bible, Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2006, p.xi
  19. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  20. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 27
  21. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  22. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 19
  23. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, pp 29–30
  24. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  25. ^ Orientalists: postcards of the Holy Land, 1800–1935: from the collection of Yoel Amer, 2008, p. 110
  26. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  27. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 16–19
  28. ^ Oakes, J., Algeria, Bradt Travel Guides, 2008, p. 120
  29. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 32
  30. ^ Ketner, J.D., A Gallery of Modern Art: At Washington University in St. Louis, Washington University, 1994, p. 32
  31. ^ Phaidon, P.J., The Orientalists: European Painters of Eastern Scenes, 1977, p 7 and 54
  32. ^ Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850–1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010
  33. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 204–209
  34. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 274
  35. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 260–61
  36. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 54–55 (translated from French)
  37. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 274 (translated from French)
  38. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 42
  39. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 50–51
  40. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  41. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 58–61 (translated from French)
  42. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 52–61
  43. ^ Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  44. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 49 and 86; Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 66–68
  45. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 69–71
  46. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 128–129
  47. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. p. 273
  48. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  49. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275 (translated from French)
  50. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 72–73
  51. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 141
  52. ^ Holloway, S.W., Orientalism, Assyriology and the Bible, Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2006, p.xi
  53. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 408–09
  54. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 238–39; Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  55. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275
  56. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 74
  57. ^ Mayr-Oehring, E. and Haja, M., Orient: Austrian painting between 1848 and 1914, Residenzgalerie Salzburg, Die Galerie, 1997,p. 308
  58. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 166–167
  59. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p. 111
  60. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 140
  61. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 441–442; Behdad, A. and Gartlan, L., Photography's Orientalism: New Essays on Colonial Representation. Getty Publications, 2017, p. 14
  62. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. p. 274
  63. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 142
  64. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 180
  65. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 26
  66. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  67. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 82
  68. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275 (translated from French)
  69. ^ Benjamin, R., Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa, 1880–1930, University of California Press, 2003, p. 113
  70. ^ Brooks, S.R., The Photography of Lalla Essaydi: Critiquing and Contextualizing Orientalism, James Madison University, 2014
  71. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 141–42
  72. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 232–233
  73. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 53
  74. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 96–97
  75. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275
  76. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 524–28
  77. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p, 76, 84, 96
  78. ^ Davies, K., The Orientalists: Western artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia & India, Laynfaroh, 2005
  79. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275
  80. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 282 (translated from French)
  81. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p. 554
  82. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 560–61
  83. ^ Williams, C., "The Visual Image of Nineteenth Century Cairo," in Abdullah, T., Serag, M., Jones, M. Sakkūt, H. and O'Kane, B. (eds), Arab and Islamic Studies, American University in Cairo Press, 1997, pp 48–50
  84. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p.80
  85. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  86. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 116 (translated from French)
  87. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 276
  88. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 117 (translated from French)
  89. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 116
  90. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 118 (translated from French)
  91. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 69, 71
  92. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 222–229; 253–54; 275–77 and 286–89
  93. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 120
  94. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 90–93
  95. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 84–89
  96. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 282–283
  97. ^ Behdad, A., Camera Orientalis: Reflections on Photography of the Middle East, University of Chicago Press, 2016, p. 2
  98. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 119
  99. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 122
  100. ^ Fabrés y su tiempo, 1854–1938 INBA, Museo de San Carlos, 1994, p. 52
  101. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 94–101
  102. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p. 549 and 561
  103. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 601–603
  104. ^ Behdad, A. and Gartlan, L., Photography's Orientalism: New Essays on Colonial Representation. Getty Publications, 2017, p. 14
  105. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p.832
  106. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 102–103
  107. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p. 120
  108. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 216–217
  109. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  110. ^ Orientalist Painting, Online:
  111. ^ Shackelford, G.T.M., American Painters in the Age of Impressionism, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1994, p. 24
  112. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR edition, 1994, pp 108–111
  113. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 128–132
  114. ^ The Charles and Emma Frye Art Museum: a handbook of the collection, Charles and Emma Frye Art Museum, 1989, p. 28
  115. ^ Mayr-Oehring, E. and Haja, M., Orient: Austrian painting between 1848 and 1914, Residenzgalerie Salzburg, Die Galerie, 1997,p. 291
  116. ^ Kuteinikova, I., "Russia’s Artistic Orientalist History," International Panorama, vol. 29, no.4, 2010, Online:
  117. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  118. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 132
  119. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 133–35
  120. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p. 15
  121. ^ Abykayeva-Tiesenhausen, A., Central Asia in Art: From Soviet Orientalism to the New Republics, I.B.Tauris, 2016, p.40
  122. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  123. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 112–119
  124. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 87–89
  125. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 47
  126. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter-travellers, 1828–1908, Volume 1, ACR Édition, 1983, p. 242
  127. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  128. ^ Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850–1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010
  129. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 118
  130. ^ Benjamin, R., Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa: 1880–1930, University of California Press, 2003, p. 60
  131. ^ "John Frederick Lewis," [Biography], Tate Gallery, Online:
  132. ^ Roberts, M., Intimate Outsiders: The Harem in Ottoman and Orientalist Art and Travel, Duke University Press, 2007, pp 19–21
  133. ^ Yeazell, R.B., Harems of the Mind: Passages of Western Art and Literature, Yale University Press, 2000, Chapter 20
  134. ^ Starkey, P. and Starkey, J. (eds), Travellers in Egypt, I.B.Tauris, 2001, pp 148–50
  135. ^ Beaulieu, J. and Roberts, M., Orientalism’s Interlocutors: Painting, Architecture, Photography, Duke University Press, 2002, p. 179–80
  136. ^ Williams, C., "The Visual Image of Nineteenth Century Cairo," in Abdullah, T., Serag, M., Jones, M. Sakkūt, H. and O'Kane, B. (eds), Arab and Islamic Studies, American University in Cairo Press, 1997, pp 46–50
  137. ^ Mayr-Oehring, E. and Haja, M., Orient: Austrian painting between 1848 and 1914, Residenzgalerie Salzburg, Die Galerie, 1997,p. 367
  138. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  139. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 120–122
  140. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 162
  141. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 24
  142. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 165
  143. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 163–64
  144. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 168
  145. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 176–77
  146. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  147. ^ Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  148. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 123–25
  149. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 126–129
  150. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 130–134
  151. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 135–139
  152. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 182–187
  153. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  154. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  155. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 14–43
  156. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 237–238; Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  157. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  158. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 188–193
  159. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 194
  160. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  161. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37–41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  162. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 990–91
  163. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 144–47
  164. ^ Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850–1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010
  165. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 150–55
  166. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005
  167. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 147
  168. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 156–57
  169. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p 105 and 243
  170. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 146
  171. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 146
  172. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 155
  173. ^ Green, A., French Paintings of Childhood and Adolescence, 1848–1886, Routledge, 2017 [E-book edition], n.p.
  174. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  175. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 44
  176. ^ Editors Hélène S. Sader, Thomas Scheffler, Angelika Neuwirth, Baalbek: Image and Monument, 1898–1998, Beiruter Texte und Studienvol. 69, In Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1998, p. 210
  177. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.57
  178. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 162–167
  179. ^ Williams, C., "The Visual Image of Nineteenth Century Cairo," in Abdullah, T., Serag, M., Jones, M. Sakkūt, H. and O'Kane, B. (eds), Arab and Islamic Studies, American University in Cairo Press, 1997, pp 42–46
  180. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter-travellers, 1828–1908, Volume 1, ACR Édition, 1983, p. 154
  181. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272 (translated from French)
  182. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 212–14 (translated from French)
  183. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  184. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 218–219 (translated from French)
  185. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 220–221; Shubert, A. and Junco, J.A., The History of Modern Spain: Chronologies, Themes, Individuals, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017, p. 233
  186. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 48
  187. ^ Le Pichon, Y., The World of Henri Rousseau, Viking Press, 1982
  188. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 222–224
  189. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 170–174
  190. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 226–227
  191. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 282 (translated from French)
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  241. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.85
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Further readingEdit

  • R. Aldrich, Vestiges of Colonial Empire in France, Springer, 2004, especially pp 206–217
  • Roger Benjamin, Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa: 1880–1930, University of California Press, 2003
  • Bloom, J.M. and Blair, S. (eds), Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture, Volumes 1–3, Oxford University Press, 2009
  • Haideh Moghissi (ed.), Women and Islam: Images and Realities, Volume 1, Taylor and Francis, 2005