List of Gulag camps

The list below, enumerates the selected sites of the Soviet forced labor camps (known in Russian as the "corrective labor camps") of the Gulag. Most of them served mining, construction, and timber works. It is estimated that for most of its existence, the Gulag system consisted of over 30,000 camps, divided into three categories according to the number of prisoners held. The largest camps consisted of more than 25,000 prisoners each, medium size camps held from 5,000 to 25,000 inmates, and the smallest, but most numerous labor camps operated with less than 5,000 people each.[1] Even this incomplete list can give a fair idea of the scale of forced labor in the USSR.

List historyEdit

Initially, the list of Gulag slave labor camps in the USSR was created in Poland from the personal accounts of labor camp detainees of Polish citizenship. It was compiled by the government of Poland for the purpose of regulation and future financial compensation for World War II victims, and published in a decree of the Council of Ministers of Poland.[2]

Camps listed were not designed specifically for the Poles. Citizens of the USSR and people of other nationalities were also detained there. In total, more than 18 million people were sent to the Gulag from 1929 to 1953.[3]

Camp system operationEdit

There were a number of particular categories of convicts that were imprisoned there including:

  1. Any person convicted to a term of imprisonment of more than three years (all those convicted to less than three years were to be sent to "corrective labor colonies").
  2. Soviet dissidents. Initially these were dubbed "class enemies" (White Army combatants, members of opposition parties, nobility, etc.). Later, when the full victory of the Revolution was declared and there were supposedly no more "class enemies" left, a more flexible term of the enemy of the people was introduced, as well as an infamous Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code) that covered "counter-revolutionary activities".
  3. Soviet combatants returned from captivity. As a rule they were held liable under Article 58.

The so-called prisoners of war were generally imprisoned in special POW camps, which existed independently from the network of corrective labor camps, and were subordinated to a separate administrative apparatus within the NKVD (since 1946: MVD). However, a fair number of POWs ended up in the regular camp system eventually. Unlike Gulag camps, located primarily in remote areas (mostly in Siberia), most of the POW camps after the war were located in the European part of the Soviet Union, where the prisoners worked on restoration of the country's infrastructure destroyed during the war: roads, railways, plants, etc., a topic of a separate article, POW labor in the Soviet Union. Polish citizens and members of other nationalities who were imprisoned at the Soviet forced labour camps during World War II worked also for the Soviet Army, digging trenches, employed in lumber and cement works, airport runway construction, and unloading of transport goods.[4]

Location map of the Soviet Gulag system of concentration camps

Main camp directorates with acronymsEdit

  • BAM: Baikalo-Amurskaya Magistral, Baikal-Amur Mainline (railway)
  • BBK: Belomorsko-Baltiyskiy Kanal, White Sea-Baltic Canal
  • ITL: "Ispravitelno-trudovoi lager'", or, literally, "corrective labor camp".
  • LO: "Lesoobyedinenie", Logging works complex
  • CW: Construction Works
  • CS: Construction Site
  • GES: "Gidroelektrostantsiya", hydro-electric powerplant
  • Dalstroy: Far East regional CW directorate
  • Yeniseystroy: Yenisei River basin regional CW directorate
  • SMU: "stroitelno-montazhnoe upravlenie", Administration of construction and installation works
  • NKVD: literally, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs
  • MVD: literally, the Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • UVD: literally, the Administration of Internal Affairs, subordinated to GUVD
  • GUVD: literally, the Main Administration of Internal Affairs, renamed MVD
  • NKV: literally, the People's Commissariat of Arms
  • OITK: "Otdel ispravitelno-trudovykh koloniy", corrective labor colonies department
  • OLP: "Otdel'ny lagerney punkt", separate camp point
  • OGPU: "Ob'yedinennoe glavnoe politicheskoe upravlenie", United Main Political Administration
  • PL: to mark sites that also detained Polish nationals
  • TMFM: Traitor of Motherland Family Member (Russian: ЧСИР: член семьи изменника Родины), a category of repressed designated for the family members of the person who was recognized as the Traitor of Motherland; some camps were specifically designated to this category.

GULAGEdit

  • GULAG: "Glavnoe Upravlenie Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerej", or The Chief Directorate of Corrective Labor Camps
  • BAMLag: Directorate of BAM camps
  • BBLag: Directorate of White Sea-Baltic Canal camps, refer to previously mentioned BBK
  • GULGMP: "Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerej (GUL) Gornopererabatyvayushchey i Metallurgicheckoy Promyshlennosti", Chief Directorate of Camps in Mining and Metallurgical Industry
  • GULLP: "GUL Lesnoj i Lesopererabatyvayushchey Promyshlennosti", Chief Directorate of Forestry and Wood Processing Industry
  • GULTP: "GUL Tyazholoy Promyshlennosti", Chief Directorate of Camps in Heavy Industry
  • GULGTS: "GUL Gidrotekhnicheskogo stroitelstva", Chief Directorate of Hydroelectric CW
  • GULZhDS: "GUL Zheleznodorozhnogo stroitelstva", Chief Directorate of Railway CW
  • GUSHOSDOR, GULShosDor, GULShDOR: "GUL Shosseynykh dorog", Chief Directorate of Camps in Highway CW
  • Sevvostlag or SVITL[5] (severo-vostochnye lagerya): Directorate of North-Eastern Camps, until 1939 was an independent system of labor camps outside of the main administration of camps, GULAG.
  • USLON: "Upravlenie Severnykh Lagerey Osobogo Naznacheniya", Directorate of Northern Special-Significance Camps
    • USKMITL: "Upravlenie Solovetskogo and Karelo-Murmanskikh ITL", Directorate of Solovki and Karelia-Murmansk Camps
    • SLON: "Solovetski Lager Osobogo Naznachenia", Solovki Camp of Special Significance.
  • KhOZU: "Khozyaystvennoe upravlenie MVD", Economic Management of the MVD
  • UITLK: "Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i Koloniy", Management of Corrective Labor Camps and Colonies

Construction worksEdit

  • Administration of corrective labor camps of "Apatit" industrial complex.
  • General Administration of Petroleum Refinery and Synthetic Fuels Construction of MVD
  • (PL) ITLs servicing CSs ## 6, 16, 18, 90, 100, 105, 106, 108, 141, 159, 211, 213, 247, 258, 263, 304, 313, 442, 447, 462, 496, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 513, 514, 514, 560, 565, 585, 600, 601, 620, 665, 770, 790, 791, 833, 855, 859, 865, 880, 882, 883, 885, 896, 907, 915, 940, 994 (PL)
  • (PL) ITLs servicing GUShosDor CSs ## 1—8, 19 (PL)
  • (PL) ITLs servicing SMU ## 41—53 (PL)
  • Krasnoyarsk CS and ITL of Yeniseystroy (PL)
  • ITL of Special CSs for Cellulose-Paper enterprises of Karelo-Finnish SSR (PL)
  • ITL of CS for Arkhangelsk Cellulose-Paper Complex (PL)
  • ITL of CSs for hydroelectric power plants on the Biya River (PL)
  • ITL of CSs for Vladimir hydroelectric power plant (PL)
  • ITL for CSs ##1, 2, 3 of Bashkirian Petroleum Plants Special CW (Bashspecneftestroy) (PL)
  • ITL for CSs ##1, 2, 3 of Tatarstan Petroleum Plants Special CW (Tatspecneftestroy) (PL)
  • ITL for CS of the Kazan petroleum refinery
  • ITL for CSs of hydroelectric power plants on the upper Oka River (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Transcaucasian metallurgical enterprises (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Znamienitaya dam and sluice (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Volga-Don canal (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Krasnoyarsk-Yeniseysk railway (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Karaganda basin open-cast coal mines (PL)
  • Taishet Construction Works

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKVD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Alluvajsky CS and ITL (PL)
  • Jensky CS and ITL (PL)
  • Matkozensky CS and ITL (PL)
  • Yanstroy ITL of Dalstroy (PL)
  • 156) ITL Iron Ore Mine Construction(ITŁ Budowy Kopalń Rudy Żelaza)
  • 157) ITL Construction of Mining and Metallurgical Enterprises (ITŁ Budowy Przedsiębiorstw Górniczo-Metalurgicznych)
  • 158) ITŁ Budowy Przystani Południowej,
  • 139) ITŁ Budownictwa Przemysłowego i Mieszkaniowego,
  • 190) ITŁ i Budowa Kopalni Rudy,
  • 191) ITŁ i Budowa Kopalni Węgla,
  • 135) ITŁ i Ekspedycja Poszukująca Ropy Naftowej,
  • 137) ITŁ Biełomorstroju,
  • 163) ITŁ Ekspedycji Geologiczno-Poszukiwawczej,
  • 208) ITŁ Jańskiego Zarządu Górniczo-Przemysłowego,
  • 212) ITŁ Krasnojarskiego Zakładu Afinacji,
  • 214) ITŁ przy Budowie Karagandażyłstroju,
  • 218) ITŁ przy Zarządzie Budowy Dyrekcji Kopalń Rudy nr 10,
  • 234) ITŁ Zarządu Dróg Bitych Dalstroju,
  • 235) ITŁ Zarządu Gospodarstw Pomocniczych Dalstroju,

AEdit

 
Memorial for the Akmolinsk camp for wives of "traitors of the Motherland" (АЛЖИР)

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Archpierpunkt
  • Atbasarski ITL

BEdit

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKVD camps,[2] and the Russian Карта ГУЛАГа - Мемориал

  • Baydarsky ITL
  • Bakalsky ITL
  • Bakovsky ITL
  • Baleysky ITL
  • Balachlag
  • Barashevsky ITL and Industrial Complex of GULAG,
  • Bazhenovsky ITL
  • Belokorovichsky camp of the OITK NKVD of BSSR
  • Berezovsky ITL (1947-1948)
  • Berezovsky ITL (1954-1956)
  • Berezovsky ITL of Northern directorate of GULZhDS
  • Bezymyansky ITL
  • Bobrovskoe LO
  • Borsky ITL
  • Beregovoy Camp (MVD Special Camp No. 5)
  • Burepolomsky ITL

CEdit

  • Central Asian ITL
  • Chapayevsky ITL
  • Chaunsky ITL of Dalstroy
  • Chaun-Chukotsky ITL of Dalstroy
  • Cheboksarsky ITL
  • Chelyabinsky ITL
  • Cherepovetsky ITL
  • Chernogorsky ITL
  • Chernogorsky Special ITL
  • Chernoistochinsky ITL
  • Chukotsky ITL of Dalstroy (ЧУКОТСКИЕ ИТЛ)[6]
  • Construction 6 and ITL
  • Construction 16 and ITL (renamed Kitoysky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 18 and ITL (renamed Khakassky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 90 and ITL (later Construction 560 and ITL, Construction 565 and ITL and Bakovlag)
  • Construction 105 and ITL
  • Construction 106 and ITL
  • Construction 108 and ITL
  • Construction 159 and ITL
  • Construction 200 and Luzhsky ITL (Luzhlag)
  • Construction 201 and ITL (Nikolaev ITL)
  • Construction 210 and ITL
  • Construction 211 and ITL
  • Construction 213 and ITL
  • Construction 247 and ITL (renamed Kuznetsky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 258 and ITL
  • Construction 263 and ITL
  • Construction 304 and ITL
  • Construction 313 and ITL (renamed Bobrovskoe LO in 1953)
  • Construction 352 and ITL
  • Construction 384 and ITL
  • Construction 442 and ITL (renamed Gorodsk LO in 1953)
  • Construction 447 and ITL
  • Construction 462 and ITL (renamed Azovsky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 496 and ITL (renamed to Construction 258 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 500
  • Construction 505 and ITL GULZhDS (renamed Selenginsky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 505 and ITL GULPS (later Construction 585 and ITL, renamed Belogorsk ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 506 and ITL
  • Construction 507 and ITL (became part of Nizhamurlag in 1953)
  • Construction 508 and ITL
  • Construction 509 and ITL
  • Construction 510 and ITL
  • Construction 511 and ITL
  • Construction 513 and ITL
  • Construction 514 and ITL (renamed Krasnogorsky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 514 and ITL GULZhDS
  • Construction 560 and ITL
  • Construction 565 and ITL
  • Construction 585 and ITL
  • Construction 600 and ITL (renamed Kamensky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 601 and ITL (renamed Voroninosky ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 612 and ITL (renamed Podgorny ITL in 1953)
  • Construction 620 and ITL (renamed Podlesnoe LO in 1953)
  • Construction 621 and ITL
  • Construction 665 and ITL
  • Construction 713 and ITL (renamed to Construction 352 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 730 and ITL
  • Construction 770 and ITL
  • Construction 790 and ITL (renamed Yermakovskoye LO in 1953)
  • Construction 791 and ITL
  • Construction 833 and ITL (renamed to Construction 620 and ITL in 1949
  • Construction 855 and ITL
  • Construction 859 and ITL (renamed to Construction 247 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 865 and ITL (renamed to Construction 313 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 880 and ITL (renamed to Construction 505 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 881 and ITL (renamed to Construction 915 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 882 and ITL (renamed to Construction 940 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 896 and ITL (renamed to Construction 665 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 904 and ITL (renamed to Construction 384 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 907 and ITL (renamed to Construction 447 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction 915 and ITL
  • Construction 940 and ITL
  • Construction 994 and ITL (later renamed to Zhelezlag)
  • Construction 1001 and ITL
  • Construction 1418 and ITL (renamed to Construction 514 and ITL in 1949)
  • Construction GUShOSDORA MVD No. 1 – No. 8 and ITL
  • Construction GUShOSDORA MVD No. 17 and ITL
  • Construction GUShOSDORA MVD No. 19 and ITL
  • Construction GUShOSDORA NKVD No. 1 – No. 4 and ITL

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Chistyungsky ITL for handicapped

DEdit

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

FEdit

  • Far East ITL

GEdit

IEdit

  • Ilimsky Special ITL
  • Indigirsky ITL of Dalstroy
  • Intinsky ITL (Intalag)
  • Inza- Syzran ITL
  • ITL Aldan road construction authority of Dalstroy
  • ITL and 10th field construction NKVD
  • ITL and Bashkirian Petroleum Plant (Bashspetneftestroy) construction No. 1 – No. 4 (PL)
  • ITL and Tatarstan Petroleum Plant (Tatspetsneftestroy) construction No. 1 & No. 2 (PL)
  • ITL and "V-1" construction
  • ITL and Arkhangelsk TsBK construction
  • ITL and Borovichevskoy GES construction
  • ITL and Buyskikh GES construction
  • ITL and construction of Aktovrakskogo industrial complex
  • ITL and construction of industrial complex No. 7
  • ITL and construction of iron ore mine
  • ITL and construction of Kazan oil refining plant
  • ITL and construction of Mstinskikh GES
  • ITL and construction of NKV plant No. 8
  • ITL and construction of Transcaucasian metallurgical plant
  • ITL and construction of upper Ob hydroelectric plant
  • ITL and construction of Samgorsky irrigation system, Tbilisi
  • ITL and construction of special district
  • ITL and construction of Vladimirskoy GES (PL)
  • ITL and construction of Volga-Don waterway
  • ITL and construction of a Gulag camp in Dmitrov District
  • ITL and construction of state farms (Sovkhoz) and silos
  • ITL and construction of Stalinist pumping stations
  • ITL and construction of Gulag in Khimki District
  • ITL and construction of southeast harbor
  • ITL and construction of special region
  • ITL and Krasnoyarsk–Yeniseisk railway construction
  • ITL "ASh"
  • ITL "Apatit" industrial complex
  • ITL Berelekhskaya District Management geological exploration of Dalstroy
  • ITL Board of Dalstroy
  • ITL "BZh"
  • ITL construction Usolsky mining equipment plant
  • ITL special construction site No. 881
  • ITL Dalstroy Roads Board
  • ITL Dmitrov mechanical plant
  • ITL "DS" of Yeniseistroy
  • ITL "DT"
  • ITL "DYu"
  • ITL "EL"
  • ITL "EM"
  • ITL "EN"
  • ITL "EO"
  • ITL "GA"
  • ITL "GB"
  • ITL "IN"
  • ITL industrial complex No. 6
  • ITL industrial complex No. 9
  • ITL industrial complex No. 11
  • ITL "KA"
  • ITL Kolyma-Indigirka river shipping of Dalstroy
  • ITL Motor Transport Dalstroy
  • ITL "NL"
  • ITL No. 17 GUShOSDOR
  • ITL Oboronstroe
  • ITL Omskstroy
  • ITL "Promzhilstroy" of Dalstroy
  • ITL refining plant No. 169
  • ITL Spetsstroy
  • ITL of special construction
  • ITL Uglich plant, bridge construction No. 4 GUShOSDOR
  • ITL Usolgidroles
  • ITL "VCh"
  • ITL Volgostroya
  • ITL Yanstroya of Dalstroy (PL)
  • ITL "Yeshch"
  • ITL "Yeya"
  • ITL "ZhK"
  • ITL "ZhR"
  • Ivdelsky ITL

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

KEdit

LEdit

  • Likovsky ITL and construction 204
  • LO at Voroshilov plant
  • LO at "Sacca and Vanzetti" sovkhoz (Cherdaklag)
  • LO Central Hospital, Dalstroy
  • LO Lower Indigirskogo district exploration Dalstroy Management (LO Ozhogino)
  • Lobvinsky ITL
  • Lokchimsky ITL
  • Lower Amur ITL
  • Lower Don ITL
  • Lower Volga ITL
  • Lugovoy Camp (MVD Special Camp No. 9)
  • Luzhsky ITL and construction 200
  • Lysogorskoe LO

MEdit

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Magadan ITL, Dalstroy (Maglag)
  • Maykainskoe LO
  • Makarovsky LO
  • Markovsky ITL
  • Martynovsky ITL
  • Marysky ITL
  • Matkozhnenskoe construction and ITL
  • Medvezhiegorsk health camp
  • Mekhrennsky ITL
  • Middle-Volga ITL
  • Mineevskoe LO KhOZU MVD
  • Minlag (Special Camp No. 1, later Mineralny ITL)
  • Minusinskoe LO SGU
  • Molotovsky ITL
  • Monchegorsky ITL and construction of "Severonikel" plant
  • Moskovsko-Ugolny ITL
  • Moskovsky-Lesozagotovitelny ITL
  • Mostovskoe ITL

NEdit

  • Niebitdaski ITŁ
  • Neftestroylag
  • Nemnyrsky ITL
  • Nerchinsky ITL
  • Nerchinskoe LO
  • Nikolayevsky ITL
  • Nizhegorodsky ITL
  • Noginsky ITL
  • Norillag (June 25, 1935 to August 22, 1956)
  • North Dvina ITL
  • North Kuzbass ITL
  • North-Pechora ITL
  • North Urals ITL
  • Northeast ITL
  • North ITL Dalstroy
  • North Management ITL and construction 503 (Северная Совет)
  • Novokimensky ITL
  • Novo-Tambovsky ITL
  • Nyrobsky ITL

OEdit

  • Obsky ITL
  • Obsky ITL and construction 501
  • Olkhovsky health camp
  • OLP construction building No. 1 GULAG NKVD
  • Omsky ITL
  • Omsky ITL and construction 166
  • Omsukchansky ITL Dalstroy
  • Onega ITL
  • Opoksky ITL
  • Orlovsky ITL
  • Ostrovskoye LO
  • Ozerlag (MVD Special Camp No. 7)

PEdit

REdit

  • Raychikhinsky ITL
  • Rechnoy Camp (MVD Special Camp No. 6)
  • Rudbaykalstroy and ITL
  • Rybinsky ITL

SEdit

Continued from the Russian Карта ГУЛАГа - Мемориал listing of NKWD camps,[6] and the Polish Dziennik Ustaw listing of camps.

TEdit

UEdit

VEdit

YEdit

ZEdit

Continued from the Polish complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Zaimandrovsky ITL
  • Zapolyarny ITL and construction 301
  • Zapolyarny ITL and construction 503
  • Zhelezlag (renamed Polyansky ITL in 1953)
  • Zhigalovskoe LO

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "НИПЦ "Мемориал", при содействии фонда Фельтринелли и кафедры картографии географического факультета МГУ". Карта ГУЛАГа (Gulag map). The Memorial Society, Russia. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rada Ministrów (20 September 2001). Decree of the Council of Ministers regarding places of Soviet detention of Polish nationals. Dz.U.2001.106.1154. ROZPORZĄDZENIE PREZESA RADY MINISTRÓW z dnia 20 września 2001 r. w sprawie określenia miejsc odosobnienia, w których były osadzone osoby narodowości polskiej lub obywatele polscy innych narodowości. (Dz. U. z dnia 29 września 2001 r.) (in Polish)
  3. ^ Extended Definition: Gulag. From: Anne Applebaum, GULAG: a history.
  4. ^ А. Kokurin. Тюремная система. 1934–1960 [The prison system, 1934–1960] (in Russian). Memorial. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  5. ^ Information about Dalstroy and SVITL (para #5) Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Виктор ЛОЗИНСКИ. "Archipelago Gulag". Объединенный ученый совет СО РАН по экономическим наукам. Retrieved 26 February 2015.

External linksEdit