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Four smiling people carrying medals around their neck are aligned shoulder-to-shoulder in an outdoor location with pine trees in the background. On the left, a man wears a shiny jacket and winter cap. Next to him, a second man with short dark hair wears a dark jacket with a badge. The third person is a woman wearing a jacket and an embroidered winter cap, and holds a trophy in her hands. The last person, on the right, is another man, also wearing a jacket and a winter cap.
Olympic medalists from East Germany at the 1988 Winter Olympics: Jörg Hoffmann (far left) and Jochen Pietzsch (second from left), doubles champions; Cerstin Schmidt (second from right), women's singles bronze medalist; and Jens Müller (far right), gold medalist in the men's singles.

Luge is one of the seven Olympic sports currently contested at the Winter Olympic Games.[1] It has been a constant presence in the Olympic program since its introduction at the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria,[2] in the form of three events: men's singles, women's singles, and doubles.[a] A mixed team relay event was contested for the first time at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.[4]

HistoryEdit

German luger Georg Hackl is the overall medal leader in the sport, having collected a total of five medals (three golds and two silvers) in the men's singles, during the six Winter Games in which he competed (19882006).[5] Following his victory at the 1992 Winter Olympics, Hackl was the first male luger to successfully defend an Olympic title, in 1994.[5] By repeating this feat in Nagano 1998, he joined two other men (Swedish figure skater Gillis Grafström and German skier Ulrich Wehling) and two women (Norwegian figure skater Sonja Henie and American speed skater Bonnie Blair) who had won the same individual event in three consecutive Olympic Games. Hackl was also the first-ever Olympian to win at least one medal in five consecutive Olympics.[5] This effort was matched by Armin Zöggeler of Italy, who won his fifth straight Olympic medal (bronze) in the men's singles at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In 2002, Zöggeler outperformed Hackl and prevented him from reaching a unique fourth successive gold medal. Four years later, in Turin, Zöggeler became the second male luger to win back-to-back titles. Ten-time World Cup champion Markus Prock of Austria never fulfilled his success at Olympic level: in 1992 and 1994, Prock beat Georg Hackl to the World Cup title,[6] but ended up losing the Olympic gold medal to the German.

In the women's event, Germany's Silke Kraushaar leads the medal count with three, one of each color. Steffi Martin and Sylke Otto—at 36, the oldest female individual gold medalist at the Winter Games[7]—are the only lugers with two gold medals in their career. Ortrun Enderlein, representing the United Team of Germany, was the first woman to win the singles event in 1964. She was on the verge of defending her title at the 1968 Grenoble Games, having the best overall time after all the runs, but was disqualified together with fellow countrywomen Anna-Maria Müller (2nd) and Angela Knösel (4th) when it was discovered that the runners in their sleds had been illegally heated before the runs.[8] Müller made up for this by taking the gold medal at the following Games, in Sapporo, Japan.

The most successful pair in the history of the Olympic doubles event was Stefan Krauße and Jan Behrendt, who represented East Germany in 1988 and the reunified German Olympic team from 1992 to 1998, winning four medals: two golds, one silver, and one bronze. East Germany's Hans Rinn and Norbert Hahn, and Austrian brothers Andreas and Wolfgang Linger, are the other pairs to have won two times, both of them in consecutive Olympics. In 1972, two gold medals were awarded to an East German (Horst Hörnlein and Reinhard Bredow) and an Italian pair (Paul Hildgartner and Walter Plaikner), who finished with exactly the same time. To prevent similar situations in future Olympics, the Fédération Internationale de Luge de Course introduced timing equipment that measured accurately to one thousandth of a second, to replace the old equipment that measured in hundredths of a second.[9]

As of the 2010 Winter Olympics, 117 medals (40 gold, 38 silver, and 39 bronze) have been awarded to 105 lugers (53 in the singles and 52 in the doubles) representing nine National Olympic Committees (NOC).[10] German lugers—representing the United Team of Germany (1964), West Germany (1968–1988), East Germany (1968–1988), and Germany (1992–2010)—have dominated this sport, collecting a total of 70 medals (27 gold, 22 silver, and 21 bronze).[10] There were seven occasions when a single NOC filled the podium with its athletes and in all of them they were German. After the Vancouver Games, Germany is the current medal-leading NOC in the sport with 31 medals (13 gold, 10 silver, and 8 bronze), surpassing East Germany's 29 medals.[10]

As the Italian luge team is completely recruited from South Tyrol, nearly all medal winners, except those from Soviet Union, Russia, United States and Latvia, are ethnically Germanic.

MedalistsEdit

Men's singlesEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Innsbruck
details
Thomas Köhler
  United Team of Germany
Klaus Bonsack
  United Team of Germany
Hans Plenk
  United Team of Germany
1968 Grenoble
details
Manfred Schmid
  Austria
Thomas Köhler
  East Germany
Klaus Bonsack
  East Germany
1972 Sapporo
details
Wolfgang Scheidel
  East Germany
Harald Ehrig
  East Germany
Wolfram Fiedler
  East Germany
1976 Innsbruck
details
Dettlef Günther
  East Germany
Josef Fendt
  West Germany
Hans Rinn
  East Germany
1980 Lake Placid
details
Bernhard Glass
  East Germany
Paul Hildgartner
  Italy
Anton Winkler
  West Germany
1984 Sarajevo
details
Paul Hildgartner
  Italy
Sergey Danilin
  Soviet Union
Valery Dudin
  Soviet Union
1988 Calgary
details
Jens Müller
  East Germany
Georg Hackl
  West Germany
Yuri Kharchenko
  Soviet Union
1992 Albertville
details
Georg Hackl
  Germany
Markus Prock
  Austria
Markus Schmidt
  Austria
1994 Lillehammer
details
Georg Hackl
  Germany
Markus Prock
  Austria
Armin Zöggeler
  Italy
1998 Nagano
details
Georg Hackl
  Germany
Armin Zöggeler
  Italy
Jens Müller
  Germany
2002 Salt Lake City
details
Armin Zöggeler
  Italy
Georg Hackl
  Germany
Markus Prock
  Austria
2006 Turin
details
Armin Zöggeler
  Italy
Albert Demchenko
  Russia
Mārtiņš Rubenis
  Latvia
2010 Vancouver
details
Felix Loch
  Germany
David Möller
  Germany
Armin Zöggeler
  Italy
2014 Sochi
details
Felix Loch
  Germany
Albert Demchenko
  Russia
Armin Zöggeler
  Italy
2018 Pyeongchang
details
David Gleirscher
  Austria
Chris Mazdzer
  United States
Johannes Ludwig
  Germany
  • Medals:
Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze
1   Germany West Germany 5 4 3
2   East Germany 4 2 3
3   Italy 3 2 3
4   Austria 2 2 2
5   Germany United Team of Germany 1 1 1
6   Russia 2
7   Soviet Union 1 2
8   United States 1
9   Latvia 1

Women's singlesEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Innsbruck
details
Ortrun Enderlein
  United Team of Germany
Ilse Geisler
  United Team of Germany
Helene Thurner
  Austria
1968 Grenoble
details
Erica Lechner
  Italy
Christina Schmuck
  West Germany
Angelika Dünhaupt
  West Germany
1972 Sapporo
details
Anna-Maria Müller
  East Germany
Ute Rührold
  East Germany
Margit Schumann
  East Germany
1976 Innsbruck
details
Margit Schumann
  East Germany
Ute Rührold
  East Germany
Elisabeth Demleitner
  West Germany
1980 Lake Placid
details
Vera Zozulya
  Soviet Union
Melitta Sollmann
  East Germany
Ingrīda Amantova
  Soviet Union
1984 Sarajevo
details
Steffi Martin
  East Germany
Bettina Schmidt
  East Germany
Ute Weiss
  East Germany
1988 Calgary
details
Steffi Walter
  East Germany
Ute Oberhoffner
  East Germany
Cerstin Schmidt
  East Germany
1992 Albertville
details
Doris Neuner
  Austria
Angelika Neuner
  Austria
Susi Erdmann
  Germany
1994 Lillehammer
details
Gerda Weissensteiner
  Italy
Susi Erdmann
  Germany
Andrea Tagwerker
  Austria
1998 Nagano
details
Silke Kraushaar
  Germany
Barbara Niedernhuber
  Germany
Angelika Neuner
  Austria
2002 Salt Lake City
details
Sylke Otto
  Germany
Barbara Niedernhuber
  Germany
Silke Kraushaar
  Germany
2006 Turin
details
Sylke Otto
  Germany
Silke Kraushaar
  Germany
Tatjana Hüfner
  Germany
2010 Vancouver
details
Tatjana Hüfner
  Germany
Nina Reithmayer
  Austria
Natalie Geisenberger
  Germany
2014 Sochi
details
Natalie Geisenberger
  Germany
Tatjana Hüfner
  Germany
Erin Hamlin
  United States
2018 Pyeongchang
details
Natalie Geisenberger
  Germany
Dajana Eitberger
  Germany
Alex Gough
  Canada
  • Medals:
Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze
1   Germany 6 6 4
2   East Germany 4 5 3
3   Italy 2
4   Austria 1 2 3
5   Germany United Team of Germany 1 1
6   Soviet Union 1 1
7   West Germany 1 2
8   United States 1
8   Canada 1

DoublesEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Innsbruck
details
  Josef Feistmantl
and Manfred Stengl (AUT)
  Reinhold Senn
and Helmut Thaler (AUT)
  Walter Aussendorfer
and Sigisfredo Mair (ITA)
1968 Grenoble
details
  Klaus Bonsack
and Thomas Köhler (GDR)
  Manfred Schmid
and Ewald Walch (AUT)
  Wolfgang Winkler
and Fritz Nachmann (FRG)
1972 Sapporo
details
  Horst Hörnlein
and Reinhard Bredow (GDR)
  Paul Hildgartner
and Walter Plaikner (ITA)
None awarded   Klaus Bonsack
and Wolfram Fiedler (GDR)
1976 Innsbruck
details
  Hans Rinn
and Norbert Hahn (GDR)
  Hans Brandner
and Balthasar Schwarm (FRG)
  Rudolf Schmid
and Franz Schachner (AUT)
1980 Lake Placid
details
  Hans Rinn
and Norbert Hahn (GDR)
  Peter Gschnitzer
and Karl Brunner (ITA)
  Georg Fluckinger
and Karl Schrott (AUT)
1984 Sarajevo
details
  Hans Stangassinger
and Franz Wembacher (FRG)
  Yevgeny Belousov
and Aleksandr Belyakov (URS)
  Jörg Hoffmann
and Jochen Pietzsch (GDR)
1988 Calgary
details
  Jörg Hoffmann
and Jochen Pietzsch (GDR)
  Stefan Krauße
and Jan Behrendt (GDR)
  Thomas Schwab
and Wolfgang Staudinger (FRG)
1992 Albertville
details
  Stefan Krauße
and Jan Behrendt (GER)
  Yves Mankel
and Thomas Rudolph (GER)
  Hansjörg Raffl
and Norbert Huber (ITA)
1994 Lillehammer
details
  Kurt Brugger
and Wilfried Huber (ITA)
  Hansjörg Raffl
and Norbert Huber (ITA)
  Stefan Krauße
and Jan Behrendt (GER)
1998 Nagano
details
  Stefan Krauße
and Jan Behrendt (GER)
  Chris Thorpe
and Gordon Sheer (USA)
  Mark Grimmette
and Brian Martin (USA)
2002 Salt Lake City
details
  Patric Leitner
and Alexander Resch (GER)
  Mark Grimmette
and Brian Martin (USA)
  Chris Thorpe
and Clay Ives (USA)
2006 Turin
details
  Andreas Linger
and Wolfgang Linger (AUT)
  André Florschütz
and Torsten Wustlich (GER)
  Gerhard Plankensteiner
and Oswald Haselrieder (ITA)
2010 Vancouver
details
  Andreas Linger
and Wolfgang Linger (AUT)
  Andris Šics
and Juris Šics (LAT)
  Patric Leitner
and Alexander Resch (GER)
2014 Sochi
details
  Tobias Wendl
and Tobias Arlt (GER)
  Andreas Linger
and Wolfgang Linger (AUT)
  Andris Šics
and Juris Šics (LAT)
2018 Pyeongchang
details
  Tobias Wendl
and Tobias Arlt (GER)
  Peter Penz
and Georg Fischler (AUT)
  Toni Eggert
and Sascha Benecken (GER)

Team relayEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
2014 Sochi
details
  Germany (GER)
Natalie Geisenberger
Felix Loch
Tobias Wendl
Tobias Arlt
  Russia (RUS)
Tatiana Ivanova
Albert Demchenko
Alexander Denisyev
Vladislav Antonov
  Latvia (LAT)
Elīza Tīruma
Mārtiņš Rubenis
Andris Šics
Juris Šics
2018 Pyeongchang
details
  Germany (GER)
Natalie Geisenberger
Johannes Ludwig
Tobias Wendl
Tobias Arlt
  Canada (CAN)
Alex Gough
Samuel Edney
Tristan Walker
Justin Snith
  Austria (AUT)
Madeleine Egle
David Gleirscher
Peter Penz
Georg Fischler

StatisticsEdit

Medal leadersEdit

Athletes that have won at least two medals are listed below. Medalists are sorted first by the total number of medals, then successively by the number of gold, silver and bronze medals. If a tie is still verified, medalists are ordered chronologically by their first medal.

MenEdit

Athlete NOC Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
Armin Zöggeler   Italy (ITA) 1994–2014 2 1 3 6
Georg Hackl   West Germany (FRG)
  Germany (GER)
1988–2002 3 2 0 5
Tobias Arlt   Germany (GER) 2014-2018 4 0 0 4
Tobias Wendl   Germany (GER) 2014-2018 4 0 0 4
Stefan Krauße   East Germany (GDR)
  Germany (GER)
1988–1998 2 1 1 4
Jan Behrendt   East Germany (GDR)
  Germany (GER)
1988–1998 2 1 1 4
Klaus Bonsack   United Team of Germany (EUA) 1964–1972 1 1 2 4
Felix Loch   Germany (GER) 2010–2014 3 0 0 3
Thomas Köhler   United Team of Germany (EUA) 1964–1968 2 1 0 3
Paul Hildgartner   Italy (ITA) 1972–1984 2 1 0 3
Andreas Linger   Austria (AUT) 2006–2014 2 1 0 3
Wolfgang Linger   Austria (AUT) 2006–2014 2 1 0 3
Albert Demchenko   Russia (RUS) 2006–2014 0 3 0 3
Markus Prock   Austria (AUT) 1992–2002 0 2 1 3
Andris Šics   Latvia (LAT) 2010–2014 0 1 2 3
Juris Šics   Latvia (LAT) 2010–2014 0 1 2 3
Hans Rinn   East Germany (GDR) 1976–1980 2 0 0 2
Norbert Hahn   East Germany (GDR) 1976–1980 2 0 0 2
Jörg Hoffmann   East Germany (GDR) 1984–1988 1 0 1 2
Jochen Pietzsch   East Germany (GDR) 1984–1988 1 0 1 2
Jens Müller   East Germany (GDR)
  Germany (GER)
1988–1998 1 0 1 2
Patric Leitner   Germany (GER) 2002–2010 1 0 1 2
Alexander Resch   Germany (GER) 2002–2010 1 0 1 2
David Gleirscher   Austria (AUT) 2018 1 0 1 2
Johannes Ludwig   Germany (GER) 2018 1 0 1 2
Hansjörg Raffl   Italy (ITA) 1992–1994 0 1 1 2
Norbert Huber   Italy (ITA) 1992–1994 0 1 1 2
Chris Thorpe   United States (USA) 1998–2002 0 1 1 2
Mark Grimmette   United States (USA) 1998–2002 0 1 1 2
Brian Martin   United States (USA) 1998–2002 0 1 1 2
Peter Penz   Austria (AUT) 2018 0 1 1 2
Georg Fischler   Austria (AUT) 2018 0 1 1 2
Mārtiņš Rubenis   Latvia (LAT) 2006-2014 0 0 2 2

WomenEdit

Athlete NOC Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
Natalie Geisenberger   Germany (GER) 2010–2018 4 0 1 5
Silke Kraushaar   Germany (GER) 1998–2006 1 1 1 3
Tatjana Hüfner   Germany (GER) 2006–2014 1 1 1 3
Steffi Martin   East Germany (GDR) 1984–1988 2 0 0 2
Sylke Otto   Germany (GER) 2002–2006 2 0 0 2
Margit Schumann   East Germany (GDR) 1972–1976 1 0 1 2
Ute Rührold   East Germany (GDR) 1972–1976 0 2 0 2
Barbara Niedernhuber   Germany (GER) 1998–2002 0 2 0 2
Susi Erdmann   Germany (GER) 1992–1994 0 1 1 2
Angelika Neuner   Austria (AUT) 1992–1998 0 1 1 2
Alex Gough   Canada (CAN) 2018 0 1 1 2

Medals per yearEdit

× NOC did not exist # Number of medals won by the NOC NOC did not win any medals
NOC 1924–60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18 Total
  Austria (AUT)   3 2 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 2 1 3 22
  Canada (CAN)   2 2
  United Team of Germany (EUA)   5 × × × × × × × × × × × × × × 5
  East Germany (GDR)   × 3 8 5 3 4 6 × × × × × × × × 29
  West Germany (FRG)   × 3 3 1 1 2 × × × × × × × × 10
  Germany (GER)   × × × × × × × 4 3 5 5 4 5 5 6 37
  Italy (ITA)   1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 17
  Latvia (LAT)   × × × × × × × 1 1 2 4
  Russia (RUS)   × × × × × × × × 1 2 × 3
  Soviet Union (URS)   2 3 1 × × × × × × × × 6
  United States (USA)   2 2 1 1 5

Medal sweep eventsEdit

These are events in which athletes from one NOC won all three medals.

Games Event NOC Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Innsbruck Men's Singles   United Team of Germany (EUA) Thomas Köhler Klaus-Michael Bonsack Hans Plenk
1972 Sapporo Men's Singles *   East Germany (GDR) Wolfgang Scheidel Harald Ehrig Wolfram Fiedler
Women's Singles Anna-Maria Müller Ute Rührold Margit Schumann
1984 Sarajevo Women's Singles Steffi Walter-Martin Bettina Schmidt Ute Oberhoffner-Weiß
1988 Calgary Women's Singles Steffi Walter-Martin Ute Oberhoffner-Weiß Cerstin Schmidt
2002 Salt Lake City Women's Singles   Germany (GER) Sylke Otto Barbara Niedernhuber Silke Kraushaar
2006 Turin Women's Singles Sylke Otto Silke Kraushaar Tatjana Hüfner
  • * In addition to sweeping the podium, the country also had the fourth-place finisher.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Technically, the doubles event is considered a mixed event, open for male, female and mixed duos, but since its debut it has been traditionally entered only by male pairs.[3]

ReferencesEdit

Medalists
  • "Results and Medalists—Luge". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
Citations
  1. ^ "Luge Equipment and History". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 8 January 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  2. ^ Kubatko, Justin. "Luge at the 1964 Innsbruck Winter Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  3. ^ "International Luge Federation". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  4. ^ "Luge: About discipline". sochi2014.com. Organizing Committee of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  5. ^ a b c Kubatko, Justin. "Georg Hackl Biography and Olympic Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  6. ^ "Rodel Weltcup: 1977/78 bis 2008/09 Herren" (PDF). Official Website of the Fédération Internationale de Luge de course (in German). FIL. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  7. ^ "Records and medals at the Olympic Winter Games" (PDF). Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. October 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  8. ^ Kubatko, Justin. "Luge at the 1968 Grenoble Winter Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  9. ^ "Preview: Doubles luge". Canadian Luge Association. 16 February 2010. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  10. ^ a b c Kubatko, Justin. "Luge". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 2 April 2010.

External linksEdit