List of Joseon royal consorts

The following is a list of queen consorts, queen dowagers and grand queen dowagers of Kingdom of Joseon and empress consort and empress dowager of Korean Empire.

TitleEdit

The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, Korean: 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, lit.'Great Chosun Country') was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for five centuries.[1] Joseon King accepted Chinese suzerainty and acknowledged the Chinese emperor as their nominal overlord[2] until the Gabo Reform in December 1894. The Primary Consort of the Joseon King bore the title wangbi (왕비, 王妃),[a] translated as Queen in English, with the style of "Her Royal Highness" (mama; 마마, 媽媽). The title used in the court language was junggungjeon (중궁전, 中宮殿) or jungjeon (중전, 中殿), translated as "Center Palace" in English. Wanghu (왕후, 王后), the title for the Primary Consort of the King the during pre-Joseon era, became a posthumous title.

The title Royal Queen Dowager (왕대비, 王大妃)[b] was given to the widow of a king. Queen Dowager (대비, 大妃),[c] originally was the short form of Royal Queen Dowager, but it became a lesser rank title during the reign of King Cheoljong and King Gojong. The Widow of the former former previous king was called the Grand Royal Queen Dowager (대왕대비, 大王大妃),.[d]

After Second Gabo Reform in December 1894, which proclaimed the severance of the subordinate relationship with China, royal titles also changed. The title changed from wangbi to wanghu and from wangdaebi to wangtaehu (왕태후, 王太后).[e]

In October 1897, King Gojong proclaimed Korea as an empire and he assumed the title of Emperor (hwangje; 황제, 皇帝) in order to assert Korea's independence. Automatically, his wife held the title of empress consort (hwanghu; 황후, 皇后)[f] and the monarch's widow held the title empress dowager (hwangtaehu; 황태후, 皇太后). From all the consorts of Joseon's ruler, only Empress Sunjeong held the rank of empress consort during her lifetime. Empress Myeongseong died in 1895, two years before the Korean Empire was proclaimed.

ListEdit

Queens and empress consortEdit

Kingdom of Joseon

King Queen consort Birth Became Consort Ceased to be consort Death
Posthumous name and maiden clan Titles
Yi Dan,
King Taejo
Queen Sinui
of the Anbyeon Han clan
Queen Jeol (절비) 1337 21 October 1391
Queen Sindeok
of the Goksan Kang clan
Queen Hyeon (현비) 12 July 1356 17 July 1392 15 September 1396
Yi Gyeong,
King Jeongjong
Queen Jeongan
of the Gyeongju Kim clan
Crown Princess Deok (덕빈)
Queen Deok (덕비)
Queen Dowager Sundeok (순덕왕대비)
22 January 1355 5 September 1398 28 November 1400
husband's abdication
2 August 1412
Yi Bang-won,
King Taejong
Queen Wongyeong
of the Yeoheung Min clan
Princess Jeongnyeong (정녕옹주)
Crown Princess Jeong (정세자빈)
Queen Jeong (정비)
Queen Dowager Hudeok (후덕왕대비)
29 July 1365 10 January 1401 9 September 1418
husband’s abdication
18 August 1420
Yi Do,
King Sejong
Queen Soheon
of the Cheongseong Sim clan
Princess Gyeongsuk (경숙옹주)
Crown Princess Gyeong (경빈)
Queen Gong (공비)
12 October 1395 9 September 1418 19 April 1446
Yi Hyang,
King Munjong
Queen Hyeondeok
of the Andong Kwon clan
Royal Consort Seung-hwi (승휘)
Royal Consort Yang-won (양원)
Crown Princess Consort Hyeondeok (현덕빈)
17 April 1418 1437 10 August 1441
Yi Hong-wi,
King Danjong
Queen Jeongsun
of the Yeosan Song clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Uideok (의덕왕대비)
1440 1454 11 June 1455
husband's deposition
7 July 1521
Yi Yu,
King Sejo
Queen Jeonghui
of the Papyeong Yun clan
Grand Internal Princess Consort Nakrang (낙랑부대부인)
Queen
Queen Dowager Jaseong (자성왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Jaseong (자성대왕대비)
8 December 1418 1455 23 September 1468
husband's death
6 May 1483
Yi Hwang,
King Yejong
Han Naeng-yi, Queen Jangsun
of the Cheongju Han clan
Princess Jangsun
Crown Princess Consort Jangsun (장순세자빈)
22 February 1445 11 April 1460 5 January 1462
Queen Ansun
of the Cheongju Han clan
Royal Consort So-hun (소훈)
Queen
Queen Dowager Inhye (인혜왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Inhye (인혜대왕대비)
18 April 1445 1468 31 December 1469
husband's death
3 February 1499
Yi Hyeol,
King Seongjong
Han Song-yi, Queen Gonghye
of the Cheongju Han clan
Princess Consort Cheonan (천안군부인)
Queen
8 November 1456 1469 30 April 1474
Queen Jeheon
of the Haman Yun clan
Royal Consort Suk-ui (숙의)
Queen
Deposed Queen (폐비)
15 July 1455 1476 1479
deposed
29 August 1482
Yun Chang-nyeon, Queen Jeonghyeon
of the Papyeong Yun clan
Royal Consort Suk-ui (숙의)
Queen
Queen Dowager Jasun (자순왕대비)
21 July 1462 1480 1494
husband's death
13 September 1530
Yi Yung,
Prince Yeonsan
Princess Consort Geochang
of the Geochang Shin clan
Princess Consort Geochang (거창군부인)
Princess Consort Yeonsan (연산군부인)
Queen Jeinwondeok (제인원덕왕비)
Deposed Queen Shin (폐비 신씨)
15 December 1476 1494 2 September 1506
husband's deposition
16 May 1537
Yi Yeok,
King Jungjong
Queen Dangyeong
of the Geochang Shin clan
Princess Consort (부부인)
Queen
Deposed Queen (폐비)
7 February 1487 18 September 1506 25 September 1506
deposed
27 December 1557
Yun Myung-hye, Queen Janggyeong
of the Papyeong Yun clan
Queen 10 August 1491 1507 16 March 1515
Queen Munjeong
of the Papyeong Yun clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Seongryeol (성렬왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Seongryeol (성렬대왕대비)
2 December 1501 1517 29 November 1544
husband's death
5 May 1565
Yi Ho,
King Injong
Queen Inseong
of the Bannam Park clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Gongui (공의왕대비)
7 October 1514 1544 8 August 1545
husband's death
6 January 1578
Yi Hwan,
King Myeongjong
Queen Insun
of the Cheongsong Sim clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Uiseong (의성왕대비)
27 June 1532 1545 3 August 1567
husband's death
12 February 1575
Yi Yeon,
King Seonjo
Queen Uiin
of the Bannam Park clan
Queen 5 May 1555 1569 5 August 1600
Queen Inmok
of the Yeonan Kim clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Soseong (소성왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Myeongryeol (명렬대왕대비)
15 December 1584 1602 16 March 1608 13 August 1632
Yi Hon,
Prince Gwanghae
Queen Hyejang
of the Munhwa Yu Clan
Princess Consort Munseong (문성군부인)
Crown Princess (왕세자빈)
Queen
Deposed Queen (폐비)
15 August 1576 1608 1623
husband's deposition
31 October 1623
Yi Jong,
King Injo
Queen Inyeol
of the Cheongju Han clan
Princess Cheongseong (청성현부인)
Queen
16 August 1594 1623 16 January 1636
Queen Jangnyeol
of the Yangju Jo clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Jaui (자의왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Jaui (자의대왕대비)
16 December 1624 December 1638 17 June 1649
husband's death
20 September 1688
Yi Ho,
King Hyojong
Queen Inseon
of the Deoksu Jang clan
Princess Consort Pungan (풍안부부인)
Queen
Queen Dowager Hyosuk (효숙왕대비)
9 February 1619 1649 23 June 1659
husband's death
19 March 1674
Yi Yeon,
King Hyeonjong
Queen Myeongseong
of the Cheongpung Kim clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Hyeonryeol (현렬왕대비)
13 June 1642 1659 17 September 1674
husband's death
21 January 1684
Yi Sun,
King Sukjong
Queen Ingyeong
of the Gwangsan Kim clan
Crown Princess (왕세자빈)
Queen
25 October 1661 1674 16 December 1680
Queen Inhyeon
of the Yeoheung Min clan
Queen
Deposed Queen (폐비)
Queen
15 May 1667 1681 5 March 1688
deposed
1694
reinstallation
16 September 1701
Jang Ok-jeong, Queen Buok
of the Indong Jang clan
Suk-won (숙원)
So-ui (소의)
Hui-bin (희빈)
Queen
Hui-bin (희빈)
3 November 1659 1688 1694
deposed
9 November 1701
Queen Inwon
of the Gyeongju Kim clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Hyesun (혜순왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Hyesun (혜순대왕대비)
3 November 1687 1702 12 July 1720
husband's death
13 May 1757
Yi Yun,
King Gyeongjong
Queen Danui
of the Cheongsong Sim clan
Crown Princess Consort (세자빈) 11 July 1686 20 May 1696 8 March 1718
Queen Seonui
of the Hamjong Eo clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Gyeongsun (경순왕대비)
14 December 1705 1720 11 October 1724
husband's death
12 August 1730
Yi Geum,
King Yeongjo
Queen Jeongseong
of the Daegu Seo clan
Princess Consort Dalseong (달성군부인)
Queen
12 January 1693 30 November 1724 3 April 1757
Queen Jeongsun
of the Gyeongju Kim clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Yesun (예순왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Yesun (예순대왕대비)
2 December 1745 1759 22 April 1776
husband's death
11 February 1805
Yi San,
King Jeongjo
Queen Hyoui
of the Cheongpung Kim clan
Consort of the Heir grandson (세손빈)
Queen
Queen dowager
5 January 1754 1776 18 August 1800
husband's death
10 April 1821
Yi Gong,
King Sunjo
Queen Sunwon
of the Andong Kim clan
Queen
Queen Dowager Myeonggyeong (명경왕대비)
Grand Queen Dowager Myeonggyeong (명경대왕대비)
8 June 1789 1802 13 December 1834
husband's death
21 September 1857
Yi Hwan,
King Heonjong
Queen Hyohyeon
of the Andong Kim clan
Queen 27 April 1828 1837 18 October 1843
Queen Hyojeong
of the Namyang Hong clan
Queen
Queen Mother Myeonghyeon
Queen Dowager Myeongheon (명헌대비 → 명헌왕대비 → 명헌왕태후)
Empress Dowager Myeongheon (명헌태후)
6 March 1831 1844 25 July 1849
husband's death
2 January 1904
Yi Byeon,
King Cheoljong
Queen Cheorin
of the Andong Kim clan
Queen
Queen Mother Myeongsun (명순대비)
Queen Dowager Myeongsun (명순대비)
27 April 1837 1851 16 January 1864
husband's death
12 June 1878
Yi Hui,
King Gojong
Emperor Gwangmu
Min Ja-yeong, Empress Myeongseong
of the Yeoheung Min clan
Queen (왕비 → 왕후)
Queen Regent
Queen (왕후)
Queen Regent
17 November 1851 20 March 1866
as wangbi
January 1895
as wangbi
January 1895
as wanghu
8 October 1895
as wanghu

Korean Empire

Emperor Empress consort Birth Became empress consort Ceased to be empress consort Death
Posthumous name and maiden clan Titles
Yi Cheok,
King Sunjong
Empress Sunmyeong
of the Yeoheung Min clan
Imperial Crown Princess (황태자비) 20 November 1872 5 November 1904
Yun Jeung-sun, Empress Sunjeong
of the Haepyeong Yun clan
Imperial Crown Princess (황태자비)
Empress
Queen Consort Yi (이왕비)
Queen Dowager Yi (이왕대비)
19 September 1894 20 July 1907 29 August 1910
husband's deposition
3 February 1966


Queens and empress dowagerEdit

Kingdom of Joseon

King Relationship with queen dowager Queen dowager Clan Husband Tenure Death
Honorary name Posthumous name
Yi Bang-won,
King Taejong
Wife of the king emeritus
Sister-in-law
Queen Dowager Sundeok Queen Jeongan Gyeongju Kim Yi Gyeong,
King Jeongjong
28 November 1400 – 2 August 1412 2 August 1412
Yi Do,
King Sejong
Widow of a previous king
Birth mother
Queen Dowager Hudeok Queen Wongyeong Yeoheung Min Yi Bang-won,
King Taejong
9 September 1418 – 18 August 1420 18 August 1420
Yi Yu,
King Sejo
Wife of the king emeritus
Niece-in-law
Queen Dowager Uideok Queen Jeongsun Yeosan Song Yi Hong-wi,
King Danjong
1455 – 1457 7 July 1521
Yi Hwang,
King Yejong
Widow of a previous king
Birth mother
Queen Dowager Jaseong Queen Jeonghui Papyeong Yun Yi Yu,
King Sejo
1468 – 1469 6 May 1483
Yi Hyeol,
King Seongjong
Widow of a previous king
Aunt-in-law
Queen Dowager Inhye Queen Ansun Cheongju Han Yi Hwang,
King Yejong
1469 – 1494 3 February 1499
Birth mother Queen Dowager Insu Queen Sohye Cheongju Han Yi Jang, Crown Prince Uigyeong 1474 - 1494 11 May 1504
Yi Yung,
Prince Yeonsan
Widow of a previous king
Step-mother
Queen Dowager Jasun Queen Jeonghyeon Papyeong Yun Yi Hyeol,
King Seongjong
1494 – 13 September 1530 13 September 1530
Yi Yeok,
King Jungjong
Widow of a previous king
Birth mother
Yi Ho,
King Injong
Widow of a previous king
Step-mother
Queen Dowager Seongryeol Queen Munjeong Papyeong Yun Yi Yeok,
King Jungjong
1544 – 1545 5 May 1565
Yi Hwan,
King Myeongjong
Widow of a previous king
Sister-in-law
Queen Dowager Gongui Queen Inseong Bannam Park Yi Ho,
King Injong
1545 – 6 January 1578 6 January 1578
Yi Yeon,
King Seonjo
Widow of a previous king
Aunt-in-law
Widow of a previous king
Aunt-in-law
Adopted mother
Queen Dowager Uiseong Queen Insun Cheongsong Shim Yi Hwan,
King Myeongjong
1567 – 12 February 1575 12 February 1575
Yi Hon,
Prince Gwanghae
Widow of a previous king
Step-mother
Queen Dowager Soseong Queen Inmok Yeonan Kim Yi Yeon,
King Seonjo
1608 – 1624 13 August 1632
Yi Jong,
King Injo
Widow of a previous king
Step-grandmother
Yi Ho,
King Hyojong
Widow of a previous king
Step-mother
Queen Dowager Jaui Queen Jangnyeol Yangju Jo Yi Jong,
King Injo
1649 – 1659 16 December 1624
Yi Yeon,
King Hyeonjong
Widow of a previous king
Birth mother
Queen Dowager Hyosuk Queen Inseon Deoksu Jang Yi Ho,
King Hyojong
1659 – 19 March 1674 19 March 1674
Yi Sun,
King Sukjong
Widow of a previous king
Birth mother
Queen Dowager Hyeonryeol Queen Myeongseong Cheongpung Kim Yi Yeon,
King Hyeonjong
1674 – 21 January 1684 21 January 1684
Yi Yun,
King Gyeongjong
Widow of a previous king
Step-mother
Queen Dowager Hyesun Queen Inwon Gyeongju Kim Yi Sun,
King Sukjong
1720 – 11 October 1724 11 October 1724
Yi Geum,
King Yeongjo
Widow of a previous king
Sister-in-law
Queen Dowager Gyeongsun Queen Seonui Hamjong Eo Yi Yun,
King Gyeongjong
1724 – 12 August 1730 12 August 1730
Yi San,
King Jeongjo
Widow of a previous king
Step-grandmother
Queen Dowager Yesun Queen Jeongsun Gyeongju Kim Yi Geum,
King Yeongjo
27 April 1776 – 18 August 1800 11 February 1805
Yi Gong,
King Sunjo
Widow of a previous king
Step-mother
Adopted mother
Queen Dowager Queen Hyoui Cheongpung Kim Yi San,
King Jeongjo
18 August 1800 − 10 April 1821 10 April 1821
Yi Hwan,
King Heonjong
Widow of a previous king
Grandmother
Queen Dowager Myeonggyeong Queen Sunwon Andong Kim Yi Gong,
King Sunjo
1834 21 September 1857
Birth mother Queen Dowager Hyoyu Queen Shinjeong Pungyang Jo Yi Yeong,
Crown Prince Hyomyeong
1834 - 1857 4 June 1890
Yi Byeon,
King Cheoljong
Legal sister-in-law
Widow of a previous king
Legal niece-in-law
Queen Dowager Myeongheon Queen Hyojeong Namyang Hong Yi Hwan,
King Heonjong
25 July 1849 - 1857
(as daebi)
1857 - January 1895
(as wangdaebi)
January 1895 − 13 October 1897
(as wangtaehu)
2 January 1904
Yi Hui,
King Gojong
Widow of a previous king
Widow of a previous king
Legal aunt-in-law
Queen Dowager Myeongsun Queen Cheorin Andong Kim Yi Byeon,
King Cheoljong
1863 – 12 June 1878
(as daebi)
12 June 1878

Korean Empire

Emperor Relationship with empress dowager Empress dowager Clan Husband Tenure Death
Honorary name Posthumous name
Yi Hui,
Emperor Gwangmu
Widow of a previous king Empress Dowager Myeongheon Queen Hyojeong Namyang Hong Yi Hwan,
King Heonjong
13 October 1897 – 2 January 1904 2 January 1904

Grand queens dowagerEdit

King Relationship with grand queen dowager Grand Queen dowager Clan Husband Tenure Death
Honorary name Posthumous name
Yi Hyeol,
King Seongjong
Widow of a previous king
Grandmother
Grand Queen Dowager Jaseong Queen Jeonghui Papyeong Yun Yi Yu,
King Sejo
1469 – 6 May 1483 6 May 1483
Yi Yung,
Prince Yeonsan
Widow of a previous king
Grand aunt-in-law
Grand Queen Dowager Myeongui Queen Ansun Cheongju Han Yi Hwang,
King Yejong
1494 – 3 February 1499 3 February 1499
Grandmother Grand Queen Dowager Insu Queen Sohye Cheongju Han Yi Jang,
Crown Prince Uigyeong
1494 - 11 May 1504 11 May 1504
Yi Hwan,
King Myeongjong
Widow of a previous king
Birth mother
Grand Queen Dowager Seongryeol Queen Munjeong Papyeong Yun Yi Yeok,
King Jungjong
1545 – 5 May 1565 5 May 1565
Yi Jong,
King Injo
Widow of a previous king
Step-grandmother
Grand Queen Dowager Myeongryeol Queen Inmok Yeonan Kim Yi Yeon,
King Seonjo
1624 – 13 August 1632 13 August 1632
Yi Yeon,
King Hyeonjong
Widow of a previous king
Step-grandmother
Grand Queen Dowager Jaui Queen Jangnyeol Yangju Jo Yi Jong,
King Injo
1659 – 20 September 1688 20 September 1688
Yi Sun,
King Sukjong
Widow of a previous king
Step-great-grandmother
Yi Geum,
King Yeongjo
Widow of a previous king
Step-mother
Grand Queen Dowager Hyesun Queen Inwon Gyeongju Kim Yi Sun,
King Sukjong
1724 – 13 May 1757 13 May 1757
Yi Gong,
King Sunjo
Widow of a previous king
Step-great-grandmother
Grand Queen Dowager Yesun Queen Jeongsun Gyeongju Kim Yi Geum,
King Yeongjo
18 August 1800 − 11 February 1805 11 February 1805
Yi Hwan,
King Heonjong
Widow of a previous king
Grandmother
Grand Queen Dowager Myeonggyeong Queen Sunwon Andong Kim Yi Gong,
King Sunjo
1834 − 21 September 1857 21 September 1857
Yi Byeon,
King Cheoljong
Widow of a previous king
Adopted mother
Second cousin-in-law Grand Queen Dowager Hyoyu Queen Shinjeong Pungyang Jo Yi Yeong,
Crown Prince Hyomyeong
21 September 1857 − 4 June 1890 4 June 1890
Yi Hui,
King Gojong
Adopted mother

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 王 King + 妃 Consort
  2. ^ 王 King + 大 Great + 妃 Consort
  3. ^ 大 Great + 妃 Consort
  4. ^ 大 Great + 王 King + 大 Great + 妃 Consort
  5. ^ In Eastern Asia royalti, both 妃 and 后 used for part of consort's title and translated as consort in English. 后 usually used by chief consort of the sovereign monarch, while 妃 had lesser rank than 后.
  6. ^ 皇 Imperial + 后 Consort

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chosŏn dynasty | Korean history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  2. ^ Kang, Etsuko H. (1997). Diplomacy and Ideology in Japanese-Korean Relations: from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century, p. 49.