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List of Linux distributions

Timeline of the development of various Linux distributions

This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list. Distributions are organized into sections by the major distribution they are based on, or the package management system they are based around.

Contents

RPM-basedEdit

 
Red Hat family tree

Red Hat Linux and SUSE Linux were the original major distributions that used the .rpm file format, which is today used in several package management systems. Both of these were later divided into commercial and community-supported distributions. Red Hat Linux was divided into a community-supported but Red Hat-sponsored distribution named Fedora, and a commercially supported distribution called Red Hat Enterprise Linux, whereas SuSE was divided into openSUSE and SUSE Linux Enterprise

Distribution Description
Red Hat Linux Split into Fedora Core and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The last official release of the unsplit distribution was Red Hat Linux 9 in March 2003.
CentOS Community-supported Linux distrubution designed as an OpenSource version of RHEL and well suited for servers.
Fedora Community-supported Linux distribution sponsored by Red Hat. It usually features cutting-edge Linux technologies.
openSUSE A community-developed Linux distribution, sponsored by SUSE. It maintains a strict policy of ensuring all code in the standard installs will be from FOSS solutions, including Linux kernel Modules. SUSE's enterprise Linux products are all based on the codebase that comes out of the openSUSE project.
Mandrake Linux The first release was based on Red Hat Linux (version 5.1) and KDE 1 in July 1998. It had since moved away from Red Hat's distribution and became a completely separate distribution. The name was changed to Mandriva, which included a number of original tools, mostly to ease system configuration. Mandriva Linux was the brainchild of Gaël Duval, who wanted to focus on ease of use for new users.

CentOS/RHEL-basedEdit

Distribution Description
Asianux A Linux distribution co-developed between Red Flag Software Co., Ltd., Miracle Linux Corp. and Haansoft, INC., focused on Chinese, Japanese and Korean support.
ClearOS Small Business Server. File, Print, Messaging, UTM, VPN.
Fermi Linux LTS Based on Scientific Linux.[1]
Miracle Linux Developed by Japanese software vendor Miracle Linux Co., Ltd
Oracle Linux Supported by Oracle. Aims to be fully compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Red Flag Linux A Linux distribution developed in China and optimized for the Chinese market. Based on Asianux.
Rocks Cluster Distribution A Linux distribution for building a High-Performance Computing computer cluster, with a recent release supporting Cloud computing. It is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux but with extensions to support large multi-node heterogeneous systems for clusters (HPC), Cloud, and Data Warehousing (in development).
Scientific Linux A Linux distribution co-developed by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), which aims to be compatible with and based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
SME Server Based on CentOS and targeting Small and Medium Enterprises.

Fedora-basedEdit

 
Fedora family tree

Fedora is a community supported distribution. It aims to provide the latest software while maintaining a completely Free Software system.[2]

Distribution Description
Aurora SPARC Linux For Sun's SPARC architecture
Berry Linux A medium-sized Fedora-based distribution that provides support in Japanese and English.
BLAG Linux and GNU A completely free software distribution listed by the Free Software Foundation.[3]
EduLinux For educational purposes
EnGarde Secure Linux Server-only Linux distribution designed to be secure.[4]
Fuduntu Designed to fit in somewhere between Fedora and Ubuntu.
Hanthana Designed to cater the needs of Sri Lankan computer users who are unable to access Internet frequently, with many most-wanted applications built in.
K12LTSP A distribution for educational purpose. Comes with LTSP support.
Korora Initially aimed at easy installation of a Gentoo system by using install scripts instead of manual configuration. Now based on Fedora.
Linpus Linux Focused on the Chinese market, along with Linpus Lite focused on the netbook market.
MeeGo Built by Intel and Nokia, intended for mobile phones (mainly Nokia N9) and tablets. It is based on Moblin together with Maemo.
Moblin Built around the Intel Atom processor; supplanted by Meego when Intel and (temporarily) Nokia combined activities
MythDora Specialized Linux distribution for easy setup of the MythTV PVR software, similar to KnoppMyth, based on Fedora.
Network Security Toolkit A Live CD/DVD with security and networking tools to perform routine security and networking diagnostic and monitoring tasks.
Ojuba Linux Focused on providing the best Arabic support, as well as some Islamic tools such as Hijra (Hijri calendar) and Minbar (prayer time indicator).
Qubes OS Focused on security for desktop users. Based on an "ancient" Fedora release which we are somewhere said it to upgrade under YUM.
Russian Fedora Remix A remix of Fedora.
Sugar-on-a-Stick Linux An educational operating system for the children of the OpenMandriva world, originally designed for the One-Laptop-Per-Child project.
Trustix A Linux distribution focused on security.[5]
Yellow Dog Linux For the PowerPC platform.

openSUSE-basedEdit

Distribution Description
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop Previously branded Novell Linux Desktop. A desktop-oriented Linux distribution supplied by SUSE and targeted at the enterprise market.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server A server-oriented Linux distribution supplied by SUSE and targeted at the business market.
SUSE Studio SuSE studio is the html5 frontend over KIWI of creating your operating systems, but NO SuSE derivatives are WELL KNOWN TO OUTSIDE the SuSE communities.

urpmi-basedEdit

Distribution Description
Mandriva Linux Easy to use system through its unique Control Center.
Mageia A community Linux distribution initially forked from Mandriva Linux in response to the discontinuation of free versions of Mandriva Linux.
ROSA Linux A Russian distribution available in three different editions: ROSA Desktop Fresh, ROSA Enterprise Desktop and ROSA Enterprise Linux Server, with the latter two aiming at commercial users. Its desktop editions come bundled with proprietary software such as Adobe Flash Player, multimedia codecs and Steam.
OpenMandriva The last release of Mandriva Linux was in August 2011. Most developers who were laid off went to Mageia.[5] Later on, the remaining developers teamed up with community members and formed OpenMandriva, a continuation of Mandriva.
Annvix A security-focused server Linux distribution. Originally based on Mandrake 9.2 but has diverged a lot. Discontinued.
TinyMe Based on Unity Linux, targeted to be as lightweight as possible.
Trinity Rescue Kit Aimed specifically at offline operations for Windows and Linux systems such as rescue, repair, password resets and disk cloning
Unity Linux Meant to be a base for custom distributions.


apt-rpm basedEdit

PCLinuxOS A rolling release Linux Live CD distribution. Originally based on Mandrake 9.2. Later rebased on Mandriva 2007.
Vine Linux A Japanese distribution originally based on Red Hat Linux.
ALT Linux ALT Linux is a set of RPM-based operating systems built on top of the Linux kernel and Sisyphus packages repository. ALT Linux has been developed collectively by ALT Linux Team developers community and ALT Linux Ltd.

Independent RPM distributionsEdit

This list is about the distributions using the .rpm packages but NOT belonged to derivatives over zypp OR Fedora OR urpmi OR apt-rpm.

Distribution Description
Caldera OpenLinux A Linux distribution originally introduced by Caldera and later developed by its subsidiary Caldera Systems. It was later developed by Caldera International (which bought SCO and was renamed The SCO Group). The distribution is no longer produced. Last release: 3.1.1 – Jan. 30, 2002
cAos Linux A general purpose Linux distribution. Designed to have low overhead, run on older hardware, and be easily customizable.
Turbolinux Originally based on Red Hat Linux.
YOPER A rolling release desktop distribution from New Zealand that focuses on optimizing system performance for workstation use. Discontinued.

Debian-basedEdit

 
Debian family tree

Debian is a distribution that emphasizes free software. It supports many hardware platforms. Debian and distributions based on it use the .deb package format[6] and the dpkg package manager and its frontends.[7]

Sid-basedEdit

Distribution Description
Xanadu Rolling release Linux distribution based on Debian SID
LinuxBBQ LinuxBBQ is a plethora of releases for various targets and goals based on Debian Sid GNU/Linux.

Testing basedEdit

Distribution Description
Ubuntu A distribution sponsored by Canonical Ltd. and receiving major funding from South African Mark Shuttleworth. Aims to offer a complete and polished desktop on a single DVD.[8]
Kali Linux Made to be a completely customizable OS, used for penetration testing. It is based on Debian GNU/Linux[9]
Parsix Optimized for personal computers and laptops. Built on top of Debian testing branch and comes with security support.[10]
BackTrack Developed by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing.[11]

Ubuntu-basedEdit

 
Ubuntu family tree

Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian, designed to have regular releases, a consistent user experience and commercial support on both desktops and servers.[12]

Official distributionsEdit

These Ubuntu variants simply install a set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them.[13]

Distribution Description
Edubuntu A complete Linux based operating system targeted for primary and secondary education. It is freely available with community based support. The Edubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Edubuntu Manifesto: that software, especially for education, should be available free of charge and that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities.[14]
Kubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu Linux using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces used by default in Ubuntu.[15]
Ubuntu GNOME An official Ubuntu variant[16] that uses Gnome Shell as its default desktop and GDM as its display manager.[17]
Ubuntu MATE An official derivative of Ubuntu using MATE, a desktop environment forked from the now-defunct GNOME 2 code base, with an emphasis on the desktop metaphor.[18]
Ubuntu Budgie An official derivative of Ubuntu using Budgie.
Lubuntu Lubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", using the LXDE desktop environment.[19][20][21]
Xubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.[22]
Ubuntu Kylin An official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.
Ubuntu Server An official derivative made for use in servers. Ubuntu Server handles mail, controls printers, acts as a fileserver, can host LAMP and more.[23]
Ubuntu Studio Based on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed at the audio, video and graphic editors.[24]
Ubuntu Touch Designed for use with touchscreen devices.
Ubuntu TV Designed for use with TVs.[25]
Discontinued official distributionsEdit
Distribution Description
Gobuntu Gobuntu was an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. It was officially announced by Mark Shuttleworth on July 10, 2007, and daily builds of Gobuntu 7.10 began to be publicly released. The project ended around the release of 8.04 and has since merged into mainline Ubuntu as a 'free software' option.[26]
Ubuntu for Android Designed for use with Android phones.[27] No longer under active development.
Ubuntu JeOS "Just Enough OS" – was described as "an efficient variant [...] configured specifically for virtual appliances".[28] Since the release of Ubuntu 8.10 it has been included as an option as part of the standard Ubuntu Server Edition.
Ubuntu Mobile An embedded operating system designed for use on mobile devices. The operating system will use Hildon from maemo as its graphical frontend. Ubuntu Touch is a successor to Ubuntu Mobile.
Ubuntu Netbook Edition Netbook Edition was an official derivative of Ubuntu designed for netbooks using the Intel Atom processor. Starting from Ubuntu 11.04, Ubuntu Netbook Edition has been merged into the desktop edition.[29]
Mythbuntu Based on Ubuntu and MythTV, providing applications for recording TV and acting as a media center.[30] On 4 November 2016 the development team announced the end of Mythbuntu as a separate distribution, citing insufficient developers.
Third-party distributionsEdit

Unofficial variants and derivatives are not controlled or guided by Canonical Ltd. and generally have different goals in mind.

Distribution Description
Aurora Specifically for the Eee PC range of netbooks, based on Debian. Previously named Eeebuntu and based on Ubuntu.[31]
Baltix Ubuntu-based distribution for Lithuanian and Latvian people. Supported languages are Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, Russian, English, Norwegian and other around Baltic region. Main language is Lithuanian.[32]
BackBox BackBox is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It has been developed to perform penetration tests and security assessments. Designed to be fast, easy to use and provide a minimal yet complete desktop environment, thanks to its own software repositories, always being updated to the latest stable version of the most used and best known ethical hacking tools.[33]
BackSlash Linux BackSlash Linux is an Ubuntu and Debian-based operating system for AMD64 and Intel x64 based Personal Computers developed in India. It is based on free software and every release of the operating System is named after the characters of the Disney blockbuster, Frozen.[34]
BlankOn Ubuntu-based distribution for users in Indonesia[35]
Buildix An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution, developed by Global IT professional services firm, ThoughtWorks. For agile developers.
Bodhi Linux An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution featuring the Moksha Desktop environment and targeting users who want a minimum of preinstalled software or low system requirements.[36]
dyne:bolic Live CD geared toward multimedia (audio and video) production, but comes with other non-media specific application (e.g. word processor, desktop publisher)[37]
EasyPeasy Fork of Ubuntu designed for netbooks[38]
Element OS Based on Xubuntu, made for Home theater PCs[39]
elementary OS A powerful, user-friendly distribution known for its well received user interface and devoted community of developers and artists.[40]
Emmabuntüs Based on Xubuntu designed to facilitate the repacking of computers donated to Emmaüs Communities.[41]
Galsoft Linux A Linux distribution derived from Lubuntu that is made to be installed from a DVD or a USB flash drive. The distribution is specially optimized to run efficiently with limited hardware resources.
GendBuntu A version adapted for use by France's National Gendarmerie.
Goobuntu An Ubuntu-based distribution used internally by Google; not available outside of Google
gOS Uses the GNOME desktop environment with user interface enhancements to make it work more like Mac OS X, it also features Google Apps, Picasa, Google Gadgets and other web-based applications, and comes with Wine 1.0 pre-installed.
Guadalinex Ubuntu-based distribution promoted by the local government of Andalucia, Spain, for home users and schools.[42]
Impi Linux South African and focuses on the enterprise and government sector.[43]
Iskolinux A Linux distribution packaged and maintained by UP Manila's (UPM) Information Management System as part of University of the Philippines' thrust to migrate to Linux.
Joli OS Joli OS (formerly named Jolicloud) is in development and Pre-beta testing. Joli OS is built upon Debian and Ubuntu 9.10, but is tweaked to be more suitable for computers that have weaker specifications in terms of disk storage, memory and screen size. It is designed to run on relatively low-powered netbook computers.[44]
Karoshi A formerly PCLinuxOS-based distribution designed for use in schools.[45]
Kuki Linux Lightweight Ubuntu-based Linux distribution founded by João Ferro, built to be a replacement for the Linpus Linux Lite distribution on the Acer Aspire One.[46]
LiMux A project by the city council of Munich, Germany
Linux Lite The purpose of Linux Lite is to introduce Windows users to Linux, and provide them with a comfortable and useful user experience. It is designed to be simple and suitable for new Linux users who want a lightweight, highly responsive, and fully functional environment.[47]
Ubuntu Mint Ubuntu Mint synchronizes its release-cycle with Ubuntu's long term support (not to be confused with LMDE), and is tailored to user-friendliness for desktop users.[48]
LinuxMCE Linux Media Center Edition, a Kubuntu-based distribution that provides in-depth HTPC functionality as well as home automation.[49]
LinuxTLE A Thai Linux distribution[50]
LliureX A distribution by the Generalitat Valenciana[51]
LOUD LCSEE Optimized Ubuntu Distribution, an Ubuntu distribution used at West Virginia University. It contains several specialized educational packages as well as its own themes and login manager.[52]
MAX Stands for Madrid LinuX[53]
Molinux Ubuntu based initiative to introduce the Castile-La Mancha community in Spain to the information society.[54]
Nova Cuban state-sponsored distribution developed at the University of Information Science, Havana. Formerly based on Gentoo.
Netrunner Kubuntu based distribution with complete software and codecs installed, developed by Blue Systems (also sponsoring Kubuntu and LinuxMintKDE).[55]
OpenGEU Ubuntu based distribution with Enlightenment window manager, previously known as Geubuntu.[56]
Peppermint OS A light-weight LXDE distribution for cloud applications through its own Ice Framework using Chromium Web Browser. Based on Lubuntu[57]
Pinguy OS An Ubuntu-based distro for people that have never used Linux before or for people that want an out-of-the-box working OS without having to tweak a fresh installation of Ubuntu or other Ubuntu-based distro.[58]
Poseidon Linux For academic and scientific use. Based on Ubuntu, but enhanced by GIS/maps, numerical modelling, 2D/3D/4D visualization, statistics, tools for creating simple and complex graphics, programming languages.
PUD A small distribution, aimed at being simple and usable
Qimo 4 Kids Educational games for children aged three and up. Ubuntu-based with easy-to-use interface.[59]
Sabily Ubuntu based distribution for Muslims (formerly Ubuntu Muslim Edition)[60]
SharkLinux SharkLinux is a virtual env focused OS & Desktop environment that is 100% cloud compatible[61]
Trisquel GNU/Linux Fully free-software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses the Linux-libre kernel, based on Ubuntu LTS Releases[62]
UberStudent For higher education and advanced secondary students, those who teach them, and lifelong learners[63]
Ututo Ututo UL ("Ubuntu-Libre") Distributes Simusol, a system to simulate Solar Energy projects, returned to the heart of the project.[64]
Vinux A Linux distribution designed for visually impaired users[65]

Stable basedEdit

Distribution Description
grml Live CD for system recovery[66]
Knoppix The first Live CD (later DVD) version of Debian[67]
MEPIS Focuses on ease of use. Also includes a lightweight variant called antiX. antiX is meant to be used on older computers with limited hardware.[68] There is also a Xfce distro called MX Linux that's based on Debian Stable.[69]
RXART Desktop-oriented distribution. Focused on providing proprietary software.[70]
Raspbian Desktop-oriented distribution. Developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation as the official OS for their family of low-power single-board computers.[71]
SteamOS Debian-based and gaming-focused distribution developed by Valve Corporation and designed around the Steam digital distribution platform.
Astra Linux OS developed for Russian Army with raised security.[72]
Bharat Operating System Solutions (BOSS) Indian Linux distribution
Canaima A Venezuelan Linux distribution.[73]
Corel Linux Commercial. Short-lived desktop Linux distribution, bought by Xandros Linux.[74]
CrunchBang Linux A small Linux Distro and Live CD based on Debian Stable, featuring the Openbox window manager and tint2 panel with GTK+ applications.[75] Development has ended for CrunchBang as of February, 2015.[76]
Devuan A fork of Debian begun in 2014 with the primary goal of allowing user choice in init systems, by decoupling software packages from systemd.[77]
Dreamlinux A Brazilian Linux distribution (not active anymore)
Daylight Linux An ultra light-weight linux distribution with fluxbox desktop for computers and Raspberry Pi.
Elive A Belgian Linux distribution that is lightweight but still provides an attractive Graphical User Interface. Ideal for older devices.[78]
Emdebian Grip A small-footprint Linux distribution based on and compatible with Debian, intended for use on resource-limited embedded systems.[79]
Finnix A small system-administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures[80]
gNewSense Originally based on Ubuntu and later upon Debian, and developed with sponsorship from the Free Software Foundation. Its goal is user-friendliness, but with all proprietary (e.g. binary blobs) and non-free software removed.
HandyLinux Designed for senior citizens running old computers for which Windows has become too slow[81]
Instant WebKiosk Live, browser-only operating system for use in web kiosks and for digital signage[82]
Kanotix An installable live DVD/CD for desktop usage using KDE and LXDE, focusing on convenient scripts and GUI for ease of use.[83]
Kurumin Earlier, it was a version of the Knoppix distribution, modified with Debian and designed for Brazilian users.
LEAF Project The Linux Embedded Appliance Framework. A tiny primarily floppy-based distribution for routers, firewalls and other appliances.[84]
LiMux An ISO 9241 industry workplace certified Linux distribution, deployed at the City of Munich, Germany.[85]
Maemo A development platform for hand held devices such as the Nokia N800, N810, and Nokia N900 Internet Tablets and other Linux kernel–based devices.[86]
MintPPC For PowerPC computers. Although MintPPC uses some Mint LXDE code, it is not Linux Mint.[87]
Musix GNU+Linux Intended for music production, graphic design, audio, video editing, and other tasks. It is built with only free software.[88]
NepaLinux A Debian- and Morphix-based distribution focused for desktop usage in Nepali language computing.[89]
OpenZaurus Debian packages and ROM image for the Sharp Zaurus PDA. Replaced by Ångström distribution.[90]
Pardus Developed by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology. Prior to 2013 it used PISI as the package manager, with COMAR as the configuration framework. Starting with Pardus 2013, it is Debian-based.
PelicanHPC Dedicated to setting up a computer cluster.[91]
Sacix A Debian Pure Blend originally created to support the educational and free software diffusion goals of the Telecentres project of the city of São Paulo, Brazil.[92]
Skolelinux A Linux distribution from Norway, now the basepoint for and now synonymous to Debian EDU. It provides as a thin client distribution for schools.[93]
SolydXK Xfce and KDE desktop focused on stability, security and ease of use.[94]
SparkyLinux SparkyLinux is a Debian-based Linux distribution which provides ready to use, out of the box operating system with a set of slightly customized lightweight desktops. Sparky is targeted to all the computer’s users who want replace existing, proprietary driven OS to an open-sourced..
Sunwah Linux A Chinese Linux distribution[95]
Symphony OS Includes the Mezzo desktop environment. Previous versions were based on Knoppix.[96]
SalineOS Lean, stable and easy-to-use distribution with XFCE as graphical interface.[97]
The Amnesic Incognito Live System (TAILS) The Amnesic Incognito Live System' or Tails is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity, with all outgoing connections forced to go through Tor.[98]
TurnKey GNU/Linux Open source project developing a family of free, Debian-based appliances optimized for ease of use in server-type usage scenarios.[99] Based on Debian since 2012; previously based on Ubuntu.
Univention Corporate Server Enterprise distribution with integrated IT infrastructure and identity management system by the company Univention GmbH, Germany. A full version for up to 5 users for tests and for private use can be downloaded for free.[100]
Webconverger Debian Live based browser only distribution, similar to Google Chrome OS. However based on Firefox and dwm, with no user sign-in, no special hardware required and designed for public places.[101]
Vyatta Commercial open source network operating system includes routing, firewall, VPN, intrusion prevention and more. Designed to be an open source Cisco replacement.[102]

MEPIS-basedEdit

Distribution Description
antiX It is comparatively lightweight and suitable for older computers, while also providing cutting edge kernel and applications, as well as updates and additions via the Aptitude and Debian-compatible repositories.
MX Linux A midweight OS based on Debian Stable with core components from antiX and using Xfce, offering simple configuration, high stability, solid performance and medium-sized footprint.[103]

Knoppix-basedEdit

 
Knoppix family tree

Knoppix, itself, is based on Debian. It is a live distribution, with automated hardware configuration and a wide choice of software, which is decompressed as it loads from the drive.[104]

Distribution Description
Damn Small Linux A small Linux distro designed to run on older hardware. It is commonly used on virtual machines due to low memory requirements.[105]
Feather Linux Boots from either a CD or a USB flash drive. Uses Knoppix-based hardware detection and the Fluxbox window manager.[106]
Hikarunix A Linux distribution solely for studying and playing the game of Go. Based on Damn Small Linux.[107]

Pacman-basedEdit

pacman is a package manager that is capable of resolving dependencies and automatically downloading and installing all necessary packages. In theory, a user need only run a single command to completely update the system.

Distribution Description
Arch Linux An x86-64- and i686-optimized distribution targeted at experienced users. Arch runs on a rolling release system and uses the pacman utility for package management.
Antergos Derived from Arch Linux with GUI installer and offers multiple choices of desktop environments, but Xfce by default.
ArchBang Based on Arch Linux, but also provides Live CDs with working system and graphical installation scripts; uses Openbox as default window manager.
Chakra Linux Originally derived from Arch Linux, with the latest KDE. For now uses the pacman utility for package management. Strives to be Qt-only.
Frugalware Linux A general purpose Linux distribution designed for intermediate users. Has some influences from Slackware, and uses a heavily modified version of pacman, Pacman-G2, a fork of a cvs version of the complete rewrite of Pacman-G1 by Aurelien Foret (the old monolithic Pacman-G1 is written by Judd Vinet). The packages are tar archives compressed using xz.[108]
LinHES LinHES (Linux Home Entertainment Server) designed for use on Home Theater PCs (HTPCs), providing applications for recording TV and acting as a sound and video center.
Manjaro Linux Based on Arch Linux, using its own repositories and ships with Xfce (as the default desktop environment), KDE, Openbox, a net edition without GUI, and also an Xfce netbook edition.
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre An Arch derivative without any blobs, plus various added packages. Packages are also built for ARMv7 in addition to i686 and x64. MATE and text-mode distributions available.

Gentoo-basedEdit

 
Gentoo family tree

Gentoo is a distribution designed to have highly optimized and frequently updated software.[109] Distributions based on Gentoo use the Portage package management system with emerge[110] or one of the alternative package managers.

Distribution Description
Funtoo Linux A distribution developed by Gentoo founder and former project leader, Daniel Robbins. It has its own Portage tree and unlike Gentoo (which uses rsync) uses git, by default, to sync the user's local copy of the Portage tree.
Chromium OS[111] Chrome OS[112] is used on various Chromebooks, Chromeboxes and tablet computers. It is primarily Internet-based, launching each app within the Chrome browser. The OS features a user interface that is very similar-looking to Chrome instead of GNOME, Cinnamon, LXQt, Xfce, etc.
Argent A Romanian distro based on Gentoo and developed for servers and security
Calculate Linux Calculate Linux is a family of distributions.
Container Linux Linux distribution by CoreOS designed for clustered and containerized deployments with update subscription
Gentoox An adaptation of Gentoo for the Xbox
Knopperdisk A Linux distribution aimed at USB sticks.
Pentoo Penetration-testing Live CD.
Sabayon Linux Made in Italy. It is a European Linux distribution based on Gentoo. However, it follows the "out of the box" philosophy, aiming to give the user a wide number of applications ready to use and a self-configured operating system. Like Gentoo, Sabayon uses the rolling release model; it uses a customized version of Red Hat's Anaconda Installer and includes a Media Center application.
SystemRescueCD System rescue Live CD version of Gentoo.
Tin Hat Linux Based on hardened Gentoo, this distribution is based primarily on security.
Ututo Made in Argentina. An FSF Approved Free Distribution.[3]

Also, the Gentoo project maintains its own list of distributions based on Gentoo.

Slackware-basedEdit

 
Slackware family tree

Slackware is known as a highly customizable distribution that stresses ease of maintenance and reliability over cutting-edge software and automated tools. Generally considered a distribution for advanced users, it is often suggested to those who want to learn the inner workings of a Linux operating system.

Distribution Description
Austrumi Linux A 108 MB bootable live CD as of version 1.9.3
Frugalware Linux A general-purpose Linux distribution designed for intermediate users who are familiar with command-line operations. Early versions were based on Slackware, but it is now an independently developed distribution.
HostGIS A Slackware-based distribution specifically made for handling GIS information
KateOS A desktop distribution aimed at intermediate users. It uses Xfce as its default desktop environment. No longer in development.
MuLinux Floppy-based Linux distribution with replaceable modules
NimbleX Completely customizable through the NimbleX website. Now no longer producing new versions.
Platypux A French Linux distribution of the Slackware family
Salix OS Originally a fork of Zenwalk, Salix is a complete Linux distribution fully backwards compatible with Slackware.

Uses Xfce, KDE, LXDE, Fluxbox or Ratpoison as its default desktop environment. 32 and 64bits version. Live versions are also available.

Sentry Firewall A firewall, server, or intrusion detection system distribution
simpleLinux simpleLinux uses LZMA compression to compress its system files. The project started on year 2007 by a group of Malaysian developer. simpleLinux is a Slackware-based distribution that comes in both Live CD or Persistence version that can be installed to a medium. simpleLinux comes to be a multi-tasking operating system that runs the X Window System.
Slackintosh An unofficial port of Slackware to the PowerPC architecture
Slamd64 An unofficial port of Slackware to the x86-64 architecture
Slax A live CD which aims to provide a complete desktop for general use. Permanent installation of Slax is not recommended or supported; it is designed for "live" use only. Also can be run from a USB flash drive.
SuperGamer A Live DVD distribution focused on gaming
Topologilinux Designed to run from within Microsoft Windows, Topologilinux can be installed without any changes to the user's hard disk. Outdated.
VectorLinux A lightweight Linux distribution designed to be easy to use even for new users. Generally considered well-suited for older hardware.
WinLinux A Linux distro that runs on a FAT32 filesystem
Wolvix A desktop-oriented Linux distribution based on Slackware, mainly targeted at home users, featuring Xfce. No longer available.
Zenwalk Originally a minimal version of Slackware, Zenwalk has evolved into a very different operating system; however, compatibility with Slackware is still maintained.
ZipSlack A lightweight and portable version of Slackware

Slax-basedEdit

Slax's modularity and reputation of quality have made it a popular base for other live CD projects.

Distribution Description
DAVIX A Linux Live CD for data analysis and visualisation.
DNALinux A small Linux distribution designed for running bioinformatics software, including BLAST and EMBOSS.
Porteus A small Linux distro based on Sector

IndependentEdit

The following distributions can not be categorized under the preceding sections.

Distribution Description
Alpine Linux A security-oriented, lightweight Linux distribution based on musl and BusyBox.
Billix A live CD or live USB system administration toolkit and multi-boot distribution with the ability to install any of the included distributions.
Coyote Linux A router and firewall Linux distribution
CRUX CRUX is a lightweight, x86-64-optimized Linux distribution targeted at experienced users. The focus is "keep it simple", which is reflected in a simple tar.xz-based package system, BSD-style initscripts, and a relatively small collection of trimmed packages
DD-WRT Embedded firewall Linux distribution
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre A Linux distribution written entirely from scratch[113] and sharing some similarities with Slackware. Approved by the GNU Project as a free operating system.[114]
DSLinux Version of Linux designed for the Nintendo DS.
ELinOS Linux distribution for embedded systems by SYSGO. ELinOS focuses on industrial application and provides real-time extensions.
Familiar Linux Linux distribution for iPAQ handhelds.
fli4l A router and firewall Linux distribution[115]
Foresight Linux A rolling release Linux distribution built around the Conary package manager.
GeeXboX Live CD media center Linux distribution, mainly to play special-encoded video files (e.g.: .ogg, XVID) on home theater.
Guix System Distribution (GuixSD) Declarative Linux distribution with atomic upgrades and rollbacks built on top of the GNU Guix package manager. Supports amongst others unprivileged package management and per-user profiles.
GoboLinux An alternative Linux distribution which redefines the file system hierarchy by installing everything belonging to one application in one folder under /Programs, and using symlinks from /System and its subfolders to point to the proper files.
IPCop A router and firewall Linux distribution
Jlime Linux distribution for the HP Jornada 6xx and 7xx and NEC MobilePro 900(c) handhelds.
Lightweight Portable Security (LPS)[116] A distribution created by the United States Department of Defense that boots entirely in RAM
Lunar Linux A source code-based Linux distribution descended from Sorcerer.
MCC Interim Linux Possibly the first Linux distribution, created by the Manchester Computing Centre in February 1992
MkLinux A legacy Linux distribution for PowerPC systems that runs the Linux kernel as a server on top of the Mach microkernel.
Mobilinux By Montavista for smartphones
MontaVista Linux Embedded distribution by MontaVista Software
NASLite A floppy-based Linux designed to turn an old computer into a simple Network Attached Storage device.
Nitix Developed by Net Integration Technologies Inc., Nitix claims to be the first autonomic Linux kernel–based server operating system.
NixOS Declarative Linux distribution with atomic upgrades and rollbacks built on top Nix package manager
OpenTV 5 Developed by Nagra, next generation television middleware for connected media convergence platform
OpenWrt A router and firewall Linux distribution, also other embedded systems, a lot of routing options via opkg available
paldo Independently developed desktop operating system and package manager (upkg) with a rolling release format and standard Gnome environment.
PS2 Linux Sony Computer Entertainment Linux distribution released officially for the PlayStation 2 video game console.
Prevas Industrial Linux Embedded systems customizable Linux distribution by Prevas.
Puppy Linux A mini Linux distribution which runs well under low-end PCs – even under 32 MB RAM.
rPath A distribution built around the Conary package manager. Discontinued.
SliTaz With less than 40 MB a very small Live-Distribution, which uses 256 MB RAM (or with a special edition only 24 MB[117]) for a complete GUI.
Smallfoot Developed by the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO UNIX / SCO Group), formerly Caldera International and Caldera Systems – based on Caldera OpenLinux 3.x and 4.x binaries.
SmoothWall A router and firewall Linux distribution
Softlanding Linux System One of the earliest Linux distributions, developed from 1992–1994; Slackware was originally based on it.
Solus Desktop Linux distribution using Budgie as desktop environment, eopkg for package management. The roots in package management and configuration can be seen in Clear Linux[118]
Sorcerer A source code-based Linux distribution.
Source Mage A source code-based Linux distribution, descended from Sorcerer.
Stable Hybrid Release For smartphones, offering Enlightenment's Illume user interface. It is based on FSO.
Thinstation Thin client Linux distribution supporting all major connectivity protocols.
Tinfoil Hat Linux Bootable floppy Linux distribution focusing on extreme security
Tiny Core Linux Tiny Core Linux is a minimalist (around 10 MB) Linux system focusing on providing a base system with BusyBox, FLTK and other minimalist software.
tomsrtbt Root boot disk.
Tor-ramdisk An i686 uClibc-based micro Linux distribution (about 5 MB) that runs in system memory and whose only purpose is to host a Tor server in an environment that maximizes security and privacy.
Void Linux Void is a general purpose operating system, based on the monolithic Linux kernel. Its package system allows you to quickly install, update and remove software; software is provided in binary packages or can be built directly from sources with the help of the XBPS source packages collection.
Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X One of the oldest Linux distributions, not updated since 1995.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ DistroWatch.com: Fermi Linux
  2. ^ Objectives – Fedora Project
  3. ^ a b Free GNU/Linux distributions
  4. ^ DistroWatch.com: EnGarde Secure Linux
  5. ^ DistroWatch.com: Trustix Secure Linux
  6. ^ "Ubuntu Manpage: deb - Debian binary package format". Manpages.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  7. ^ "Ubuntu Manpage: dpkg - package manager for Debian". ManPages.Ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  8. ^ Ubuntu website
  9. ^ Kali website
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  11. ^ BackTrack website
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  22. ^ Xubuntu website
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  24. ^ Ubuntu Studio website
  25. ^ Ubuntu TV website
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  27. ^ Ubuntu for Android website
  28. ^ Ubuntu JeOS information
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  30. ^ Mythbuntu website
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  32. ^ Baltix website
  33. ^ BackBox website
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  35. ^ BlankOn website
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  37. ^ dyne:bolic website
  38. ^ EasyPeasy website
  39. ^ Element OS website Archived November 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ elementary OS website
  41. ^ Emmabuntüs website
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  43. ^ Impi Linux website
  44. ^ Joli OS website
  45. ^ Karoshi website
  46. ^ Kuki Linux website Archived November 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
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  48. ^ Linux Mint website
  49. ^ LinuxMCE website
  50. ^ LinuxTLE website Archived 2005-09-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  51. ^ LliureX website
  52. ^ LOUD website
  53. ^ MAX website
  54. ^ Molinux website
  55. ^ Netrunner website
  56. ^ OpenGEU website
  57. ^ "About Peppermint OS". 
  58. ^ Pinguy OS Homepage
  59. ^ Qimo 4 Kids website
  60. ^ Sabily website
  61. ^ Ubuntu Derivatives
  62. ^ Trisquel Linux website
  63. ^ UberStudent website
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  66. ^ grml website
  67. ^ Knoppix website
  68. ^ MEPIS website
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  70. ^ Rxart website
  71. ^ https://www.raspbian.org/
  72. ^ (in Russian) Astra Linux
  73. ^ Canaima website
  74. ^ Corel Linux history
  75. ^ CrunchBang Linux website Archived 2012-11-26 at the Wayback Machine.
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  78. ^ "Elive, Fast and Beautiful Linux Distro". Elive Linux. Retrieved 2017-04-21. 
  79. ^ "Emdebian Grip packages: A smaller Debian-compatible distro". emdebian.org. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  80. ^ Finnix website
  81. ^ Wiki Debian HandyLinux Debian Derivatives Census
  82. ^ Instant WebKiosk project page Archived July 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  83. ^ Kanotix website
  84. ^ LEAF Project website
  85. ^ LiMux website
  86. ^ Maemo website
  87. ^ MintPPC website
  88. ^ Musix GNU+Linux website
  89. ^ NepaLinux website
  90. ^ OpenZaurus website
  91. ^ PelicanHPC website
  92. ^ Sacix project page
  93. ^ Skolelinux website
  94. ^ SolydXK website
  95. ^ Sunwah Linux website
  96. ^ Symphony OS website
  97. ^ SalineOS website Archived May 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  98. ^ TAILS website
  99. ^ TurnKey Linux website
  100. ^ Univention Corporate Server website
  101. ^ Webconverger website
  102. ^ Vyatta website
  103. ^ MX Linux website
  104. ^ Knoppix Wiki
  105. ^ Damn Small Linux website
  106. ^ Feather Linux website
  107. ^ Hikarunix website
  108. ^ "About Frugalware". Frugalware Stable Documentation. Frugalware Project. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  109. ^ About Gentoo
  110. ^ Portage – Gentoo Handbook
  111. ^ "Chromium OS Developer Guide". Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  112. ^ "Chromium Project FAQ". 
  113. ^ Bruce Byfield: Eight Completely Free Linux Distros (And One More) earthweb.com, 2011.
  114. ^ List of Free GNU/Linux Distributions - GNU Project, Free Software Foundation, retrieved 2014-12-15 
  115. ^ fli4l website
  116. ^ "Software Protection Initiative - Main". Spi.dod.mil. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  117. ^ "SliTaz LiveCD Flavors". Association SliTaz. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  118. ^ SolusOS website

External linksEdit