List of countries by hospital beds

This is a list of countries by hospital beds per 1000 or 100,000 people, as published by the local governments, international organisation (OECD, E.U.), academic sources or others. The number of beds per people is an important indicator of the health care system of a country.[1] The basic measure focus on all hospital beds, which are variously split and occupied. The classic hospital beds are also called curative beds. For severe patients with risk of organ(s) failure, patients are provided intensive care unit beds (aka ICU bed) or critical care beds (CCB).

Hospital beds per 1000 people in 2013

Among OECD countries, curative beds' occupancy rate average was 75%, from 94.9% (Ireland) to 61.6% (Greece), with half of the OECD's nation between 70% and 80%.[2]

In 2009, European nations, most of them also part of OECD, had an aggregated total of 2,070,000 acute beds and 73,585 (2.8%[clarification needed]) critical care beds (CCB) or 11.5CCB/100,000 inhabitants.[3] Germany had 29.2, Portugal 4.2.[3]Aging population leads to increased demand for CCB and difficulties to satisfy it, while both quantity of CCB and availability are poorly documented.[3]

Base capacity for lower-income countries is approximately 0.1 ICU beds per 100,000 citizens.[4][5]

NumbersEdit

Countries in italics are non-OECD countries.

Hospital beds by country ()
Rank Country/territory Continent Hospital beds per 1000 people Change from previous year, average Occupancy (%)[6] ICU-CCB beds
/100,000 inhabitants
Ventilators
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Actual Proportional (%)
1   Japan Asia 13.3 13.21 13.17 13.11 13.05 −0.06 −0.48 75.5 13.5[7] 45.293[8]
2   South Korea Asia 10.92 11.59 11.61 11.98 12.27 0.34 2.85 10.6[9] 9,795[10]
3   Russia Europe 9.07 8.81 8.35 8.16 8.05 −0.26 −3.04 8.3[11] 40,000[12] (27.3 per 100,000 inhabitants[12])
4   Germany Europe 8.28 8.23 8.13 8.06 8.00 −0.07 −0.86 62.1[13] 38.7[13] 25,000[14]
5   Austria Europe 7.64 7.58 7.54 7.42 7.37 −0.07 −0.90 73.8 21.8[15] 2,500[16]
6   Hungary Europe 7.04 6.98 6.99 7.00 7.02 −0.01 −0.07 65.5 13.8[15] 2560[17]
7   Czech Republic Europe 6.7 6.68 6.67 6.66 6.63 −0.02 −0.26 70.1 11.6[15] 3,529[18]
8   Poland Europe 6.61 6.63 6.63 6.64 6.62 0.00 0.04 6.9[15] 10,100 (26.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) [19][20]
9   Lithuania Europe 7.28 7.22 6.97 6.69 6.56 −0.18 −2.65 73.2 15.5[15] ~1000 [21]
10   France Europe 6.28 6.20 6.13 6.06 5.98 −0.08 −1.23 75.6 11.6[15] 9,236(2006)[22]
7,007 (2009)[23]
11   Slovakia Europe 5.8 5.79 5.75 5.78 5.82 0.01 0.08 67.8 9.2[15] 600[24]
12   Belgium Europe 5.93 5.85 5.83 5.76 5.76 −0.04 −0.73 81.8 15.9[15] Un­known
13   Latvia Europe 5.8 5.66 5.69 5.72 5.57 −0.06 −1.03 71.1 9.7[15] Un­known
14   Hong Kong Asia 5.4 5.4 5.4 0.00 0.00 7.1[9] Un­known
15   Estonia Europe 5.01 5.01 4.96 4.76 4.69 −0.08 −1.68 70.4 14.6[15] Un­known
16   Luxembourg Europe 5.17 5.05 4.93 4.81 4.66 −0.13 −2.63 70.7 24.8[15] Un­known
17    Switzerland Europe 4.68 4.58 4.58 4.55 4.53 −0.04 −0.82 82.0 11.0[15] Un­known
18   Slovenia Europe 4.55 4.54 4.51 4.49 4.50 −0.01 −0.28 69.5 6.4[15] Un­known
19   China Asia 3.31 3.57 3.82 4.05 4.34 0.26 6.55 3.6[9] Un­known
20   Greece Europe 4.24 4.24 4.25 4.20 4.21 −0.01 −0.18 61.6[15] 9.5[25] Un­known
21   Australia Oceania 3.74 3.79 3.82 3.84 0.03 0.88 9.1[26] 1314[27]
22   Norway Europe 3.86 3.84 3.76 3.68 3.60 −0.07 −1.76 80.7 8[15] 800[28]
23   Portugal Europe 3.39 3.32 3.37 3.39 3.39 0.00 −0.01 66.8 4.2[15] 1,400[29]
24   Netherlands Europe 4.18 3.52 3.44 3.32 0.00 0.00 65.4 6.4[15] Un­known
25   Finland Europe 4.87 4.53 4.35 3.97 3.28 −0.40 −10.56 6.1[15] Un­known
26   Italy Europe 3.31 3.21 3.20 3.17 3.18 −0.03 −1.01 78.9 12.5[15] 5,324 (January 2020) [30]
5,000 (8.3 per 100,000 inhabitants)[12]
27   Iceland Europe 3.22 3.16 3.12 3.13 3.06 −0.04 −1.29 9.1[15] Un­known
28   Israel Asia 3.09 3.08 3.03 2.99 3.02 −0.02 −0.58 93.3 Un­known
29   Spain Europe 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.97 2.97 0.00 0.08 75.3 9.7[15] Un­known
30   Ireland Europe 2.56 2.57 2.92 2.97 2.96 0.10 3.43 94.9 6.5[15] Un­known
31   Turkey Europe 2.65 2.68 2.68 2.75 2.81 0.04 1.45 68.0 46.5[31] 17,000[32]
32   United States North America 2.89 2.83 2.80 2.77 −0.04 −1.42 64.0 29.4[33] 177,000[34]
68,000[12] (18.8 per 100,000 inhabitants[12])
33   New Zealand Oceania 2.78 2.75 2.71 2.73 2.71 −0.02 −0.64 4.6[35] 334[36]
34   Denmark Europe 3.07 2.69 2.53 2.60 2.61 −0.12 −4.34 6.7[15] Un­known
35   United Kingdom (more) Europe 2.76 2.73 2.61 2.57 2.54 −0.05 −2.11 84.3 6.6[15] 5,000[14]
8,175[12] (10.1 per 100,000 inhabitants[12])
36   Canada North America 2.71 2.67 2.61 2.58 2.52 −0.05 −1.84 91.6 13.5[37] Un­known
37   Sweden Europe 2.59 2.54 2.44 2.34 2.22 −0.09 −3.94 5.8[15] 570[38]
38   Chile South America 2.16 2.11 2.14 2.12 2.11 −0.01 −0.60 79.1 Un­known
39   Colombia South America 1.54 1.59 1.61 1.68 1.70 0.04 2.43 11.69 Un­known
40   India Asia 0.58 0.48 0.53 0.00 0.00 47,481[39]
41   Mexico North America 1.44 1.43 1.39 1.39 1.38 −0.02 −1.08 74.0  1.2[40][41] 2050[42]
42   Ukraine Europe 8.8 0.00 0.00 3,600[12]
43   Bangladesh Asia 0.87 0.00 0.00 0.72[43]

2020 coronavirus pandemicEdit

 
A patient and clinicians in an intensive care unit

The availability of CCB-ICU beds,[44] mechanical ventilation[45][46] and ECMO devices[47] generally closely associated with hospital beds has been described as a critical bottleneck in responding to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The lack of such devices dramatically raises the mortality rate of COVID-19.

In early March, the UK government supported a strategy to develop natural herd immunity, drawing sharp criticism from medical personnel and researchers.[48] Various forecasts by Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team, made public on March 16, suggested that the peak number of cases in the UK would require between 100 and 225 CCBs / 100,000 inhabitants,[49] if proper mitigation or no mitigation strategies are put into force, respectively. These requirements would both exceed the UK's current capacities of 6.6[3]–14[49] CCB / 100,000 inhabitants. In the best case scenario, the peak caseload would require 7.5 times the current number of available ICU beds.[50] Around March 16, the UK government changed trajectory toward a more standard mitigation/suppression strategy.[48]

In France, around March 15, the Grand Est region was the first to express the scarcity of CCB limiting its handling of the crisis.[51] Assistance-publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), which manages most hospitals in the French capital area (~10 million inhabitants), reported the need for 19 400 ICUs.[52] Current capacity is reported to be between 1500[52] and 350,[53] depending on the source.

In Europe, the company Löwenstein Medical producing 1500 ICU-level ventilators and 20,000 home-level ventilator per year for France alone, pointed out of the current high demand and production shortage. Based in Germany, all their components are European and not relying on Chinese supply chains. As for production ramp up, the company has increased the production of mobile ventilators, that are more basic and can be assembled in half an hour, yet able to support patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.[54] Due to the coronavirus pandemic, in March 2020 the German government ordered 16.500 units for ventilation and intubation from two German companies.[55] According to the company spokesman, a second bottleneck is the number of available medical staff, trained for such medical devices.[54]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ Health at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, 9. Health care activities : Hospital beds and discharges rates. www.oecd-ilibrary.org. Health at a Glance. 2019. pp. 194–195. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en. ISBN 9789264382084. Archived from the original on 2020-04-28. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  3. ^ a b c d Rhodes, A.; Ferdinande, P.; Flaatten, H.; Guidet, B.; Metnitz, P. G.; Moreno, R. P. (2012-10-01). "The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (10): 1647–1653. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2627-8. ISSN 1432-1238. PMID 22777516.
  4. ^ Bradley, Jane (2020-04-09). "In Scramble for Coronavirus Supplies, Rich Countries Push Poor Aside". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  5. ^ Murthy, Srinivas; Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Adhikari, Neill K. J. (2015-01-24). "Intensive Care Unit Capacity in Low-Income Countries: A Systematic Review". PLOS One. 10 (1): e0116949. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1016949M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116949. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4305307. PMID 25617837.
  6. ^ Oecd (2019). Health at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, 9. Health care activities : Hospital beds and discharges rates. Health at a Glance. pp. 194–195. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en. ISBN 9789264382084.
  7. ^ "ICU等の病床に関する国際比較について" [International comparison of ICU beds] (PDF). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. May 6, 2020.
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  10. ^ "국민건강보험공단, 건강보험심사평가원 <건강보험통계>". 2020-03-28.
  11. ^ http://government.ru/news/39218
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  13. ^ a b "DIVI-Intensivregister Tagesreport 2020-05-19". Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin e.V. 2020-05-19.
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  16. ^ "Die Ruhe vor dem Ansturm in die Spitäler". 2020-03-22.
  17. ^ "Újabb gazdasági intézkedéseket jelentett be Orbán". 2020-03-23.
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  19. ^ "Poland has time for action". 2020-03-10.
  20. ^ "Walka z koronawirusem. Ile w Polsce jest urządzeń do wspomagania oddychania?". 2020-03-11.
  21. ^ Aurelijus Veryga, in a press conference
  22. ^ http://www.leparisien.fr/societe/coronavirus-les-respirateurs-artificiels-cle-de-voute-de-la-riposte-medicale-26-03-2020-8288259.php
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  41. ^ 5000 "emergency"[clarification needed] beds
    1500 ICU
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  43. ^ Number of ICU beds insufficient to combat Covid-19 pandemic, Dhaka Tribune, 21 March 2020: "In reality, hospitals in Bangladesh have only 1,169 ICU beds (432 govt, 737 private) in total against a population of 161,356,039 people."
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  51. ^ https://www.europe1.fr/sante/coronavirus-dans-le-grand-est-pratiquement-tous-les-lits-de-reanimation-sont-occupes-3955371.amp
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  53. ^ See Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris.
  54. ^ a b "Coronavirus : la demande en ventilateurs et respirateurs artificiels est devenue "colossale", explique un spécialiste dans le matériel médical". Franceinfo (in French). 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  55. ^ "Löwenstein Medical in Rheinland-Pfalz: Wichtiger Auftrag: Diese deutsche Firma soll neue Beatmungsgeräte liefern". www.noz.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-03-30.