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The United States claimed a number of islands as insular areas under the Guano Islands Act of 1856. Only the eight administered as the US Minor Islands and one each annexed by American Samoa and Hawaii remain as possessions of the United States. Any other unresolved claims if they exist are dormant, and have not been contested by the United States in many years with the exception of Navassa.

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TableEdit

Island Region Alternate name Coordinates Current Status Resolution of U.S. claim[1]
Alto Velo Island Caribbean Isla Alto Velo 17°28′42″N 71°38′05″W / 17.4782°N 71.6347°W / 17.4782; -71.6347 (Alto Velo Island) Dominican Republic Dormant (see Alto Velo Claim)
Atafu Oceania Duke of York Group 8°33′06″S 172°30′03″W / 8.55167°S 172.50083°W / -8.55167; -172.50083 (Atafu) Tokelau Treaty of Tokehega
Bajo Nuevo Bank Caribbean Petrel Islands 15°53′N 78°38′W / 15.883°N 78.633°W / 15.883; -78.633 (Bajo Nuevo Bank) Disputed Remains in place as an unincorporated territory.
De facto administered by Colombia, and also claimed by Jamaica and Nicaragua.
Baker Island Oceania New Nantucket 0°11′41″N 176°28′46″W / 0.19472°N 176.47944°W / 0.19472; -176.47944 (Baker Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Birnie Island Oceania 3°35′S 171°33′W / 3.583°S 171.550°W / -3.583; -171.550 (Birnie Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Butaritari Oceania Makin Atoll, Touching Island 3°10′04″N 172°49′33″E / 3.16778°N 172.82583°E / 3.16778; 172.82583 (Butaritari) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Caroline Island Oceania Millennium Island 9°56′13.13″S 150°12′41.40″W / 9.9369806°S 150.2115000°W / -9.9369806; -150.2115000 (Caroline Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Carondelet Reef Oceania 5°34′S 173°51′W / 5.567°S 173.850°W / -5.567; -173.850 (Carondelet Reef) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Clipperton Island Pacific Ocean Passion Island 10°18′N 109°13′W / 10.300°N 109.217°W / 10.300; -109.217 (Clipperton Island) France Original treaty between Mexico and France, Also claimed by Mexico.
Ducie Island Oceania 24°40′09″S 124°47′11″W / 24.66917°S 124.78639°W / -24.66917; -124.78639 (Ducie Island) British Territory Dormant. Administered by Pitcairn Islands.
Enderbury Island Oceania Guano Island 3°08′S 171°05′W / 3.133°S 171.083°W / -3.133; -171.083 (Enderbury Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Fakaofo Oceania Bowditch Island 9°21′55″S 171°12′54″W / 9.36528°S 171.21500°W / -9.36528; -171.21500 (Fakaofo) Tokelau Treaty of Tokehega
Flint Island Oceania 11°25′48″S 151°49′9″W / 11.43000°S 151.81917°W / -11.43000; -151.81917 (Flint Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
French Frigate Shoals Oceania Kānemiloha'i 23°44′56″N 166°8′46″W / 23.74889°N 166.14611°W / 23.74889; -166.14611 (French Frigate Shoals) Hawaii Assumed sole competing claim through annexation of Hawaii
(1898); included in State of Hawaii (1959).
Funafuti Oceania 8°31′S 179°13′E / 8.517°S 179.217°E / -8.517; 179.217 (Funafuti) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Howland Island Oceania Worth Island 0°48′07″N 176°38′3″W / 0.80194°N 176.63417°W / 0.80194; -176.63417 (Howland Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Isla Aves Caribbean Isla de Aves 15°40′18″N 63°36′59″W / 15.67167°N 63.61639°W / 15.67167; -63.61639 (Isla Aves) Venezuela United States–Venezuela Maritime Boundary Treaty
Iles du Connétable Atlantic Ocean Constable Islands 4°49′25″N 51°56′11″W / 4.82361°N 51.93639°W / 4.82361; -51.93639 (Iles du Connétable) France Rescinded. Administered by French Guiana.
Jarvis Island Oceania Bunker Island 0°22′S 160°01′W / 0.367°S 160.017°W / -0.367; -160.017 (Jarvis Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Johnston Atoll Oceania 16°44′13″N 169°31′26″W / 16.737°N 169.524°W / 16.737; -169.524 (Johnston Atoll) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Kanton Island Oceania Canton Island 2°50′S 171°40′W / 2.833°S 171.667°W / -2.833; -171.667 (Kanton Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Kingman Reef Oceania Danger Rock 6°24′N 162°24′W / 6.400°N 162.400°W / 6.400; -162.400 (Kingman Reef) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Kiritimati Oceania Christmas Island 1°52′N 157°24′W / 1.867°N 157.400°W / 1.867; -157.400 (Kiritimati) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Lacepede Islands Oceania Lacapade [sic] Islands 16°51′55″S 122°08′12″E / 16.86528°S 122.13667°E / -16.86528; 122.13667 (Lacepede Islands) Australia Claim made on 26 June 1876; repudiated by US government in 1877.
Makin (islands) Oceania Little Makin 3°23′00″N 173°00′00″E / 3.38333°N 173.00000°E / 3.38333; 173.00000 (Makin (islands)) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Malden Island Oceania Independence Island 4°01′S 154°56′W / 4.017°S 154.933°W / -4.017; -154.933 (Malden Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Manihiki Oceania Island of Pearls 10°24′S 161°00′W / 10.400°S 161.000°W / -10.400; -161.000 (Manihiki) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Manra Island Oceania Sydney Island 4°27′S 171°16′W / 4.450°S 171.267°W / -4.450; -171.267 (Manra Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
McKean Island Oceania Wigram Island 3°35′S 174°02′W / 3.583°S 174.033°W / -3.583; -174.033 (McKean Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Midway Atoll Oceania Middlebrook Islands 28°12′N 177°21′W / 28.200°N 177.350°W / 28.200; -177.350 (Midway Atoll) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Minami Torishima Oceania Marcus Island 24°18′N 153°58′E / 24.300°N 153.967°E / 24.300; 153.967 (Minami Torishima) Japan Returned to Japan in 1968 after it had been given to US by Treaty of San Francisco
Navassa Island Caribbean Navaza 18°24′10″N 75°0′45″W / 18.40278°N 75.01250°W / 18.40278; -75.01250 (Navassa Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory. Also claimed by Haiti.
Nikumaroro Oceania Gardner Island 4°40′S 174°31′W / 4.667°S 174.517°W / -4.667; -174.517 (Nikumaroro) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Niulakita Oceania Sophia Island 10°45′S 179°30′E / 10.750°S 179.500°E / -10.750; 179.500 (Niulakita) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Nukufetau Oceania 8°00′S 178°30′E / 8.000°S 178.500°E / -8.000; 178.500 (Nukufetau) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Nukulaelae Oceania 9°22′52″S 179°51′08″E / 9.38111°S 179.85222°E / -9.38111; 179.85222 (Nukulaelae) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Nukunonu Oceania Duke of Clarence Island 9°10′06″S 171°48′35″W / 9.16833°S 171.80972°W / -9.16833; -171.80972 (Nukunonu) Tokelau Treaty of Tokehega
Orona Oceania Hull Island 4°30′S 172°10′W / 4.500°S 172.167°W / -4.500; -172.167 (Orona) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Palmyra Atoll Oceania 5°53′N 162°5′W / 5.883°N 162.083°W / 5.883; -162.083 (Palmyra Atoll) US Minor Islands Incorporated territory.[2] U.S. assumed sole competing claim through annexation of Hawaii (1898), but not included in State of Hawaii (1959).
Penrhyn Island Oceania Tongareva 9°00′20″S 157°58′10″W / 9.00556°S 157.96944°W / -9.00556; -157.96944 (Penrhyn Island) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Pukapuka Oceania San Bernardo Island 10°53′S 165°40′W / 10.883°S 165.667°W / -10.883; -165.667 (Pukapuka) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Quita Sueño Bank Caribbean Quitasueño 14°19′N 81°10′W / 14.317°N 81.167°W / 14.317; -81.167 (Quita Sueño Bank) Colombia Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981
Rakahanga Oceania Grand Duke Alexander Island 10°02′S 161°05′W / 10.033°S 161.083°W / -10.033; -161.083 (Rakahanga) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Rawaki Island Oceania Phoenix Island 3°42′40″S 170°42′43″W / 3.711°S 170.712°W / -3.711; -170.712 (Rawaki Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Roncador Bank Caribbean 13°34′N 80°05′W / 13.567°N 80.083°W / 13.567; -80.083 (Roncador Bank) Colombia Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981
Rosalind Bank Caribbean Rosa Linda Bank 16°26′N 80°31′W / 16.433°N 80.517°W / 16.433; -80.517 (Rosalind Bank) Disputed Multiple nations claim this submerged bank as a part of their EEZs.
The Colombia-US Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981 is silent on the matter.
Administed by Colombia, and claimed by Nicaragua, Honduras, the United States, and Jamaica.
Scorpion Reef Gulf of Mexico Arrecife Alacranes (Isla Pérez, Isla Chica, Isla Pajoras) 22°24′N 89°42′W / 22.400°N 89.700°W / 22.400; -89.700 (Scorpion Reef) Mexico Abandoned claim in 1894[3]
Serrana Bank Caribbean 14°20′N 80°20′W / 14.333°N 80.333°W / 14.333; -80.333 (Serrana Bank) Colombia Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981
Serranilla Bank Caribbean 15°50′N 79°50′W / 15.833°N 79.833°W / 15.833; -79.833 (Serranilla Bank) Disputed Remains in place as an unincorporated territory. Colombia and Jamaica agreed to a condominium of Serranilla's exclusive economic zone; Nicaragua also lays claim.
Starbuck Island Oceania Volunteer Island 5°37′S 155°56′W / 5.617°S 155.933°W / -5.617; -155.933 (Starbuck Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Swains Island[4] Oceania 11°03′20″S 171°04′40″W / 11.05556°S 171.07778°W / -11.05556; -171.07778 (Swains Island) American Samoa Treaty of Tokehega
Swan Islands Caribbean Islas Santanilla 17°24′38″N 83°55′19″W / 17.41056°N 83.92194°W / 17.41056; -83.92194 (Swan Islands) Honduras Honduras-US Treaty of 1972
Tabuaeran Oceania Fanning Island 3°51′36″N 159°21′52″W / 3.86000°N 159.36444°W / 3.86000; -159.36444 (Tabuaeran) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Teraina Oceania Washington Island 4°41′00″N 160°22′40″W / 4.68333°N 160.37778°W / 4.68333; -160.37778 (Teraina) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Triángulo Oeste Gulf of Mexico West Triangle 20°57′N 92°14′W / 20.95°N 92.23°W / 20.95; -92.23 (Triángulo Oeste) Mexico Abandoned claim in 1895
Vostok Island Oceania Staver Island 10°06′S 152°23′W / 10.100°S 152.383°W / -10.100; -152.383 (Vostok Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Winslow Reef Oceania 1°36′S 174°57′W / 1.600°S 174.950°W / -1.600; -174.950 (Winslow Reef) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa

ImagesEdit

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Formerly Disputed Islands". Office of Insular Affairs. 2007-01-11. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  2. ^ "History: Under the American Flag". Office of Insular Affairs. 2006-01-30. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  3. ^ Magoon, Charles E. (1900). Report on the Legal Status of the Territory and Inhabitants of the Islands Acquired by the United States During the War with Spain. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 16.
  4. ^ Page 213, in Jimmy M. Skaggs (1994), The Great Guano Rush: Entrepreneurs and American Overseas Expansion. ISBN 978-0-312-10316-3.

Further readingEdit