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List of Major League Baseball player-managers

Head shot of Caucasian man wearing a hat. The top of his dark jacket and tie are visible.
Connie Mack began his managing career as a player–manager.

Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in North American professional baseball. Founded in 1869, it is composed of 30 teams.[1] Each team in the league has a manager, who is responsible for team strategy and leadership on and off the field.[2] Assisted by various coaches, the manager sets the line-up and starting pitcher before each game, and makes substitutions throughout the game. In early baseball history, it was not uncommon for players to serve as player-managers; that is, they managed the team while still being signed to play for the club. In the history of MLB, there have been 221 player–managers,[3] 59 of whom are in the National Baseball Hall of Fame.[3]

The dual role of player–manager was formerly a common practice, dating back to John Clapp, who performed the task for the Middletown Mansfields in 1872. One reason for this is that by hiring a player as a manager, the team could save money by paying only one salary.[4][5] Also, popular players were named player–managers in an effort to boost game attendance.[6] Babe Ruth left the New York Yankees when they refused to allow him to become player–manager.[7] Five of the eight National League (NL) managers in 1934 were also players.[8] Connie Mack, John McGraw, and Joe Torre, among the all-time leaders in managerial wins, made their managerial debuts as player–managers.[3] At least one man served as a player-manager in every major league season from Clapp's debut through 1955.

Today, player–managers have become rare in baseball. Pete Rose is the most recent player–manager, serving from 1984 through 1986 with the Cincinnati Reds. Whereas some player–managers, such as Lou Boudreau, were full-time players as player–managers, by the time Rose became player–manager, he was a part-time player.[9] Rose was trying to prolong his career to break the all-time hit record set by Ty Cobb, and Reds owner Marge Schott used this as a marketing ploy.[10] Rose removed himself from the 40-man roster after the 1986 season to make room for Pat Pacillo, unofficially retiring as a player, but remained as the Reds manager until he was banned from baseball following the release of the Dowd Report in 1989.

One criticism of the practice holds that the manager has enough to be preoccupied with during a game without playing.[11] With specialized bullpens, extensive scouting reports, and increased media scrutiny, the job of a manager has become more complex.[3] A player–manager needs to decide how much playing time to give himself.[12] Don Kessinger, player–manager of the Chicago White Sox in 1979, believes he did not play himself enough.[3] Additionally, Bill Terry felt he became isolated from his team when he became a player–manager.[13]

However, teams continue to consider hiring player–managers. The Toronto Blue Jays considered hiring Paul Molitor as a player–manager in 1997.[14] When approached with the idea in 2000, Barry Larkin reported that he found it "interesting", though general manager (GM) Jim Bowden rejected the idea.[15] In the 2011–12 offseason, the White Sox considered hiring incumbent first baseman Paul Konerko to serve as manager.[16] White Sox GM Kenny Williams said that he believes MLB will again have a player–manager.[16]

Contents

ListEdit

 
Cap Anson was a player–manager for 23 seasons.
 
Lou Boudreau won the Most Valuable Player Award while a player–manager in 1948.[17]
 
The then-Cleveland Bluebirds were renamed the "Naps" in honor of player–manager Nap Lajoie.[18]
 
Fred Lake retired as a player in 1898, but inserted himself into three games in 1910.
 
Christy Mathewson played one season with the Cincinnati Reds as a player–manager, then remained as their manager.
 
John McGraw retired as a player in 1906, but managed the New York Giants until 1932.
 
Frank Robinson became the first African-American manager in MLB history when he was named player–manager of the Cleveland Indians in 1975.[19]
 
Pete Rose became the all-time MLB hit leader while serving as the Cincinnati Reds' player–manager.[10]
 
Tris Speaker won the 1920 World Series as player–manager of the Cleveland Indians.[20]
 
El Tappe, a member of the Chicago Cubs' College of Coaches, played for the Cubs while managing.[21]
 
Joe Torre began his managing career as a player–manager for the New York Mets.
 
Pie Traynor was an All-Star while a player–manager in 1934.
 
Honus Wagner served as player–manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates in his final season as a player.
 
John Montgomery Ward threw a perfect game on June 12, 1880, then became a player–manager for the last 32 games of the 1880 season.[22]
Key
 
Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame
Year(s) Season(s) as a player–manager
Position Primary position while a player–manager
MLB player–managers
Player–manager Team(s) Year(s) Position
Bob Addy Philadelphia White Stockings
Cincinnati Reds
1875
1877
Outfielder
Bob Allen Philadelphia Phillies
Cincinnati Reds
1890
1900
Shortstop
Cap Anson  Philadelphia Athletics
Chicago Cubs
1875
1876–1897
First baseman
Jimmy Austin St. Louis Browns 1913, 1918, 1923 Third baseman
Dave Bancroft  Boston Braves 1924–1927 Shortstop
Sam Barkley Kansas City Cowboys 1888 Second baseman
Billy Barnie Baltimore Orioles 1883, 1886 Catcher
Jack Barry Boston Red Sox 1917 Second baseman
Joe Battin Chicago Browns/Pittsburgh Stogies
Pittsburgh Alleghenies
1883–1884
1884
Third baseman
Hank Bauer Kansas City Athletics 1961 Outfielder
Joe Birmingham Cleveland Naps 1912–1914 Outfielder
Lena Blackburne Chicago White Sox 1929 Pitcher
Walter Blair Buffalo Blues 1915 Catcher
Tommy Bond Worcester Ruby Legs 1882 Outfielder
Jim Bottomley  St. Louis Browns 1937 First baseman
Lou Boudreau  Cleveland Indians
Boston Red Sox
1942–1950
1952
Shortstop
Frank Bowerman Boston Doves 1909 Catcher
Bill Bradley Cleveland Naps
Brooklyn Tip-Tops
1905
1914
Third baseman
Roger Bresnahan  St. Louis Cardinals
Chicago Cubs
1909–1912
1915
Catcher
Mordecai Brown  St. Louis Terriers 1914 Pitcher
Tom Brown Washington Senators 1897–1898 Outfielder
Charlie Buffinton Philadelphia Athletics 1890 Pitcher
Jack Burdock Boston Beaneaters 1883 Second baseman
Jimmy Burke St. Louis Cardinals 1905 Third baseman
Tom Burns Pittsburgh Pirates 1892 Third baseman
Donie Bush Washington Senators 1923 Shortstop
Nixey Callahan Chicago White Sox 1903–1904, 1912–1913 Pitcher
Count Campau St. Louis Browns 1890 Outfielder
Bill Carrigan Boston Red Sox 1913–1916 Catcher
Bob Caruthers St. Louis Browns 1892 Outfielder
Phil Cavarretta Chicago Cubs 1951–1953 First baseman
Frank Chance  Chicago Cubs
New York Yankees
1905–1912
1913–1914
First baseman
Ben Chapman Philadelphia Phillies 1945–1946 Outfielder
Jack Chapman Louisville Grays 1876 Outfielder
Hal Chase New York Highlanders 1910–1911 First baseman
John Clapp Middletown Mansfields
Indianapolis Blues
Buffalo Bisons
Cincinnati Reds
Cleveland Blues
New York Gothams
1872
1878
1879
1880
1881
1883
Catcher
Fred Clarke  Louisville Colonels
Pittsburgh Pirates
1897–1899
1900–1911, 1913–1915
Outfielder
Jack Clements Philadelphia Phillies 1890 Catcher
Ty Cobb  Detroit Tigers 1921–1926 Outfielder
Mickey Cochrane  Detroit Tigers 1934–1937 Catcher
Eddie Collins  Chicago White Sox 1924–1926 Second baseman
Jimmy Collins  Boston Americans 1901–1906 Third baseman
Charles Comiskey  St. Louis Browns
Chicago Pirates
Cincinnati Reds
1883–1889, 1891
1890
1892–1894
First baseman
Roger Connor  St. Louis Browns 1896 First baseman
Sam Crane Buffalo Bisons
Cincinnati Outlaw Reds
1880
1884
Second baseman
Gavvy Cravath Philadelphia Phillies 1919–1920 Outfielder
George Creamer Pittsburgh Alleghenys 1884 Second baseman
Joe Cronin  Washington Senators
Boston Red Sox
1933–1934
1935–1947
Shortstop
Jack Crooks St. Louis Browns 1892 Second baseman
Lave Cross Cleveland Spiders 1899 Third baseman
Ned Cuthbert St. Louis Browns 1882 Outfielder
Bill Dahlen Brooklyn Superbas 1910–1911 Shortstop
George Davis  New York Giants 1895, 1900–1901 Shortstop
Harry Davis Cleveland Naps 1912 First baseman
Bill Dickey  New York Yankees 1946 Catcher
Bill Donovan New York Yankees 1915–1916 Pitcher
Patsy Donovan Pittsburgh Pirates
St. Louis Cardinals
Washington Senators
Brooklyn Superbas
1897, 1899
1901–1903
1904
1906–1907
Outfielder
Red Dooin Philadelphia Phillies 1910–1914 Catcher
Mike Dorgan Syracuse Stars
Providence Grays
Worcester Ruby Legs
1879
1880
1881
Outfielder
Tommy Dowd St. Louis Browns 1896–1897 Outfielder
Jack Doyle New York Giants
Washington Senators
1895
1898
First baseman
Hugh Duffy  Milwaukee Brewers
Philadelphia Phillies
1901
1904–1906
Outfielder
Fred Dunlap Cleveland Blues
St. Louis Maroons
Pittsburgh Alleghenys
1882
1884–1885
1889
Second baseman
Leo Durocher  Brooklyn Dodgers 1939–1941, 1943, 1945 Shortstop
Jimmy Dykes Chicago White Sox 1934–1939 Third baseman
Kid Elberfeld New York Highlanders 1908 Shortstop
Joe Ellick Chicago Browns/Pittsburgh Stogies 1884 Shortstop
Dude Esterbrook Louisville Colonels 1889 Third baseman
Johnny Evers  Chicago Cubs 1913 Second baseman
Buck Ewing  New York Giants
Cincinnati Reds
1890
1895–1897
Catcher
Jack Farrell Providence Grays 1881 Second baseman
Bob Ferguson Hartford Dark Blues
Chicago White Stockings
Troy Trojans
Philadelphia Quakers
Pittsburgh Alleghenys
New York Metropolitans
1876–1877
1878
1879–1882
1883
1884
1886–1887
Second baseman
Silver Flint Chicago White Stockings 1879 Catcher
Jim Fogarty Philadelphia Athletics 1890 Outfielder
Lew Fonseca Chicago White Sox 1932–1933 First baseman
Dave Foutz Brooklyn Grooms 1893–1896 Outfielder
Frankie Frisch  St. Louis Cardinals 1933–1937 Second baseman
Pud Galvin  Pittsburgh Alleghenys 1885 Pitcher
John Ganzel Cincinnati Reds 1908 First baseman
Joe Gerhardt Louisville Eclipse
St. Louis Browns
1883
1890
Second baseman
Jack Glasscock Indianapolis Hoosiers
St. Louis Browns
1889
1892
Shortstop
George Gore St. Louis Cardinals 1892 Outfielder
Charlie Gould Cincinnati Reds 1876 First baseman
Mike Griffin Brooklyn Bridegrooms 1898 Outfielder
Sandy Griffin Washington Statesmen 1891 Outfielder
Clark Griffith  Chicago White Stockings
New York Highlanders
Cincinnati Reds
Washington Senators
1901–1902
1903–1907
1909
1912–1914
Pitcher
Charlie Grimm Chicago Cubs 1932–1936 First baseman
Heinie Groh Cincinnati Reds 1918 Third baseman
Bill Hallman St. Louis Browns 1897 Second baseman
Ned Hanlon  Pittsburgh Alleghenys
Pittsburgh Burghers
Pittsburgh Pirates
Baltimore Orioles
1889
1890
1891
1892
Outfielder
Bucky Harris  Washington Senators
Detroit Tigers
1924–1928
1929, 1931
Second baseman
Gabby Hartnett  Chicago Cubs 1938–1940 Catcher
Guy Hecker Pittsburgh Alleghenys 1890 First baseman
Solly Hemus St. Louis Cardinals 1959 Second baseman
Billy Herman  Pittsburgh Pirates 1947 Second baseman
Buck Herzog Cincinnati Reds 1914–1916 Shortstop
Bill Holbert Syracuse Stars 1879 Catcher
Tommy Holmes Boston Braves 1951 Outfielder
Rogers Hornsby  St. Louis Cardinals
New York Giants
Boston Braves
Chicago Cubs
St. Louis Browns
1925–1926
1927
1928
1930–1932
1933–1937
Second baseman
Miller Huggins  St. Louis Cardinals 1913–1916 Second baseman
Fred Hutchinson Detroit Tigers 1952–1953 Pitcher
Arthur Irwin Washington Nationals
Boston Reds
Philadelphia Phillies
1889
1891
1894
Shortstop
Hughie Jennings  Detroit Tigers 1907, 1909, 1912, 1918 First baseman
Fielder Jones Chicago White Sox
St. Louis Terriers
1904–1908
1914–1915
Outfielder
Eddie Joost Philadelphia Athletics 1954 Shortstop
Bill Joyce New York Giants 1896–1898 Third baseman
Joe Kelley  Cincinnati Reds
Boston Doves
1902–1905
1908
Outfielder
King Kelly  Boston Beaneaters
Boston Reds
Cincinnati Kelly's Killers
1887
1890
1891
Outfielder
John Kerins Louisville Colonels
St. Louis Browns
1888
1890
First baseman
Don Kessinger Chicago White Sox 1979 Shortstop
Bill Killefer Chicago Cubs 1921 Catcher
Malachi Kittridge Washington Senators 1904 Catcher
Johnny Kling Boston Braves 1912 Catcher
Otto Knabe Baltimore Terrapins 1914–1915 Second baseman
Lon Knight Philadelphia Athletics 1883–1884 Outfielder
Nap Lajoie  Cleveland Naps 1905–1909 Second baseman
Fred Lake Boston Doves 1910 Catcher
Henry Larkin Cleveland Infants 1890 First baseman
Arlie Latham St. Louis Browns 1896 Third baseman
Juice Latham New Haven Elm Citys
Philadelphia Athletics
1875
1882
First baseman
Harry Lord Buffalo Blues 1915 Third baseman
Bobby Lowe Detroit Tigers 1904 Second baseman
Harry Lumley Brooklyn Superbas 1909 Outfielder
Ted Lyons  Chicago White Sox 1946 Pitcher
Connie Mack  Pittsburgh Pirates 1894–1896 Catcher
Denny Mack Louisville Eclipse 1882 Shortstop
Jimmy Macullar Syracuse Stars 1879 Shortstop
Lee Magee Brooklyn Tip-Tops 1915 Second Baseman
Fergy Malone Philadelphia White Stockings
Chicago White Stockings
Philadelphia Keystones
1873
1874
1884
Outfielder
Jack Manning Cincinnati Reds 1877 Shortstop
Rabbit Maranville  Chicago Cubs 1925 Shortstop
Marty Marion St. Louis Browns 1952–1953 Shortstop
Christy Mathewson  Cincinnati Reds 1916 Pitcher
Jimmy McAleer Cleveland Blues
St. Louis Browns
1901
1901–1902
Outfielder
Tommy McCarthy  St. Louis Browns 1890 Outfielder
Jim McCormick Cleveland Blues 1879–1880, 1882 Pitcher
Mike McGeary Philadelphia White Stockings
Providence Grays
Cleveland Blues
1875
1880
1881
Second baseman
John McGraw  Baltimore Orioles (NL)
Baltimore Orioles (AL)
New York Giants
1899
1901–1902
1902–1906
Third baseman
Deacon McGuire Washington Senators
Boston Americans/Red Sox
Cleveland Naps
1898
1907–1908
1910
Catcher
Stuffy McInnis Philadelphia Phillies 1927 First baseman
Bill McKechnie  Newark Peppers 1915 Third baseman
Alex McKinnon St. Louis Maroons 1885 First baseman
Marty McManus Boston Red Sox 1932–1933 Third baseman
Cal McVey Cincinnati Reds 1878–1879 Third baseman
Clyde Milan Washington Senators 1922 Outfielder
John Morrill Boston Red Caps/Beaneaters
Washington Nationals
1882, 1883–1886, 1887–1888
1889
First baseman
Charlie Morton Toledo Blue Stockings
Detroit Wolverines
1884
1885
Outfielder
Tim Murnane Boston Reds 1884 First baseman
Henry Myers Baltimore Orioles 1882 Shortstop
Billy Nash Philadelphia Phillies 1896 Third baseman
Kid Nichols  St. Louis Cardinals 1904–1905 Pitcher
Bob O'Farrell St. Louis Cardinals
Cincinnati Reds
1927
1934
Catcher
Dan O'Leary Cincinnati Outlaw Reds 1884 Outfielder
Jim O'Rourke  Buffalo Bisons
Washington Senators
1881–1884
1893
Outfielder
Rebel Oakes Pittsburgh Rebels 1914–1915 Outfielder
Dave Orr New York Metropolitans 1887 First baseman
Mel Ott  New York Giants 1942–1947 Outfielder
Roger Peckinpaugh New York Yankees 1914 Shortstop
Fred Pfeffer Louisville Colonels 1892 Second baseman
Lip Pike Hartford Dark Blues
Cincinnati Reds
1874
1877
Outfielder
Matthew Porter Kansas City Cowboys 1884 Outfielder
Blondie Purcell Philadelphia Quakers 1883 Outfielder
Joe Quinn Cleveland Spiders
St. Louis Browns
1895
1899
Second baseman
Danny Richardson Washington Senators 1892 Shortstop
Branch Rickey  St. Louis Browns 1914 Catcher
Frank Robinson  Cleveland Indians 1975–1976 Outfielder
Wilbert Robinson  Baltimore Orioles 1902 Catcher
Jim Rogers Louisville Colonels 1897 First baseman
Pete Rose Cincinnati Reds 1984–1986 First baseman
Chief Roseman St. Louis Browns 1890 Outfielder
Dave Rowe Kansas City Cowboys (NL)
Kansas City Cowboys (AA)
1885
1888
Outfielder
Jack Rowe Buffalo Bisons 1890 Shortstop
Ray Schalk  Chicago White Sox 1927–1928 Catcher
Larry Schlafly Buffalo Buffeds 1914 Second baseman
Luke Sewell St. Louis Browns 1942 Catcher
Dan Shannon Louisville Colonels
Washington Statesmen
1889
1891
Second baseman
George Sisler  St. Louis Browns 1924–1926 First baseman
Harry Smith Boston Doves 1909 Catcher
Heinie Smith New York Giants 1902 Second baseman
Pop Snyder Cincinnati Reds
Washington Statesmen
1882–1884
1891
Catcher
Billy Southworth  St. Louis Cardinals 1929 Outfielder
Albert Spalding  Chicago White Stockings 1876–1877 Pitcher
Tris Speaker  Cleveland Indians 1919–1926 Outfielder
Chick Stahl Boston Americans 1906 Outfielder
Jake Stahl Washington Senators
Boston Red Sox
1905–1906
1912–1913
First baseman
George Stallings Philadelphia Phillies 1897–1898 Catcher
Eddie Stanky St. Louis Cardinals 1952–1953 Second baseman
George Stovall Cleveland Naps
St. Louis Browns
Kansas City Packers
1911
1912–1913
1914–1915
First baseman
Harry Stovey Worcester Ruby Legs
Philadelphia Athletics
1881
1885
Outfielder
Gabby Street St. Louis Cardinals 1931 Catcher
Cub Stricker St. Louis Browns 1892 Second baseman
Billy Sullivan Chicago White Sox 1909 Catcher
Ted Sullivan Kansas City Cowboys 1884 Outfielder
El Tappe Chicago Cubs 1962 Catcher
Patsy Tebeau Cleveland Infants
Cleveland Spiders
St. Louis Perfectos/Cardinals
1890
1891–1898
1900
First baseman
Fred Tenney Boston Doves/Rustlers
Boston Rustlers
1905–1907
1911
First baseman
Bill Terry  New York Giants 1932–1936 First baseman
Joe Tinker  Chicago Cubs
Cincinnati Reds
1913
1916
Shortstop
Joe Torre  New York Mets 1977 First baseman
Pie Traynor  Pittsburgh Pirates 1934–1937 Third baseman
Bob Unglaub Boston Red Sox 1907 First baseman
George Van Haltren Baltimore Orioles 1892 Pitcher
Honus Wagner  Pittsburgh Pirates 1917 Shortstop
Harry Walker St. Louis Cardinals 1955 Outfielder
Bobby Wallace  St. Louis Browns 1911–1912 Shortstop
Bucky Walters Cincinnati Reds 1948 Pitcher
John Montgomery Ward  Providence Grays
New York Gothams/Giants
Brooklyn Ward's Wonders
Brooklyn Grooms
1880
1884, 1893–1894
1890
1891–1892
Pitcher
Bill Watkins Indianapolis Hoosiers 1884 Third baseman
Harry Wheeler Kansas City Cowboys 1884 Outfielder
Deacon White  Cincinnati Reds 1879 Catcher
Will White Cincinnati Red Stockings 1884 Pitcher
Kaiser Wilhelm Philadelphia Phillies 1921 Pitcher
Jimmie Wilson Philadelphia Phillies 1934–1938 Catcher
Ivey Wingo Cincinnati Reds 1916 Catcher
Jimmy Wolf Louisville Colonels 1889 Outfielder
Harry Wolverton New York Highlanders 1912 Third baseman
George Wood Philadelphia Athletics 1891 Outfielder
George Wright  Providence Grays 1879 Shortstop
Harry Wright  Boston Red Stockings / Red Caps 1876–1877 Outfielder
Tom York Providence Grays 1878
1881
Outfielder
Cy Young  Boston Red Sox 1907 Pitcher
Chief Zimmer Philadelphia Phillies 1903 Catcher

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Bibliography
  • Stein, Fred (2002). And the Skipper Bats Cleanup: A History of the Baseball player–manager, with 42 Biographies of Men Who Filled the Dual Role. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1228-3.
In-line citations
  1. ^ "Complete Baseball Team and Baseball Team Encyclopedias". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  2. ^ "Manager: Definition | Dictionary.com". Dictionary.Reference.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e Gonzalez, Alden (November 10, 2011). "Will there ever be another player–manager? In era of specialization, once-popular dual role would be tall task". MLB.com. Major League Baseball Advanced Media. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  4. ^ Stein, p. 4
  5. ^ "Bush May Take Bancroft's Post as Pilot". The Evening Independent. November 25, 1933. p. 6A. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
  6. ^ Stein, pp. 4–5
  7. ^ Powers, Jimmy (October 9, 1934). "Ruth to Quit Unless Given Manager Job". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  8. ^ Stein, p. 10
  9. ^ "Rose to be Reds' Player–Manager". The Milwaukee Sentinel. August 16, 1984. p. 2-1. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  10. ^ a b Stein, p. 5
  11. ^ "Robinson will be Player–Manager with Tribe". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. United Press International. October 2, 1974. p. 1C. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  12. ^ "Kessinger Resigns as Player–Manager of White Sox". The Palm Beach Post. August 3, 1979. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  13. ^ Stein, p. 6
  14. ^ "Jays might get Molitor as player and manager". The Kansas City Star. The Associated Press. October 30, 1997. p. D9. Retrieved March 9, 2012. (subscription required)
  15. ^ Furman, Andy (September 1, 2000). "Larkin Intrigued by Player–Manager Idea". The Cincinnati Post. Archived from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  16. ^ a b Gonzales, Mark (October 11, 2011). "Williams briefly considered Konerko as player–manager". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
  17. ^ "Lou Boudreau (1917-2001) 'Remarkable life' ends at 84 MVP season in '48 helped Indians to title". Chicago Sun-Times. August 11, 2001. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  18. ^ Jones, David; Constantelos, Stephen. "Nap Lajoie". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  19. ^ Acocella, Nick. "ESPN Classic – Robinson set records and broke barriers". Espn.go.com. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  20. ^ "When Wahoo First Roared: 1920 Trip to World Series Left Many Lasting Memories". Akron Beacon Journal. October 20, 1995. p. D1. Retrieved April 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  21. ^ "El Tappe Managerial Career". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  22. ^ Stein, p. 35

External linksEdit