List of Joseph Smith's wives

Joseph Smith (1805–1844), founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, taught and practiced polygamy during his ministry, marrying multiple women throughout his lifetime. Smith and some of the leading quorums of the church he founded publicly denied he taught or practiced it.[1][2][3]

In 1852, leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) acknowledged that Smith had practiced plural marriage and produced a written revelation of Smith's that authorizes its practice. Smith's lawful widow Emma Smith, his son Joseph Smith III, and most members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS Church) attempted for years to refute the evidence of plural marriages. They pointed to the historical record that Joseph Smith publicly opposed the practice of polygamy;[3][4][5] the suggestion of the RLDS Church was that the practice of polygamy began in Utah under the leadership of Brigham Young.

The first publication of a list of women alleged to be Smith's plural wives was in 1887, by Andrew Jenson, an assistant LDS Church historian. It included 27 women besides Emma Smith.[6] There are currently 49 women on this list. However, historians disagree as to the number and identity of the plural wives Smith had. Various scholars and historians, including Fawn M. Brodie, George D. Smith,[7] and Todd Compton, have attempted to identify the women who married Smith.[8] The discrepancy is created by the lack of documents to support some of the alleged marriages. As Compton has stated, for many of these marriages, "absolutely nothing is known of [the] marriage after the ceremony."[9] Apart from his marriage to Emma, Smith's marriages were not solemnized under any civil authority and were therefore solely religious unions.

List of wives edit

Timeline of Joseph Smith's marriages
Image Plural wife's maiden name (married name) Marriage date Age[10] Recognized by Marital status at time of sealing Notes
TC[a] GS[b] FB[c]
Emma Hale (Smith) January 17, 1827 22 Yes Yes Yes N/A The only woman legally wed to Smith, who he claimed publicly was his only spouse, and the only union known to have produced offspring.[14] Continued church activity within the RLDS Church.[15] Throughout life and on her deathbed she denied that her husband had plural wives.[16] Claimed that the very first time she ever became aware of a polygamy revelation being attributed to Smith was when she read about it in Orson Pratt's periodical The Seer in 1853.[17] Emma Hale and Joseph Smith were sealed together on May 28, 1843.[18]
Fanny Alger c. 1833–1837 16 Yes Yes Single Alger's relationship with Smith was attested to by several people, including Emma Smith, Warren Parish, Oliver Cowdery, and Heber C. Kimball.[19] Several Mormons including Benjamin F. Johnson, Heber C. Kimball and Andrew Jenson, and former Mormons Chauncey Webb and Ann Eliza Webb Young, regarded the relationship as a marriage.[20] Compton cites Mosiah Hancock's handwritten report of his father Levi's account of the marriage ceremony of Smith and Alger, and records his father's account of negotiations between Levi and Smith in procuring their respective wives. Compton also notes that nineteenth-century Historian Lawrence Foster asserts a claim that later Mormons may have falsely assumed there was a marriage where there was only a sexual relationship: he views the marriage of Alger to Smith as a "debatable supposition".[21] As Richard Bushman has noted, Smith "never denied a relationship with Alger, but insisted it was not adulterous. He wanted it on record that he had never confessed to such a sin."[22] After Smith's death, when Alger's brother asked her about her relationship with Smith, she replied, "That is all a matter of my own. And I have nothing to communicate."[23] Brian C. Hales documents three possible timelines for Alger's relationship: the relationship starts in 1832–33 and is shortly discovered; the relationship starts in 1832–33 and is not discovered until 1835–37; the relationship starts in 1835–37 and is shortly discovered.[24]
Lucinda Pendleton Morgan Harris c. 1838–1842 37–41 Yes Yes Yes Married Historians Richard Lloyd Anderson and Scott H. Faulring dismiss this claim as being based on "no solid evidence".[25] Compton notes the following evidence: she is the third woman on Andrew Jenson's 1887 list of Smith's plural wives; Compton writes that "Sarah Pratt reported that while in Nauvoo Lucinda had admitted a long-standing relationship with Smith", though Compton admits that this statement is "antagonistic, third-hand, and late";[26] and that there is an "early Nauvoo temple proxy sealing to Smith". This marriage was polyandrous, as Lucinda lived with her husband George Washington Harris until about 1853. Compton believes the marriage occurred around 1838, when Smith was living with Lucinda and her husband.[27]

Quinn gave this sealing a window of year between 1838 and 1842.[28]

Brian C. Hales notes the following weaknesses in the evidence: Andrew Jenson's notes for Lucinda say "better leave her out perhaps"; the timeline for Sarah Pratt's statement would put the start of the relationship in 1837 which is before Joseph and Lucinda even met. Hales writes "If a plural marriage occurred, I think it would have been in Nauvoo."[29]

Louisa Beaman April 5, 1841 26 Yes Yes Yes Single (February 7, 1815 – May 16, 1850). Though Mormon history and press indicate Beaman was not baptized until May 11, 1843,[30][31] she had migrated with Mormons to Nauvoo in 1839 or 1840.[32] She has been called the "first plural wife of the Prophet Joseph Smith".[33] After Smith's death, Beaman remarried, becoming the ninth wife of Brigham Young. Young and Beaman had five children together, all of whom predeceased Beaman, who died at age 35.[34][35] Listed as a Smith plural wife by Joseph F. Smith,[36] who noted an 1869 affidavit of Beaman's brother-in-law Joseph B. Noble, stating he officiated at the wedding.[37] This would have been prior to her baptism. The marriage was done without informing Joseph's first wife Emma.[38]
Zina Diantha Huntington (Jacobs) October 27, 1841 20 Yes Yes Yes Married Husband was Henry Bailey Jacobs, who was aware of her plural marriage to Smith. Jacobs wrote, "[W]hatever the Prophet did was right, without making the wisdom of God's authorities bend to the reasoning of any man."[39] Sister of Presendia Huntington. After Smith's death, married Brigham Young while husband Jacobs was on mission to England.
Presendia Lathrop Huntington (Buell) December 11, 1841 31 Yes Yes Yes Married (September 7, 1810, in Watertown, New York – February 1, 1892, in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory). Sister of Zina. After Smith's death, married Heber C. Kimball.
Agnes Moulton Coolbrith (Smith) January 6, 1842 33 Yes Yes Yes Widowed Widow of Smith's brother Don Carlos. (1808–1876). After Don Carlos died in 1841, Coolbrith married Smith in 1842.[40] Coolbrith was the mother of Ina Coolbrith, who became the first poet laureate of California.
Sylvia Porter Lyon February 8, 1842 23 Yes Yes Yes Married Daughter of David Sessions and Patty Bartlett Sessions, who married Smith one month after her daughter's marriage to him. On her deathbed, Sylvia informed her daughter Josephine Lyons that she was Smith's daughter,[41] but genetic testing has contradicted this assertion.[42][43]
Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner January 17, 1842 23 Yes Yes Yes Married (April 9, 1818, in Lima, New York – December 17, 1913, in Minersville, Utah). A letter from Mary in 1905 could be read that Smith had a private conversation with her in 1831 when she was twelve years old[44][45] though in the same statement, she said that Smith did not talk to her till 1842,

"It was at [Sister Whitney's] house that the Prophet Joseph first told me about his great vision concerning me. He said I was the first woman God commanded him to take as a plural wife, in 1831 .... It was in the early part of Feb, 1842 that he was compelled to reveal it to me personally".

She left a statement in 1902 of her sealing with Joseph Smith,

"In 1834 he was commanded to take me for a Wife, I was a thousand miles from him .... Brigham Young sealed me to him, for time and all eternity -- Feb. 1842"

In 1835 she married another man, Adam Lightner a non-Mormon. They had two children and she was pregnant with her third at the time she was sealed to Joseph Smith in 1842. After the sealing she continued to live with her first husband Adam. Following the death of Joseph Smith Mary went briefly back to Nauvoo. In the fall of 1844 Brigham Young and Heber Kimball offered themselves to Smith's widows as proxy husbands and Mary accepted Young's proposal. She was sealed to him for time in a proxy marriage on May 22, 1845, though she continued to live with Adam. When Brigham Young and the church left Nauvoo to emigrate to Utah, Mary and Adam stayed behind. They eventually moved to Utah 17 years later settling in the town of Minersville. In her later years she would often supplicate the church for monetary assistance appealing to them on the basis of her connection with Joseph and Brigham.[46] Mary Elizabeth and her sister Caroline were instrumental in salvaging printed pages of the Book of Commandments when the printing press was destroyed by a mob on July 20, 1833.[47]
Patty Bartlett (Sessions) March 9, 1842 47 Yes Yes Yes Married (February 4, 1795, in Bethel, Massachusetts (now Maine) – December 14, 1893, in Bountiful, Utah Territory). Her daughter Sylvia Porter Sessions Lyon, who had married Smith one month before, was present at Sessions' wedding to Smith.[48]
Marinda Nancy Johnson (Hyde) April 1842 26 Yes Yes Yes Married (June 28, 1815, in Pomfret, Vermont – March 24, 1886, in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory). Wife of Orson Hyde; daughter of John Johnson.
Elizabeth Davis (Brackenbury Durfee) Before June 1842 50 Yes Yes Yes Married (March 11, 1791, in Riverhead, New York – December 16, 1876, in White Cloud, Kansas). According to Anderson and Faulring, this claim is based on Bennett and "an ambiguous statement attributed to Sarah Pratt by the hostile journalist Wyl."[25] The statement made by Sarah Pratt was, "I don't think she was ever sealed to him, though it may have been the case after Joseph's death. . . At all events, she boasted here in Salt Lake of having been one of Joseph's wives" [49]
Sarah Maryetta Kingsley (Howe Cleveland) Before June 29, 1842 53 Yes Yes Yes Married (1788 – April 20, 1856, in Plymouth, Illinois).
Anderson and Faulring state that this is "only a guess" based on a claim "without any supporting data".[25]
Delcena Johnson (Sherman) Before July 1842 37 Yes Yes Yes Single (November 19, 1806, in Westfield, Vermont – October 21, 1854, in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. Widow of Lyman R. Sherman). Married to Almon W. Babbitt after the death of Joseph Smith. Sister to Benjamin F. Johnson and Joel H. Johnson.
Eliza Roxcy Snow June 29, 1842 38 Yes Yes Yes Single Sister of Lorenzo Snow. Organized a petition in summer 1842, with a thousand female signatures, denying Smith a polygamist.[50] As Secretary of the Ladies' Relief Society published a certificate in October 1842 denouncing polygamy.[51] William Clayton said Smith told him in February 1843 that Snow was one of his plural wives.[52] She was married to Brigham Young from 1844 until his death in 1877.
Sarah Ann Whitney July 27, 1842 17 Yes Yes Yes Single Whitney was born in Kirtland, Ohio, on March 22, 1825, to Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Whitney.[53] Joseph Smith Jr. and Newel Whitney had a very close friendship. According to Brodie, after her parents were introduced to the principle of plural marriage by Smith, the marriage of Sarah to Smith was arranged with her parents' consent.[54][55] Compton claims this marriage is believed to have been performed for the purpose of creating a "dynastic" link between the Whitney and Smith families in the afterlife and to be "very much a family activity".[56] Nine months after her marriage to Smith, Sarah married Joseph C. Kingsbury in a civil ceremony.[57] Joseph C. Kingsbury said he was "well aware" of this marriage.[58] William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.[52] She was married to Heber C. Kimball from March 17, 1845, to June 22, 1868.
Martha McBride (Knight) August 1842 37 Yes Yes Yes Single Widow of Vinson Knight; later sealed to Heber C. Kimball.
Sarah Bapson 1842 Yes Unknown Unknown
Ruth D. Vose (Sayers) February 1843 34 Yes Yes Yes Married
Flora Ann Woodworth Spring 1843 16 Yes Yes Yes Single William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.[52]
Emily Dow Partridge March 4, 1843 19 Yes Yes Yes Single Daughter of Edward Partridge and sister of Eliza. After Smith's death, she married Brigham Young. William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.[52]
Eliza Maria Partridge March 8, 1843 22 Yes Yes Yes Single Daughter of Edward Partridge and sister of Emily. Eliza married after Smith's death, to Amasa M. Lyman, who was already husband to Eliza's older sister, Caroline. William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.[52]
Almera Woodward Johnson August 1843 30 Yes Yes Yes Single (October 12, 1812, in Westfield, Vermont – March 4, 1896, in Parowan, Utah). Widow of Samuel H. Prescott. Married to Reuben Barton (with who she had five children) in Nauvoo Illinois in 1845 after the martyrdom of Joseph Smith. Sister to Benjamin F. Johnson and Joel H. Johnson.
Lucy Walker May 1, 1843[59] 17 Yes Yes Yes Single Wrote about her plural marriage to Smith,[45][60]

"In the year 1842 President Joseph Smith sought an interview with me, and said, ‘I have a message for you, I have been commanded of God to take another wife, and you are the woman.' ... He asked me if I believed him to be a Prophet of God. ... He fully Explained to me the principle of plural or celestial marriage ... that it would prove an everlasting blessing to my father's house. ... [Joseph encouraged her to pray] 'that the grave would kindly receive me that I might find rest on the bosom of my dear [recently deceased] mother ... Why Should I be chosen from among thy daughters, Father I am only a child in years and experience.' And thus I prayed in the agony of my soul. ... [The marriage] was not a love matter—at least on my part it was not, but simply the giving up of myself as a sacrifice to establish that grand and glorious principle that God had revealed to the world."

Sarah Lawrence May 1843 17 Yes Yes Yes Single (May 13, 1826, in Pickering Township, Upper Canada – 1872) Sister of Maria.
Maria Lawrence May 1843 19 Yes Yes Yes Single (December 18, 1823, in Pickering Township, Upper Canada – ? in Nauvoo, Illinois). Sister of Sarah. After Smith's death, Lawrence married Brigham Young, becoming his sixteenth plural wife. They divorced in 1845, but remarried the following year.[35]
Helen Mar Kimball May 1843 14 Yes Yes Yes Single Daughter of Heber C. Kimball. Helen Mar Kimball wrote a full account of her experience[61] in which she states:[45]

[My father] asked me if I would be sealed to Joseph ... [Smith] said to me, 'If you will take this step, it will ensure your eternal salvation & exaltation and that of your father's household & all of your kindred.['] This promise was so great that I willingly gave myself to purchase so glorious a reward.|

William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.[52]
Hannah Ells 1843 29 Yes Yes Unknown Single (March 4, 1813, in New York City, New York – 1844 in Nauvoo, Illinois)
Elvira Annie Cowles (Holmes) June 1, 1843 29 Yes Yes Yes Married (November 23, 1813, in Unadilla, New York – March 10, 1871, in Farmington, Utah Territory).
Rhoda Richards June 12, 1843 58 Yes Yes Yes Single (August 8, 1784, in Framingham, Massachusetts – January 17, 1879, in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory). First cousin of Brigham Young, whom she married after Smith's death.
Desdemona Wadsworth Fullmer July 1843 32 Yes Yes Yes Single Born to Peter and Susannah on October 6, 1809, in Huntington, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Desdemona was baptized into the Church of the Latter Day Saints herself by John P. Greene in 1836.[62] Desdemona was one of the church members that were present when a mob attacked Haun's Mill on October 30, 1838. She was "secreted in the woods near by", along with members of her family. In July 1842, Brigham Young officiated the marriage of Desdemona to Smith.[63] as Smith took Desdemona as a plural wife[64] and became part of an early group wives taken by Smith[65] After Smiths death, Desdemona married Ezra T. Benson on January 26, 1846, in the Nauvoo Temple[66] The marriage was only "for time",[67] instead of being for "time and all eternity", meaning that Desdemona was sealed to Smith in the afterlife but would be married to Benson until one of them died. Upon her death, a few newspapers outside of Utah reported Desdemona's passing, remembering her as one of Joseph Smith's wives.[68][69][70][71]
Olive Grey Frost poss. September 17, 1843 27 Yes Yes Yes Single (July 24, 1816, in Bethel, Massachusetts (now Maine) – October 6, 1845, in Nauvoo, Illinois). After Smith's death, Frost became the eighteenth plural wife of Brigham Young. They married "for time only" on November 7, 1844; they had no children.
Mary Ann Frost (Pratt) c. Summer 1843 34 No Yes Yes Married (January 14, 1809, in Groton, Vermont – August 24, 1891, in Pleasant Grove, Utah Territory). Sister of Olive Grey Frost. First married to Nathan Stearns in 1831 but he died about 18 months later. Baptized into Church of the Latter Day Saints in 1835 by David W. Patten. Married Parley P. Pratt on May 14, 1837, in Kirtland, Ohio. Moved to Missouri and Nauvoo with Pratt. Went on mission trip with Pratt to England in 1840. Returned from England without Pratt and was divorced soon after Pratt's return. Mary Ann was married to Parley Pratt for time and Joseph Smith (posthumously) for eternity on February 6, 1846, by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.[72][unreliable source?] Emigrated with the Harmon Cutler Company to Utah Territory in 1852. She obtained a divorce from Pratt in 1853. She was accompanied by her daughter Olivia Pratt (b. 1841) and son Moroni Llewellyn Pratt (b. 1844). They settled in Pleasant Grove.[73][unreliable source?]
Melissa Lott September 20, 1843 19 Yes Yes Yes Single Daughter of early Mormon leader Cornelius P. Lott, who managed Smith's farm in Nauvoo.
Nancy Maria Winchester 1842 or 1843 14 Yes Yes Yes Single Daughter of Stephen Winchester, Sr. of Vershire, Vermont (who was a member of the Danite militia and the Quorum of the Seventy), and his wife Nancy Case of Argyle, New York. Anderson and Faulring write that this claim is based on "unsupported information".[25]
Fanny Young (Murray) November 2, 1843 56 Yes Yes Yes (November 8, 1787, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts – June 11, 1859). Wife of Roswell Murray
Mary Houston Before 1844 No Yes Unknown Unknown
Sarah Scott Before 1844 No Yes Yes Unknown
Olive Andrews Before 1844 No Yes Yes Unknown
Jane Tippets Before 1844 78 No Yes Yes Unknown
Sophia Sanburn Before 1844 No Yes Unknown Unknown
Phoebe Watrous (Woodworth) Before 1844 Unknown No Yes Yes Unknown
Vienna Jaques Before 1844 Unknown No Yes Yes Unknown
Clarissa Reed Hancock March 29, 1833 19 Yes[74]
Sally Ann Fuller Unknown No No Yes Single "Fawn Brodie asserts that Mrs. G***** was Sally Ann Fuller Gulley is Sally Ann Fuller Gulley. Sally Ann Fuller did not marry Samuel Gully until January 29, 1847"[75]
(Mrs Blossom) Unknown Yes[74] Wife of Edward Blossom
Mary Huston Unknown Yes[74]
Cordelia Calista Morley 22 Yes[74] In the spring of 1844, plural marriage was introduced to me by my parents from Joseph Smith, asking their consent and a request to me to be his wife. Imagine, if you can, my feeling, to be a plural wife. Something I never thought I could ever be. I knew nothing of such religion and could not accept it, neither did I then. I told Joseph I had a sweetheart; his name was Whiting, and I expected to marry him. He, however, was left by the wayside. He could not endure the persecutions and hardships. I told the Prophet I thought him a wonderful man and leader, but I wanted to marry my sweetheart.

After Joseph Smith's death, I was visited by some of his most intimate friends who knew of his request and explained to me this religion, counseling me to accept his wishes, for he now was gone and could do no more for himself. I accepted Joseph Smith's desire, and 27 January 1846, I was married to your father in the Nauvoo Temple. While still kneeling at the altar, my hand clasped in his and ready to become his third plural wife, Heber C. Kimball tapped me on the shoulder and said, "Cordelia, are you going to deprive the Prophet of his desire that you be his wife?" At that, Walter Cox said, "You may be sealed to the Prophet for eternity and I'll marry you for time." Walter was proxy for Joseph Smith, and I was sealed to him for eternity and to Walter for time. (One time when Cordelia told this story to her granddaughter, Mary Verona Cox, she said, "Verona, in eternity I want the man that was the father of my children and was a good husband and father. I lived with him and loved him.")

Nancy Maria Smith Unknown Yes[74]
Jane Tibbets Unknown Yes[74]
Sophia Woodman Unknown Yes[74]
  1. ^ Wife recognized by Todd Compton[11]
  2. ^ Wife recognized by George D. Smith[12]
  3. ^ Wife recognized by Fawn Brodie. Unless otherwise noted, wives are listed in No Man Knows My History[13]

Allegations of children born to polygamous wives edit

Research by Ugo A. Perego, a geneticist and member of the LDS Church, has shown that a number of children of Smith's alleged polygamous relationships were not his genetic offspring. The following table lists some of the children born to Smith's alleged polygamous wives as well as those ruled out by genetic testing:[76][77][78]

Child Date of birth Mother Father (traditionally assumed) DNA testing status DNA testing result Notes
Oliver Buell 1838–39 Presendia Huntington Buell Norman Buell Completed
November 2007
Negative[78] Historian Fawn Brodie speculated that Buell was a polygamous son of Smith.[78]
John Reed Hancock April 19,
Clarissa Reed Hancock Levi Hancock Completed
July 2011
Negative[79] Only anecdotal evidence that Clarissa Reed Hancock was a plural wife of Smith.[76][80]
Mosiah Hancock April 9,
Clarissa Reed Hancock Levi Hancock Completed
November 2007
Negative[78] Only anecdotal evidence that Clarissa Reed Hancock was a plural wife of Smith.[76][80]
Frank Henry Hyde January 23,
1845 or 1846
Marinda Johnson Hyde Orson Hyde Incomplete ?
Orson Washington Hyde November 9,
Marinda Johnson Hyde Orson Hyde Not possible,
died in infancy
Zebulon Jacobs January 2,
Zina Huntington Jacobs Henry Jacobs Completed
May 2005
George Algernon Lightner March 22,
Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner Adam Lightner Not possible,
died in infancy
Josephine Rosetta Lyon February 8,
Sylvia Porter Sessions Lyon Windsor Lyon Completed
June 2016
Negative[42][43] Not long before dying, Sylvia Lyon told Josephine that she was Smith's daughter.[41]
Moroni Pratt December 7,
Mary Ann Frost Stearns Pratt Parley P. Pratt Completed
May 2005

See also edit

References edit

Citations edit

  1. ^ bound edition"Notice", Times and Seasons, 5(3) (1 February 1844): 423: "As we have lately been credibly informed, that an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter-day Saints, by the name of Hiram Brown, has been preaching Polygamy, and other false and corrupt doctrines, in the county of Lapeer, state of Michigan."
  2. ^ Roberts, B. H. (Brigham Henry) (1912), History of the Church, vol. 6, Deseret News, pp. p. 411, What a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can only find one..
  3. ^ a b Millennial Star 4 [January 1844]: 144.
  4. ^ Whitmer 1887
  5. ^ Times and Seasons 5:474.
  6. ^ Jenson, A. Historical Record 6 [May 1887]: 233–34.
  7. ^ Smith 2010, p. 621
  8. ^ Brodie 1971, p. 457
  9. ^ Maxwell Institute Archived 2008-06-22 at the Wayback Machine, Brigham Young University.
  10. ^ Compton 1997 and Newell & Avery 1994
  11. ^ (Compton 1997)
  12. ^ (Smith 1994, pp. 13–15)
  13. ^ (Brodie 1971)
  14. ^ History of the Church 6:410–11.
  15. ^ Frequently Asked Questions Archived 2013-10-21 at Archive-It at official Community of Christ website.
  16. ^ History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 3:55–56, Independence, Missouri, Herald House Publishing, 1967–, c1896–; ISBN 0-8309-0075-6.
  17. ^ Saints' Herald 65:1044–45.
  18. ^ Carol Cornwall Madsen, "'My Dear and Beloved Companion': The Letters of Joseph and Emma Smith", Ensign, September 2008.
  19. ^ Smith 2010, pp. 38–43
  20. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 25–32.
  21. ^ Lawrence Foster, Review of In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith" Archived 2006-03-23 at, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 33 (spring 2001): 184–86.
  22. ^ Bushman, pg. 325
  23. ^ Bushman, pg 327
  24. ^ Hales 2013a, pp. 99–106
  25. ^ a b c d Anderson 1998
  26. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 650
  27. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 43–44
  28. ^ Quinn, D. Michael. The Mormon Hierarchy; Origins of Power. p. 587.
  29. ^ Hales 2013a, pp. 58–67
  30. ^ History of the Church 5:385.
  31. ^ Millennial Star 21:75.
  32. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 58–59
  33. ^ Boyack (1962, pp. 21, 29)
  34. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 59–69
  35. ^ a b Brigham Young's Wives and His Divorce From Ann Eliza Webb, Jerald and Sandra Tanner, Utah Lighthouse Ministry website.
  36. ^ Historical Record 6:233.
  37. ^ Smith, J.F. (1905) Blood Atonement and the Origin of Plural Marriage Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 75)
  38. ^ Van Wagoner, Richard S. "Mormon Polyandry in Nauvoo" (PDF). 18. Retrieved 8 January 2017. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 81–82
  40. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 153
  41. ^ a b "Just prior to my mothers death in 1882 she called me to her bedside … to tell me something which she had kept as an entire secret from me and from all others but which she now desired to communicate to me. She then told me that I was the daughter of the Prophet Joseph Smith." (Newell & Avery 1994, pp. 44, Compton 1997, pp. 183)
  42. ^ a b Perego, Ugo A (11 June 2016). "Supplemental online material for 'Was Joseph Smith the biological father of Josephine Lyon? The genetic evidence' presented at the 2016 Mormon History Association Conference in Snowbird, Utah". Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  43. ^ a b Perego, Ugo A (11 June 2016). "Table 7 - Smiths vs. Lyon". Was Joseph Smith the biological father of Josephine Lyon? The genetic evidence. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  44. ^ Newell & Avery 1994, pp. 65, link.
  45. ^ a b c Compton 1997
  46. ^ Compton 1997, pg.205–222
  47. ^ Carter, Kate (1962), Our Pioneer Heritage, Salt Lake City, UT: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, p. 308
  48. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 175–79
  49. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 701
  50. ^ Times and Seasons 3 [August 1, 1842]: 869.
  51. ^ Times and Seasons 3 [October 1, 1842]: 940.
  52. ^ a b c d e f Clayton (1874, p. 225).
  53. ^ Compton 1997, p. 343
  54. ^ Brodie 1971, p. 471
  55. ^ Her own sworn statement, giving the date as July 27, 1842, was published along with a confirming affidavit sworn by her mother, in Joseph F. Smith Jr.: Blood Atonement and the Origin of Plural Marriage. It is said that she was the first woman given in plural marriage "by and with the consent of both parents".
  56. ^ Compton 1997, p. 347
  57. ^ Compton 1997, p. 351
  58. ^ Kingsbury (1886, p. 226).
  59. ^ Newell & Avery 1994, pp. 65
  60. ^ Newell & Avery 1994
  61. ^ Jeni Broberg Holzapfel and Richard Neitzel Holzapfel, eds., A Woman’s View: Helen Mar Whitney’s Reminiscences of Early Church History (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997), 135–239.
  62. ^ Jensen, Andrew (1889). "Fullmer, Desdemona Wadsworth". The Historical Record, Volumes 5-8. A. Jenson. p. 235.
  63. ^ Newell, Linda King (1994). Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith. University of Illinois Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780252062919.
  64. ^ "Utah News: Summarized from Territorial Papers". Millennial Star. 48 (10): 150–151. March 8, 1886.
  65. ^ Smith, George D. (Spring 1994). "Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 27 (1): 1–72. doi:10.2307/45228320. ISSN 0012-2157. JSTOR 45228320. S2CID 254329894.
  66. ^ Bringhurst, Newell G. (1996). Reconsidering No man knows my history: Fawn M. Brodie and Joseph Smith in retrospect. Utah State University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9780874212143.
  67. ^ Wilson, Sarah E. (1976). Follmers in Pennsylvania: descendants of Hans Jakob Vollmar, 1698–1762. Baltimore: Gateway Press. pp. 22–23. LCCN 76021955. OCLC 2681047.
  68. ^ "Personal". The Times-Philadelphia. 28 February 1866.
  69. ^ "Obituary". The Kinsey Graphic. 5 March 1886.
  70. ^ "Around the World". Fayetteville Weekly Observer. 11 March 1886. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
  71. ^ "Items of Interest". pg 3, last column, last paragraph: Brenham Weekly Banner. 4 March 1886. Retrieved 2015-02-06.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  72. ^ "Mary Ann Frost Stearns Pratt – Nauvoo, England and Back to Nauvoo".
  73. ^ "Obituaries of Mary Ann Frost Pratt".
  74. ^ a b c d e f g Brodie 1971, p. 335
  75. ^ Hales 2013b, p. 340
  76. ^ a b c Perego, Myers & Woodward 2005
  77. ^ a b c "Research focuses on Smith family". Deseret News. 2005-05-28. Archived from the original on 2006-06-30.
  78. ^ a b c d "DNA tests rule out 2 as Smith descendants: Scientific advances prove no genetic link". Deseret News. 2007-11-10. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13.
  79. ^ De Groote, Michael (9 July 2011). "D NA solves a Joseph Smith Mystery". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  80. ^ a b Wife is not recognized by Compton 1997 or Smith 1994, pp. 13–15.

Bibliography edit

External links edit