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List of Indian Mutiny Victoria Cross recipients

Map showing the Indian Princely states during the rebellion of 1857

The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 182 members of the British Armed Forces, British Indian Army and civilians under their command, during the Indian Mutiny (also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857). The VC is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other Orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The VC is traditionally presented to the recipient by the British monarch during an investiture at Buckingham Palace, though in a large number of cases this was not possible and it was presented in the field by a prominent civil or military official. The VC was introduced in Great Britain on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War.[1]

The Indian Mutiny (also known as India's First War of Independence, Revolt of 1857, or the Sepoy Mutiny) began as a mutiny of sepoys of British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut. It soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region.[2] The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region,[3] and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.[2] The rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian history; it led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganise the army, the financial system, and the administration in India.[4] India was thereafter governed directly from London—by the British government India Office and a cabinet level Secretary of State for India—in the new British Raj, a system of governance that lasted until 1947.

Indian troops were not originally eligible for the VC, because since 1837 they had been eligible for the Indian Order of Merit—the oldest British gallantry award for general issue. When the VC was created, Indian troops were still controlled by the Honourable East India Company, and did not come under Crown control until 1860. European officers and men serving with the Honourable East India Company were not eligible for the Indian Order of Merit; the VC was extended to cover them in October 1857. The first citations of the VC varied in the details of each action; some specify one date, some date ranges, some the name of the battle and others have both sets of information. There were only two posthumous recipients of the VC for actions during the rebellion; the original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men; Everard Phillipps and Edward Spence were decorated thus.[5] The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920.[6][7] The Indian Mutiny holds the record for the most VCs won in a single day; 24 at the Second Relief of Lucknow on 16 November 1857.[8]

RecipientsEdit

Name Unit Date of action Place of action
Henry Addison 04343rd Regiment of Foot 1859-01-022 January 1859 Kurrereah, India
Frederick Aikman 0044th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-03-011 March 1858 Amethi, India
Robert Aitken 01313th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-06-3030 June 1857 to
22 November 1857[9]
Lucknow, India
Charles Anderson 0022nd Dragoon Guards 1858-10-088 October 1858 Sundeela Oudh, India
Augustus Anson 08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2828 September 1857,
16 November 1857
Bolandshahr, India
Lucknow, India
Charles Baker Bengal Military Police Battalion 1858-09-2727 September 1858 Suhejnee, Near Peroo, India
Valentine Bambrick 06060th Rifles 1858-05-066 May 1858 Bareilly, India
William Bankes 0077th Queen's Own Hussars 1858-03-1919 March 1858 Lucknow, India
James Blair 0022nd Bombay Light Cavalry 1857-08-1212 August 1857,
23 October 1857
Neemuch, India
Jeerum, India
Robert Blair 0022nd Dragoon Guards 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahr, India
Andrew Bogle 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-2929 July 1857 Oonao, India
Abraham Boulger 08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1212 July 1857 to
25 September 1857[10]
Lucknow, India
William Bradshaw 09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Joseph Brennan Royal Regiment of Artillery 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansi, India
Francis Brown 0011st Bengal European Fusiliers 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Narnoul, India
Sam Browne 04646th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-08-3131 August 1858 Seerporah, India
John Buckley Commissariat Department 1857-05-1111 May 1857 Delhi, India
Thomas Butler 0011st Bengal European Fusiliers 1858-03-099 March 1858 Lucknow, India
James Byrne 08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansi, India
Thomas Cadell 0022nd Bengal European Fusiliers 1857-06-1212 June 1857 Delhi, India
William Cafe 05656th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, India
Aylmer Cameron 07272nd Regiment of Foot 1858-03-3030 March 1858 Kotah, India
Patrick Carlin 01313th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-066 April 1858 Azumgurh, India
James Champion 0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-09-088 September 1858 Beejapore, India
George Chicken Naval BrigadeNaval Brigade 1858-09-2727 September 1858 Suhejnee, Near Peroo, India
Herbert Clogstoun 01919th Madras Native Infantry 1859-01-1515 January 1859 Chichumbah, India
Hugh Cochrane 08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-011 April 1858 Jhansi, India
William Connolly Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-07-077 July 1857 Jhelum, India
Walter Cook 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1859-01-1515 January 1859 Maylah Ghat, India
Cornelius Coughlan 07575th Regiment of Foot 1857-06-088 June 1857 Delhi, India
Joseph Crowe 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-08-1212 August 1857 Boursekee Chowkee, India
William Cubitt 01313th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-06-3030 June 1857 Chinhut, India
John Daunt 01111th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-10-022 October 1857 Ghota Behar, India
James Davis 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, India
Denis Dempsey 01010th Regiment of Foot 1857-08-1212 August 1857,
14 March 1858
Lucknow, India
Bernard Diamond Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahr, India
John Divane 06060th Rifles 1857-09-1010 September 1857 Delhi, India
Patrick Donohoe 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahr, India
William Dowling 03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-07-044 July 1857,
27 September 1857
Lucknow, India
Thomas Duffy 0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-09-0626 September 1857 Lucknow, India
John Dunlay 09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Denis Dynon 05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-10-022 October 1857 Ghota Behar, India
Francis Farquharson 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-03-099 March 1858 Lucknow, India
Alfred Ffrench 05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Richard Fitzgerald Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahr, India
Thomas Flinn 06464th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-2828 November 1857 Cawnpore, India
George Forrest Bengal Veterans Establishment 1857-05-1111 May 1857 Delhi, India
Charles Fraser 0077th Queen's Own Hussars 1858-12-3131 December 1858 River Raptee, India
John Freeman 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-10-1010 October 1857 Agra, India
William Gardner 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-05-055 May 1858 Bareilly, India
Stephen Garvin 06060th Rifles 1857-06-2323 June 1857 Delhi, India
Peter Gill Loodiana Regiment 1857-06-044 June 1857 Benares, India
William Goat 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-03-066 March 1858 Lucknow, India
Charles Goodfellow Bombay Engineers 1859-10-066 October 1859 Kathiawar, India
Henry Gore-Browne 03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-08-2121 August 1857 Lucknow, India
Charles Gough 0055th Bengal European Cavalry 1857-08-1515 August 1857,
18 August 1857,
27 January 1858,
3 February 1858[11]
Khurkowdah, India
Not known
Shumshabad, India
Meangunge, India
Hugh Gough 0011st Bengal European Light Cavalry 1857-11-1212 November 1857,
25 February 1858
Alumbagh, India
Jellalabad, India
Patrick Graham 09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1717 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Peter Grant 09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Robert Grant 0055th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2424 September 1857 Alumbagh, India
Patrick Green 07575th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1111 September 1857 Delhi, India
John Guise 09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Thomas Hackett 02323rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1818 November 1857 Lucknow, India
William Hall Naval BrigadeNaval Brigade 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Thomas Hancock 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-1919 June 1857 Delhi, India
Hastings Harington Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to
22 November 1857
Lucknow, India
John Harrison Naval BrigadeNaval Brigade 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Henry Hartigan 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-088 June 1857
10 October 1857[12]
Delhi, India
Agra, India
Henry Havelock-Allan 01010th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1616 July 1857 Cawnpore, India
David Hawkes RifleRifle Brigade 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknow, India
Robert Hawthorne 05252nd Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
Alfred Heathcote 06060th Rifles 1857-06-00June to
September 1857[13]
Delhi, India
Clement Heneage 0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwalior, India
Samuel Hill 09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
James Hills Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-07-099 July 1857 Delhi, India
George Hollis 0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwalior, India
James Hollowell 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1626 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Joel Holmes 08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Anthony Home 09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Duncan Home Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
James Innes Bengal Sappers and Miners 1858-02-2323 February 1858 Sultanpore, India
Charles Irwin 05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Hanson Jarrett 02626th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-10-1414 October 1858 Baroun, India
Joseph Jee 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Edward Jennings Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to
22 November 1857
Lucknow, India
Henry Jerome 08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansi, India
Alfred Jones 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-088 June 1857 Delhi, India
Thomas Kavanagh Bengal Civil Service 1857-11-099 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Richard Keatinge Bombay ArtilleryBombay Artillery 1858-03-1717 March 1858 Chundairee, India
Robert Kells 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahr, India
James Kenny 05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
William Kerr 02424th Bombay Native Infantry 1857-07-1010 July 1857 Kolapore, India
John Kirk 01010th Regiment of Foot 1857-06-044 June 1857 Benares, India
George Lambert 08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-2929 June 1857,
16 August 1857,
25 September 1857[10]
Oonao, India
Bithoor, India
Lucknow, India
Thomas Laughnan Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to
22 November 1857
Lucknow, India
Samuel Lawrence 03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-07-077 July 1857,
26 September 1857
Lucknow, India
James Leith 01414th Light Dragoons 1858-04-011 April 1858 Betwa, India
Harry Lyster 07272nd Bengal Native Infantry 1858-05-2323 May 1858 Calpee, India
David MacKay 09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Herbert MacPherson 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Patrick Mahoney 0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-09-2121 September 1857 Mungulwar, India
Ross Mangles Bengal Civil Service 1857-07-3030 July 1857 Arrah, India
Francis Maude Royal Regiment of Artillery 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Arthur Mayo Naval BrigadeNaval Brigade 1857-11-2222 November 1857 Dacca, India
William McBean 09393rd Regiment of Foot 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknow, India
William McDonell Bengal Civil Service 1857-07-3030 July 1857 Arrah, India
John McGovern 0011st Bengal European Fusiliers 1857-06-2323 June 1857 Delhi, India
James McGuire 0011st Bengal European Fusiliers 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
Patrick McHale 0055th Regiment of Foot 1857-10-022 October 1857,
22 December 1857[12]
Lucknow, India
Hugh McInnes Bengal Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to
22 November 1857
Lucknow, India
Peter McManus 0055th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Valentine McMaster 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Stewart McPherson 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Bernard McQuirt 09595th Regiment of Foot 1858-01-066 January 1858 Rowa, India
Duncan Millar 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1859-01-1515 January 1859 Maylah Ghat, India
James Miller Bengal Ordnance Depot 1857-10-2828 October 1857 Agra, India
Thomas Monaghan 0022nd Dragoon Guards 1858-10-088 October 1858 Jamo, India
George Monger 02323rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1818 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Samuel Morley Military TrainMilitary Train 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Azumgurh, India
James Munro 09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Michael Murphy Military TrainMilitary Train 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Azumgurh, India
Patrick Mylott 08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1212 July 1857 to
25 September 1857
Lucknow, India
William Napier 01313th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-066 April 1858 Azumgurh, India
William Nash Rifle BrigadeRifle Brigade 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknow, India
Robert Newell 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-03-1919 March 1858 Lucknow, India
William Olpherts Bengal Artillery 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknow, India
William Oxenham 03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-06-3030 June 1857 Lucknow, India
James Park Bengal Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to
22 November 1857
Lucknow, India
John Paton 09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
James Pearson 08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansi, India
John Pearson 0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwalior, India
Everard Phillipps 01111th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-05-3030 May 1857 to
18 September 1857[5]
Delhi, India
Harry Prendergast Madras Engineers 1857-11-2121 November 1857 Mundisore, India
Dighton Probyn 0022nd Punjab Cavalry 185-00-001857 to
1858[14]
Agra, India
John Purcell 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-1919 June 1857 Delhi, India
Charles Pye 05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1717 November 1857 Lucknow, India
William Raynor Bengal Veterans Establishment 1857-05-1111 May 1857 Delhi, India
Herbert Reade 06161st Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
William Rennie 09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2121 September 1857,
25 September 1857
Lucknow, India
George Renny Bengal Horse Artillery 1857-09-1616 September 1857 Delhi, India
George Richardson 03434th Regiment of Foot 1859-04-2727 April 1859 Kewane Trans-Gogra, India
Frederick Roberts Bengal Horse Artillery 1858-01-022 January 1858 Khodagunge, India
James Roberts 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahr, India
Edward Robinson Naval Brigade 1858-03-1313 March 1858 Lucknow, India
Patrick Roddy Bengal Army 1858-09-2727 September 1858 Kuthirga, India
George Rodgers 07171st Regiment of Foot 1858-06-1616 June 1858 Marar, India
Matthew Rosamund 03737th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-06-044 June 1857 Benares, India
David Rushe 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-03-1919 March 1858 Lucknow, India
John Ryan 0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Miles Ryan 0011st Bengal European Fusiliers 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
Philip Salkeld Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
Nowell Salmon Naval Brigade 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Same Shaw Rifle Brigade 1858-06-1313 June 1858 Lucknow, India
Robert Shebbeare 06060th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
John Simpson 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, India
John Sinnott 08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-10-066 October 1857 Lucknow, India
Michael Sleavon Corps ofCorps of Royal Engineers 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansi, India
Henry Smith 05252nd Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
John Smith 0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
John Smith Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhi, India
David Spence 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-01-1717 January 1858 Shumsabad, India
Edward Spence 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-1515 April 1858[5] Fort Ruhya, India
William Stewart 09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India
William Sutton 06060th Rifles 1857-08-022 August 1857 to
13 September 1857
Delhi, India
Edward Thackeray Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1616 September 1857 Delhi, India
Jacob Thomas Bengal Artillery 1857-09-2727 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Alexander Thompson 04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, India
William Thompson 06060th Rifles 1857-07-099 July 1857 Delhi, India[15]
Henry Tombs Bengal Horse Artillery 1857-07-099 July 1857 Delhi, India
James Travers 0022nd Bengal Native Infantry 1857-07-00July 1857[16] Indore, India
Samuel Turner 06060th Rifles 1857-06-1919 June 1857 Delhi, India
John Tytler 06666th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-02-1010 February 1858 Choorpoorah, India
Richard Wadeson 07575th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1717 July 1857 Delhi, India
George Waller 06060th Rifles 1857-09-1414 September 1857,
18 September 1857[13]
Delhi, India
William Waller 02525th Bombay Light Infantry 1858-06-2020 June 1858 Gwalior, India
Henry Ward 07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknow, India
Joseph Ward 0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwalior, India
John Watson 0011st Punjab Cavalry 1857-11-1414 November 1857 Lucknow, India
Frederick Whirlpool 0033rd Bombay European Regiment 1858-04-033 April 1858,
2 May 1858[17]
Jhansi, India
Lohari[18], India
Henry Wilmot Rifle Brigade 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknow, India
Evelyn Wood 01717th Lancers 1858-10-1919 October 1858 Sinwaho, India
Thomas Young Naval Brigade 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknow, India

ReferencesEdit

General
  • "Victoria Cross Registers". National Archives (UK). Retrieved 11 April 2008.
  • "Honourable East India Company and Indian Army holders of the Victoria Cross". VictoriaCross.org. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
  • Ashcroft, Michael (2006). Victoria Cross Heroes. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 0-7553-1632-0.
  • Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. New Delhi and London: Orient Longmans. ISBN 81-250-2596-0.
  • Bayly, C. A. (1990). Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (The New Cambridge History of India). Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38650-0.
  • Bose, Sugata; Jalal, Ayesha (2003). Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-30787-2.
  • Crook, M.J. (1975). The Evolution of the Victoria Cross. Midas books. ISBN 0-85936-041-5.
Specific
  1. ^ Ashcroft, M; 2006; preface; XI–XIII
  2. ^ a b Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar; 2004; pp.169–172
    Bose, Jalal; 2003; pp.88–103; Quote: "The 1857 rebellion was by and large confined to northern Indian Gangetic Plain and central India."
  3. ^ Bayly, C.A.; 1990; p.170; Quote: "What distinguished the events of 1857 was their scale and the fact that for a short time they posed a military threat to British dominance in the Ganges Plain."
  4. ^ Bayly, C.A.; 1990; pp.194–197
  5. ^ a b c "No. 27986". The London Gazette. 15 January 1907. p. 325.
  6. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  7. ^ "No. 31946". The London Gazette. 18 June 1920. p. 6702.
  8. ^ Arthur, Max; p. XIV
  9. ^ "Robert Aitken details". National Archives. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
  10. ^ a b "No. 22154". The London Gazette. 18 June 1858. p. 2957.
  11. ^ "No. 22318". The London Gazette. 21 November 1859. p. 3792.
  12. ^ a b "No. 22396". The London Gazette. 19 June 1860. p. 2316.
  13. ^ a b "No. 22347". The London Gazette. 20 January 1860. p. 178.
  14. ^ Probyn was awarded his VC for numerous gallant acts throughout the period of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
    "No. 22154". The London Gazette. 18 June 1858. p. 2960.
  15. ^ The 'siege' mentioned in the citation is not identified and is often wrongly assumed to be Lucknow. He served at Delhi where he was badly wounded in September 1857.
  16. ^ "No. 22485". The London Gazette. 1 March 1861. p. 1007.
  17. ^ "No. 22318". The London Gazette. 21 October 1859. p. 3793.
  18. ^ Leek,Alan; (2018):"Frederick Whirlpool VC"; Big Sky Pub;pp 140