List of Kurdish dynasties and countries

This is a list of Kurdish dynasties, countries and autonomous territories. By the 10th century, the term "Kurd" did not have an ethnic connotation and referred to Iranian nomads in the region between Lake Van and Lake Urmia.[1] In Arabic medieval sources, "Kurd" referred to non-Persian and non-Turkish nomads and semi-nomads (see Origin of the Kurds).[2][3]

Early entitiesEdit

 
Ayyubid dynasty in 1193

Remnants of the Ayyubid Dynasty (13th century–19th century)Edit

Various Kurdish political entities blossomed in the period after the disestablishment of the Ayyubid dynasty in 1260. Some of these rulers claimed descent from the Ayyubids.

Buffer zones between the Ottomans and Persia (13th century–19th century)Edit

For various reasons, Kurdish entities existed as buffer zones between the Ottoman Empire and Persia throughout history. These include:

Other dynasties of Kurdish ancestryEdit

20th-21st century entitiesEdit

Current entitiesEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Aboona, Hirmis (2008), Assyrians, Kurds, and Ottomans: Intercommunal Relations on the Periphery of the Ottoman Empire, Cambria Press, ISBN 9781604975833
  • Baluken, Yusuf (2017), Çend Dokument ji Serdema Mîrektiya Melkîşî (in Kurdish), vol. 7, Jimar
  • Amoretti, Biancamaria Scarcia; Matthee, Rudi (2009). "Ṣafavid Dynasty". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. Of Kurdish ancestry, the Ṣafavids started as a Sunnī mystical order (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2005). The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900. Princeton University Press. p. 18. The Safavids, as Iranians of Kurdish ancestry and of nontribal background (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2008). "SAFAVID DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica. As Persians of Kurdish ancestry and of a non-tribal background, the Safavids (...)
  • Savory, Roger (2008). "EBN BAZZĀZ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. VIII. Fasc. 1. p. 8. This official version contains textual changes designed to obscure the Kurdish origins of the Safavid family and to vindicate their claim to descent from the Imams.
  • Başçı, Veysel (2019), "Dunbulî Beyliği Tarihi ve Tarihi Kronikleri [XIII-XVIII. YY.]", Kadim Akademi SBD (in Turkish), 3 (2): 63–114, retrieved 28 May 2020
  • Behn, W. (1988), "BĀBĀN", Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. III, 3
  • Büchner, V. F. (2012), "S̲h̲abānkāra", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers, doi:10.1163/2214-871X_ei1_SIM_5253, ISBN 9789004082656
  • Dehqan, Mustafa; Genç, Vural (2019), "The Kurdish Emirate of Brādōst, 1510-1609", Oriente Moderno, 99 (3): 306–320, doi:10.1163/22138617-12340222, S2CID 213564665, retrieved 30 January 2021
  • Ebraheem, Sharameen (2013), The Impact of Architectural Identity on Nation Branding: The Case Study of Iraqi Kurdistan. (PDF), Manchester Metropolitan University's Research Repository
  • Eppel, Michael (2018), "The Kurdish emirates", Routledge Handbook on the Kurds, Routledge Handbooks Online, pp. 35–47, doi:10.4324/9781315627427-4, ISBN 978-1-138-64664-3, S2CID 186808301, retrieved 1 May 2020
  • Flynn, Thomas O. (2017), The Western Christian Presence in the Russias and Qājār Persia, c.1760–c.1870, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9789004313545
  • Ghalib, Sabah Abdullah (2011), The Emergence of Kurdism with Special Reference to the Three Kurdish Emirates within the Ottoman Empire, 1800-1850 (PDF), University of Exeter, retrieved 1 May 2020
  • Gunter, Michael M. (2010), Historical Dictionary of the Kurds, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 9780810875074
  • Hakan, Sinan (2002), Müküs Kürt Mirleri Tarihi ve Han Mahmud (in Turkish), Pêrî Yayınları, ISBN 9789758245581
  • Houtsma, M. Th. (1993), E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Brill Publishers
  • Kaplan, Yaşar (2015), Pınyanış Hükümeti/Government of Pinyanish (in Turkish), Hakkari University
  • Maisel, Sebastian (2018), The Kurds: An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-4408-4257-3
  • Meinecke, Michael (1996), Patterns of Stylistic Changes in Islamic Architecture: Local Traditions Versus Migrating Artists, NYU Press, ISBN 9780814754924
  • Petrushevsky, Ilya Pavlovich (1949), Очерки по истории феодальных отношений в Азербайджане и Армении в XVI-начале XIX вв (in Russian), Saint Petersburg State University
  • Soyudoğan, Muhsin (2015), Tribal Bandistry in Ottoman Ayntab (1690-1730), Bilkent University
  • Spuler, B. (2012), "Faḍlawayh", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers, doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_2233, ISBN 9789004161214
  • Top, Mehmet (1998), "Hoşaptaki Mahmudi Beylerine Ait Mimari Eserler", Academia SBD (in Turkish), 3 (2)
  • Verheij, Jelle (30 March 2018), ""The year of the firman:" The 1895 massacres in Hizan and Şirvan (Bitlis vilayet)", Études arméniennes contemporaines (10): 125–159, doi:10.4000/eac.1495, ISSN 2269-5281, retrieved 24 May 2020
  • Ünal, Mehmet Ali (1999), XVI. yüzyılda Çemişgezek sancağı (in Turkish)
  • Peacock, Andrew (2017). "RAWWADIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. RAWWADIDS [...] a family of Arab descent [...] Their Kurdicized descendants ruled over Azerbaijan and parts of Armenia in the second half of the 10th and much of the 11th century.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ van Bruinessen, Martin (1989). A. Andrews, Peter (ed.). "The ethnic identity of the Kurds". Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey: 5.
  2. ^ Limbert, John (1968). "The Origins and Appearance of the Kurds in Pre-Islamic Iran". Iranian Studies. 1 (2): 48. doi:10.1080/00210866808701350. JSTOR 4309997 – via JSTOR.
  3. ^ James, Boris (September 2006). "Uses and Values of the Term Kurd in Arabic Medieval Literary Sources". Institut Kurde. Retrieved 4 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ Bosworth (1994). "Daysam". Iranica Online.
  5. ^ a b Amir Hassanpour, Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan, 1918-1985, Mellen Research University Press, 1992, p. 50.
  6. ^ Gunter (2010), p. 117.
  7. ^ Aḥmad, K. M. (1985). "ʿANNAZIDS". Iranica Online. II.
  8. ^ Pezeshk, Manouchehr; Negahban, Farzin (2008). "ʿAnnāzids". In Madelung, Wilferd; Daftary, Farhad (eds.). Encyclopaedia Islamica Online. Brill Online. ISSN 1875-9831.
  9. ^ Aḥmad, K. M. (1985). "ʿANNAZIDS". Iranica Online. II.
  10. ^ Büchner 2012.
  11. ^ Spuler 2012.
  12. ^ Han, Şeref (Çev. İbrahim Sunkur) (2016). Şerefname. Van: Sîtav. p. 204. ISBN 978-605-66520-1-1.
  13. ^ R. S. Humphreys, Ayyubids, "Encyclopaedia Iranica", (August 18, 2011),[1]
  14. ^ Oberling, P. "BANĪ ARDALĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  15. ^ David Mcdowall (1996). The Kurds (PDF). Minority Rights Group International Report. p. 20. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  16. ^ Najat Abdulla-Ali (2006). Empire, frontière et tribu Le Kurdistan et le conflit de frontière turco-persan (1843-1932) (in French). p. 159.
  17. ^ Alexei Lidov, 1991, The mural paintings of Akhtala, p. 14, Nauka Publishers, Central Dept. of Oriental Literature, University of Michigan, ISBN 5-02-017569-2, ISBN 978-5-02-017569-3, It is clear from the account of these Armenian historians that Ivane's great grandfather broke away from the Kurdish tribe of Babir
  18. ^ Vladimir Minorsky, 1953, Studies in Caucasian History, p. 102, CUP Archive, ISBN 0-521-05735-3, ISBN 978-0-521-05735-6, According to a tradition which has every reason to be true, their ancestors were Mesopotamian Kurds of the tribe (xel) Babirakan.
  19. ^ Richard Barrie Dobson, 2000, Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages: A-J, p. 107, Editions du Cerf, University of Michigan, ISBN 0-227-67931-8, ISBN 978-0-227-67931-9, under the Christianized Kurdish dynasty of Zak'arids they tried to re-establish nazarar system...
  20. ^ Ünal (1999), pp. 262–263.
  21. ^ Hassanpour, Amir (1989). "BŪKĀN". Encyclopedia Iranica. IV.
  22. ^ Han, Şeref (Çev. İbrahim Sunkur) (2016). Şerefname. Van: Sîtav. p. 375. ISBN 978-605-66520-1-1.
  23. ^ Houtsma (1993), p. 1144-1445.
  24. ^ Ghalib (2011), p. 50.
  25. ^ Ebraheem (2013), p. 235.
  26. ^ Hakan (2002).
  27. ^ Başçı (2019), p. 63.
  28. ^ a b c Maisel (2018), p. 131.
  29. ^ Soyudoğan (2015).
  30. ^ Verheij (2018).
  31. ^ Flynn (2017), p. 663.
  32. ^ Aboona (2008), p. 175.
  33. ^ a b Eppel (2018), p. 42.
  34. ^ Top (1998), p. 6-9.
  35. ^ Kaplan (2015), p. 4.
  36. ^ Nusret Aydın, Diyarbakır and Mirdasiler History, 2011, p. 304-305
  37. ^ Dehqan & Genç (2019).
  38. ^ Behn (1988).
  39. ^ a b Tapper, Richard (2010). "Shahsevan". Encyclopedia Iranica.
  40. ^ Dehqn, Mustafa (2009). "Arkawāzī and His Baweyaļ: A Feylî Elegiac Verse from Piştiku". Iranian Studies. 42 (3): 409–422. doi:10.1080/00210860902907362. JSTOR 25597563. S2CID 159957313.
  41. ^ Matthee 2005, p. 17; Matthee 2008.
  42. ^ Amoretti & Matthee 2009.
  43. ^ Savory 2008, p. 8.
  44. ^ Perry, John. "ZAND DYNASTY". iranicaonline.org. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 24 March 2017. The founder of the dynasty was Moḥammad Karim Khan b. Ināq Khan (...) of the Bagala branch of the Zand, a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of Lors (perhaps originally Kurds; see Minorsky, p. 616) (...)
  45. ^ ...the bulk of the evidence points to their being one of the northern Lur or Lak tribes, who may originally have been immigrants of Kurdish origin., Peter Avery, William Bayne Fisher, Gavin Hambly, Charles Melville (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0, p. 64.
  46. ^ Kemper, Michael; Conermann, Stephan (2011). The Heritage of Soviet Oriental Studies. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-136-83854-5. In 1992 the area of Laçin was occupied by Armeian forces; a "Kurdish Republic of Laçin" was subsequently declared by local Kurds, but this remained a rather short-lived - not to say stillborn - adventure

External linksEdit