List of Medal of Honor recipients (Veracruz)

The United States occupation of the Mexican port of Veracruz lasted for seven months in 1914 and occurred in the midst of poor diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States, related to the ongoing Mexican Revolution.

In response to the Tampico Affair, President Woodrow Wilson ordered the U.S. Navy to prepare for the occupation of the port of Veracruz. While waiting for authorization of Congress to carry out such action, Wilson was alerted to a German delivery of weapons for Victoriano Huerta due to arrive to the port on April 21. As a result, Wilson issued an immediate order to seize the port's customs office and confiscate the weaponry.

The Medal of Honor was created during the American Civil War and is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces. The recipient must have distinguished themselves at the risk of their own life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an enemy of the United States. Due to the nature of this medal, it is commonly presented posthumously.[1]

Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels ordered that 56 Medals of Honor be awarded to participants in the occupation of Veracruz, the most for any single action before or since. In total 63 Medals of Honor were received for actions during the occupation; 1 Army, 9 to members of the United States Marine Corps and 53 to Navy personnel.[2]

RecipientsEdit

Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied from the official Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Notes[3]
  Edwin Anderson, Jr. Navy Captain Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 Showed extraordinary heroism in battle, during the engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914, in command of the Second Seaman Regiment
  Oscar C. Badger II Navy Ensign Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 Led his men in both days' fighting at the head of his company
Harry C. Beasley Navy Seaman aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession". Later killed in the line of duty as a police officer
  Randolph C. Berkeley Marine Corps Major Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and his skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machine gun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets accounts for the small percentage of the losses of Marines under his command.
Charles Francis Bishop Navy Quartermaster Second Class aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
  George Bradley Navy Chief Gunner's Mate Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For meritorious service under fire as leader of the ammunition party and special details
  Allen Buchanan Navy Lieutenant Commander Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Smedley Butler Marine Corps Major Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914". Later received a second Medal of Honor for actions in Haiti in 1915.
  Guy Wilkinson Stuart Castle Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Albertus W. Catlin Marine Corps Major Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914". He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action and in the final occupation of the city.
  George McCall Courts Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
George Cregan Navy Coxswain aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 On board USS Florida, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Veracruz, Mexico, April 21, 1914.
Percy A. Decker Navy Boatswain's Mate Second Class aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
  Abraham DeSomer Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
Niels Drustrup Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For meritorious service under fire on the occasion of landing of the naval forces at Veracruz, Mexico, on April 21, 1914
Jesse Farley Dyer Marine Corps Captain Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"; was in both days fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Middleton Stuart Elliott Navy Surgeon Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Frank Friday Fletcher Navy Rear Admiral Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 Directed the landing at Veracruz, Mexico
  Frank Jack Fletcher Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Paul Frederick Foster Navy Ensign Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Hugh Carroll Frazer Navy Ensign Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914"
  Eli Thompson Fryer Marine Corps Captain Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Julien Edmund Victor Gaujot Army Captain Aqua Prieta, Mexico April 13, 1911 Brother of Antoine A. M. Gaujot, also a Medal of Honor recipient. One of five pairs of brothers to have both received the Medal of Honor.
  Edward A. Gisburne Navy Electrician Third Class aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
John Grady Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914"
Joseph Gabriel Harner Navy Boatswain's Mate Second Class aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
  William Kelly Harrison Navy Commander Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Charles Conway Hartigan Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914"
Walter Newell Hill Marine Corps Captain Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
John Arthur Hughes Marine Corps Captain Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Harry M. P. Huse Navy Captain Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 First name erroneously given as "Henry" on citation
  Jonas H. Ingram Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914. During the second day's fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for skilful and efficient handling of the artillery and machine-guns of the Arkansas battalion, for which he was specially commended in reports.
Berrie H. Jarrett Navy Seaman aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 On board USS Florida Jarrett displayed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Veracruz, Mexico, April 21, 1914.
  Rufus Zenas Johnston Navy Lieutenant Commander Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914"
Cary DeVall Langhorne Navy Surgeon Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 For carrying a wounded man while under heavy fire.
  James Patrick Lannon Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914. Lt. Lannon assisted a wounded man under heavy fire, and after returning to his battalion was himself desperately wounded.
George M. Lowry Navy Ensign Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914; Ens. Lowry was in both days' fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage. Last surviving recipient.
John C. McCloy Navy Chief Boatswain Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 For heroism in leading 3 attacks along Veracruz sea front, drawing Mexican fire and enabling cruisers to save our men on shore, April 22, 1914. Though wounded, he gallantly remained at his post. Second award – previously awarded a Medal of Honor for action in the Boxer Rebellion.
  Edward Orrick McDonnell Navy Ensign Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914". Established a signal station to ensure communication between troops and ships whilst under continual fire at an exposed post.[4]
  Frederick V. McNair, Jr. Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914. Lt. McNair was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action and in the final occupation of the city.
  William A. Moffett Navy Commander USS Chester, harbor of Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For his leadership of USS Chester in a daring and dangerous night landing in 1914 at Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico
  Wendell Cushing Neville Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Veracruz 21 – 22 April 1914
Henry Nehemiah Nickerson Navy Boatswain's Mate Second Class Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
Charles Luers Nordsiek Navy Ordinary Seaman aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
  George Croghan Reid Marine Corps Major Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  William R. Rush Navy Captain Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For his bravery in battle in Veracruz Mexico
Fred Jurgen Schnepel Navy Ordinary Seaman aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
Robert Semple Navy Chief Gunner Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For meritorious service under fire
Lawrence C. Sinnett Navy Seaman aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
  Adolphus Staton Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914"
  Herman Osman Stickney Navy Commander Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
  Julius Curtis Townsend Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Veracruz, April 22, 1914"
  Richard Wainwright, Jr. Navy Lieutenant Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 "For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Veracruz, 21 – 22 April 1914"
James A. Walsh Navy Seaman aboard USS Florida, Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"
  Theodore S. Wilkinson Navy Ensign Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914April 22, 1914 For his skillful and courageous leadership of USS Florida's landing force and his exhibition of "eminent and conspicuous" conduct.
  William Zuiderveld Navy Hospital Apprentice First Class Veracruz, Mexico April 21, 1914 For "extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession"

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "A Brief History — The Medal of Honor". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Department of Defense. August 8, 2006. Archived from the original on June 15, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  2. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients". Medal of Honor statistics. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
  3. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients". Mexican Campaign (Veracruz). United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
  4. ^ McDonnell, Edward O. Vice Admiral, USNR (Retired), (1891-1960), Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved March 10, 2019.

ReferencesEdit

  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.