List of governors of Pennsylvania

The governor of Pennsylvania is the head of government of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, as well as commander-in-chief of the state's national guard.[2]

Governor of the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Seal of the governor
Flag of the governor
Incumbent
Josh Shapiro
since January 17, 2023
Government of Pennsylvania
Style
Status
ResidenceGovernor's Residence
Term lengthFour years, renewable once consecutively
Inaugural holderThomas Mifflin
FormationDecember 21, 1790
DeputyLieutenant Governor
Salary$201,729 (2020)[1]
Websitewww.governor.pa.gov Edit this at Wikidata

The governor has a duty to enforce state laws and the power to approve or veto bills passed by the Pennsylvania Legislature[3] and to convene the legislature.[4] The governor may grant pardons except in cases of impeachment, but only when recommended by the Board of Pardons.[5]

There have been seven presidents and 48 governors of Pennsylvania, with two governors (Robert E. Pattison and Gifford Pinchot) serving non-consecutive terms, totaling 55 terms in both offices. The longest term was that of the first governor, Thomas Mifflin, who served three full terms as governor in addition to two years as President of the Continental Congress. The shortest term belonged to John C. Bell Jr., who served only 19 days as acting governor after his predecessor, Edward Martin, resigned.

The current governor is Josh Shapiro, who took office on January 17, 2023.

Governors edit

Pennsylvania was one of the original Thirteen Colonies and was admitted as a state on December 12, 1787.[6] Before it declared its independence, Pennsylvania was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Presidents of the Supreme Executive Council edit

The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 created the Supreme Executive Council as the state's executive branch, with a president as its head.[7] The president was chosen annually by the council, though with no specific term dates.[8]

The constitution created the position of "vice-president", though no provision was made if the office of the president became vacant, which occurred four times later. Contemporary sources continue to label the chief executive in such times as the vice-president, without any notion of succeeding in the presidency. One acting president, George Bryan, was subsequently recognized later as a full-fledged governor, due to his acting as president for over six months.

Presidents of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania
No. President Term in office Vice-President
1   Thomas Wharton Jr.
(1735–1778)
[9]
March 5, 1777[10]

May 23, 1778
(died in office)
George Bryan
2   George Bryan
(1731–1791)
[11]
May 23, 1778[10]

December 22, 1778
(left office)
acting as
president
[a]
3   Joseph Reed
(1741–1785)
[12]
December 22, 1778[10]

November 15, 1781
(term-limited)[b]
George Bryan
(resigned October 11, 1779)
Matthew Smith
(resigned November 15, 1779)
William Moore
4   William Moore
(1735–1793)
[15]
November 15, 1781[10]

November 7, 1782
(left office)
James Potter
5   John Dickinson
(1732–1808)
[16]
November 7, 1782[10]

October 18, 1785
(term-limited)[b]
James Ewing
James Irvine
(resigned October 10, 1785)
Charles Biddle
6   Benjamin Franklin
(1706–1790)
[17]
October 18, 1785[10]

November 5, 1788
(term-limited)[b]
Peter Muhlenberg
(resigned October 14, 1788)
David Redick
7   Thomas Mifflin
(1744–1800)
[18][19]
November 5, 1788[10]

December 21, 1790
(became state governor)
George Ross

Governors of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania edit

 
Five governors of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania who have served since 1995, (left to right): Mark Schweiker, Tom Ridge, Tom Wolf, Tom Corbett and Ed Rendell, pose in front of the east facade of the Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg at Wolf's January 2015 gubernatorial inauguration

The 1790 constitution abolished the council and replaced the president with a governor,[20] and established a three-year term for governor commencing on the third Tuesday of the December following the election, with governors not allowed to serve more than nine out of any twelve years.[21] The 1838 constitution moved the start of the term to the third Tuesday of the January following the election, and allowed governors to only serve six out of any nine years.[22] The 1874 constitution lengthened the term to four years, and prohibited governors from succeeding themselves.[23] The current constitution of 1968 changed this to allow governors to serve two consecutive terms, with no lifetime limit.[24]

Under the 1968 constitution, Milton Shapp was the first governor to serve two terms, and Tom Corbett was the first incumbent governor to lose a re-election bid.

If the office of governor becomes vacant through death, resignation, or conviction on impeachment, the lieutenant governor becomes governor for the remainder of the term; if the office is only temporarily vacant due to disability of the governor, the lieutenant governor only acts out the duties of governor.[25] Should both offices be vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate becomes governor.[26] The position of a lieutenant governor was created in the 1874 constitution; prior to then, the speaker of the senate would act as governor in cases of vacancy. Originally, the lieutenant governor could only act as governor; it was not until the 1968 constitution that the lieutenant governor could actually become the sitting governor in that fashion. The office of governor has been vacant for an extended period once before, a 17-day gap in 1848 between the resignation of the previous governor and the swearing in of his acting successor. Governors and lieutenant governors are elected on the same political party ticket.[27]

Governors of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[c][d]
1     Thomas Mifflin
(1744–1800)
[18][19]
December 21, 1790[28]

December 17, 1799
(term-limited)[e]
None[f] 1790 Office did not exist
Democratic-
Republican
[31]
1793
1796
2   Thomas McKean
(1734–1817)
[32][33]
December 17, 1799[34]

December 20, 1808
(term-limited)[e]
Democratic-
Republican
[g]
1799
1802
1805
3   Simon Snyder
(1759–1819)
[37][38]
December 20, 1808[39]

December 16, 1817
(term-limited)[e]
Democratic-
Republican
[40]
1808
1811
1814
4   William Findlay
(1768–1846)
[41][42]
December 16, 1817[43]

December 19, 1820
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
[40]
1817
5   Joseph Hiester
(1752–1832)
[44][45]
December 19, 1820[46]

December 16, 1823
(did not run)
Democratic-
Republican
[h]
1820
6   John Andrew Shulze
(1775–1852)
[48][49]
December 16, 1823[50]

December 15, 1829
(did not run)
Democratic-
Republican
[40]
1823
1826
7   George Wolf
(1777–1840)
[51][52]
December 15, 1829[53]

December 15, 1835
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
[40]
1829
1832
8   Joseph Ritner
(1780–1869)
[54][55]
December 15, 1835[56]

January 15, 1839
(lost election)
Anti-Masonic[40] 1835
9   David R. Porter
(1788–1867)
[57][58]
January 15, 1839[59]

January 21, 1845
(term-limited)[i]
Democratic[40] 1838
1841
10   Francis R. Shunk
(1788–1848)
[61][62]
January 21, 1845[63]

July 9, 1848
(resigned)[j]
Democratic[40] 1844
1847
11   William F. Johnston
(1808–1872)
[64][65]
July 9, 1848[k]

January 20, 1852
(lost election)
Whig[40] Speaker of
the Senate
acting
1848
12   William Bigler
(1814–1880)
[69][70]
January 20, 1852[71]

January 16, 1855
(lost election)
Democratic[40] 1851
13   James Pollock
(1810–1890)
[72][73]
January 16, 1855[74]

January 19, 1858
(did not run)[72]
Whig[l] 1854
14   William F. Packer
(1807–1870)
[75][76]
January 19, 1858[77]

January 15, 1861
(did not run)
Democratic[40] 1857
15   Andrew Gregg Curtin
(d. 1894)
[78][79]
January 15, 1861[80]

January 15, 1867
(term-limited)[i]
Republican[40] 1860
1863
16   John W. Geary
(1819–1873)
[81][82]
January 15, 1867[83]

January 21, 1873
(term-limited)[i]
Republican[40] 1866
1869
17   John F. Hartranft
(1830–1889)
[84][85]
January 21, 1873[86]

January 21, 1879
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1872
1875   John Latta
18   Henry M. Hoyt
(1830–1892)
[88][89]
January 21, 1879[90]

January 16, 1883
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1878 Charles Warren Stone
19   Robert E. Pattison
(1850–1904)
[91][92]
January 16, 1883[93]

January 18, 1887
(term-limited)[m]
Democratic[40] 1882 Chauncey Forward Black
20   James A. Beaver
(1837–1914)
[94][95]
January 18, 1887[96]

January 20, 1891
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1886 William T. Davies
19   Robert E. Pattison
(1850–1904)
[91][92]
January 20, 1891[97]

January 15, 1895
(term-limited)[m]
Democratic[40] 1890 Louis Arthur Watres
21   Daniel H. Hastings
(1849–1903)
[98][99]
January 15, 1895[100]

January 17, 1899
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1894 Walter Lyon
22   William A. Stone
(1846–1920)
[101][102]
January 17, 1899[103]

January 20, 1903
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1898 John P. S. Gobin
23   Samuel W. Pennypacker
(1843–1916)
[104][105]
January 20, 1903[106]

January 15, 1907
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1902 William M. Brown
24   Edwin Sydney Stuart
(1853–1937)
[107][108]
January 15, 1907[109]

January 17, 1911
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1906 Robert S. Murphy
25   John K. Tener
(1863–1946)
[110][111]
January 17, 1911[112]

January 19, 1915
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1910 John Merriman Reynolds
26   Martin Grove Brumbaugh
(1862–1930)
[113][114]
January 19, 1915[115]

January 21, 1919
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1914 Frank B. McClain
27   William Cameron Sproul
(1870–1928)
[116][117]
January 21, 1919[118]

January 16, 1923
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1918 Edward E. Beidleman
28   Gifford Pinchot
(1865–1946)
[119][120]
January 16, 1923[121]

January 18, 1927
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1922 David J. Davis
29   John Stuchell Fisher
(1867–1940)
[122][123]
January 18, 1927[124]

January 20, 1931
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1926 Arthur James
28   Gifford Pinchot
(1865–1946)
[119][120]
January 20, 1931[125]

January 15, 1935
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1930 Edward C. Shannon
30   George Howard Earle III
(1890–1974)
[126][127]
January 15, 1935[128]

January 17, 1939
(term-limited)[m]
Democratic[40] 1934 Thomas Kennedy
31   Arthur James
(1883–1973)
[129][130]
January 17, 1939[131]

January 19, 1943
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1938 Samuel S. Lewis
32   Edward Martin
(1879–1967)
[132][133]
January 19, 1943[134]

January 2, 1947
(resigned)[n]
Republican[40] 1942 John C. Bell Jr.
33   John C. Bell Jr.
(1892–1974)
[135][136]
January 2, 1947[137]

January 21, 1947
(successor took office)
Republican[40] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
34   James H. Duff
(1883–1969)
[138][139]
January 21, 1947[140]

January 16, 1951
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1946 Daniel Strickler
35   John S. Fine
(1893–1978)
[141][142]
January 16, 1951[143]

January 18, 1955
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1950 Lloyd H. Wood
36   George M. Leader
(1918–2013)
[144][145]
January 18, 1955[146]

January 20, 1959
(term-limited)[m]
Democratic[40] 1954 Roy E. Furman
37   David L. Lawrence
(1889–1966)
[147][148]
January 20, 1959[149]

January 15, 1963
(term-limited)[m]
Democratic[40] 1958 John Morgan Davis
38   William Scranton
(1917–2013)
[150][151]
January 15, 1963[152]

January 17, 1967
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1962 Raymond P. Shafer
39   Raymond P. Shafer
(1917–2006)
[153][154]
January 17, 1967[155]

January 19, 1971
(term-limited)[m]
Republican[40] 1966 Raymond J. Broderick
40   Milton Shapp
(1912–1994)
[156][157]
January 19, 1971[158]

January 16, 1979
(term-limited)[o]
Democratic[40] 1970 Ernest Kline
1974
41   Dick Thornburgh
(1932–2020)
[160]
January 16, 1979[161]

January 20, 1987
(term-limited)[o]
Republican[160] 1978 William Scranton III
1982
42   Bob Casey Sr.
(1932–2000)
[162]
January 20, 1987[163]

January 17, 1995
(term-limited)[o]
Democratic[162] 1986 Mark Singel[p]
1990
43   Tom Ridge
(b. 1945)
[165]
January 17, 1995[166]

October 5, 2001
(resigned)[q]
Republican[165] 1994 Mark Schweiker
1998
44   Mark Schweiker
(b. 1953)
[167]
October 5, 2001[168]

January 21, 2003
(did not run)
Republican[167] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Robert Jubelirer
45   Ed Rendell
(b. 1944)
[169]
January 21, 2003[170]

January 18, 2011
(term-limited)[o]
Democratic[169] 2002 Catherine Baker Knoll
(died November 12, 2008)
2006
Joe Scarnati[r]
(acting)
46   Tom Corbett
(b. 1949)
[171]
January 18, 2011[172]

January 20, 2015
(lost election)
Republican[171] 2010 Jim Cawley
47   Tom Wolf
(b. 1948)
[173]
January 20, 2015[174]

January 17, 2023
(term-limited)[o]
Democratic[173] 2014 Mike Stack
2018 John Fetterman
(resigned January 3, 2023)
Kim Ward[r]
(acting)
48   Josh Shapiro
(b. 1973)
[175]
January 17, 2023[176]

Incumbent[s]
Democratic[175] 2022 Austin Davis

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Four vice-presidents acted as president at various times; however, Bryan's lengthy term has caused his term to since be recognized as being equivalent to president. Contemporary sources listed him only as vice president, acting out the duties of president.
  2. ^ a b c Members of the executive council who served three successive years were ineligible to hold the office for four years afterward.[13][14]
  3. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1873, first being filled in 1875.
  4. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  5. ^ a b c Under the 1790 constitution, governors were ineligible to hold the office longer than nine in any term of twelve years.[29]
  6. ^ The Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties jointly nominated Mifflin, but he himself carried no party label.[30]
  7. ^ Dubin[35] and Kallenbach[36] label McKean a Democratic-Republican for 1799 and 1802, and an Independent Democratic-Republican for 1805.
  8. ^ Hiester is labeled an Independent Republican by Dubin,[47] and an Independent Democratic-Republican and Federalist by Glashan.[31]
  9. ^ a b c Under the 1838 constitution, governors were ineligible to hold the office longer than six in any term of nine years.[60]
  10. ^ Shunk resigned due to illness; he died of tuberculosis 11 days later.[61]
  11. ^ Shunk resigned on July 9, and as Speaker of the Senate, Johnston became acting governor.[66] He arrived in Harrisburg to be formally sworn in on July 26.[67][68]
  12. ^ Pollock also represented the American Party.[40]
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Under the 1874 constitution, governors were ineligible to the office for the next succeeding term.[87]
  14. ^ Martin resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[132]
  15. ^ a b c d e Under a 1967 amendment to the constitution, governors may succeed themselves for one additional term.[159]
  16. ^ Singel acted as governor from June 14 to December 21, 1993, while Casey recovered from a heart-liver transplant.[164]
  17. ^ Ridge resigned, having been appointed Director of the Office of Homeland Security.[165]
  18. ^ a b Represented the Republican Party
  19. ^ Shapiro's first term will expire on January 19, 2027.

References edit

General
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 7
  3. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 15
  4. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 12
  5. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 9
  6. ^ "Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Pennsylvania; December 12, 1787". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Archived from the original on November 5, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  7. ^ 1776 Constitution § 3
  8. ^ 1776 Constitution § 19
  9. ^ "Thomas Wharton". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Smull, William P. (1885). Smull's Legislative Hand Book and Manual of the State of Pennsylvania. p. 360.
  11. ^ "George Bryan". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  12. ^ "Joseph Reed". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  13. ^ Kallenbach 1977, p. 490.
  14. ^ "1776 Pa. Const. § 19". www.stateconstitutions.umd.edu. Retrieved December 20, 2023.
  15. ^ "William Moore". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  16. ^ "John Dickinson". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  17. ^ "Benjamin Franklin". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  18. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1293–1294.
  19. ^ a b "Thomas Mifflin". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 11, 2023.
  20. ^ 1790 Constitution article II, § 1
  21. ^ 1790 Constitution article IV, § 3
  22. ^ 1838 Constitution article II, § 3
  23. ^ 1874 Constitution article IV, § 3
  24. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 3
  25. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 13
  26. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 14
  27. ^ "Executive Branch of the Several States". The Green Papers. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  28. ^ "A Proclamation". Dunlap and Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser. December 24, 1790. p. 3. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  29. ^ "1790 Pa. Const. art. II, § 3". www.stateconstitutions.umd.edu. Retrieved December 20, 2023.
  30. ^ Lampi, Philip. "Pennsylvania 1790 Governor". A New Nation Votes. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2023.
  31. ^ a b Glashan 1979, p. 260.
  32. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1294–1296.
  33. ^ "Thomas McKean". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  34. ^ "A Proclamation". The Gleaner. December 31, 1799. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  35. ^ Dubin 2003, p. 216.
  36. ^ Kallenbach 1977, pp. 493–494.
  37. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1296–1297.
  38. ^ "Simon Snyder". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  39. ^ "A Proclamation". Lancaster Intelligencer. December 27, 1808. p. 3. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Kallenbach 1977, pp. 491–493.
  41. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1297–1298.
  42. ^ "William Findlay". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  43. ^ "A Proclamation". Lancaster Intelligencer. December 20, 1817. p. 3. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  44. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1298–1299.
  45. ^ "Joseph Hiester". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  46. ^ "Inauguration of the Governor". The Philadelphia Inquirer. December 21, 1820. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  47. ^ Dubin 2003, p. 219.
  48. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1299–1301.
  49. ^ "John Andrew Shulze". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  50. ^ "Pennsylvania Legislature". York Gazette. December 23, 1823. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  51. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1301–1302.
  52. ^ "George Wolf". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  53. ^ "Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Legislature". Pennsylvania Republican. December 22, 1829. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  54. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1302–1303.
  55. ^ "Joseph Ritner". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  56. ^ "none". The Lancaster Examiner. December 17, 1835. p. 3. Retrieved June 13, 2023. Mr. Ritner, being then proclaimed by the Speaker to be the Govenror of the Commonwealth...
  57. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1303–1304.
  58. ^ "David Rittenhouse Porter". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  59. ^ "Correspondence of the National Gazette". The Philadelphia Inquirer. January 17, 1839. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  60. ^ "1838 Pa. Const. art. II, § 3". www.stateconstitutions.umd.edu. Retrieved December 20, 2023.
  61. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 1305.
  62. ^ "Francis Rawn Shunk". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  63. ^ "The Inauguration of Gov. Shunk". The Chambersburg Times. January 27, 1845. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  64. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1306.
  65. ^ "William Freame Johnston". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  66. ^ "none". The Lancaster Examiner. July 12, 1848. p. 2. Retrieved October 1, 2023. By the resignation of Gov. Shunk, the Hon. Wm. F. Johnston, of Armstrong, Speaker of the Senate, will officiate as Governor until the inauguration of a new governor on the third Tuesday in January next.
  67. ^ "From Harrisburg". Public Ledger. July 19, 1848. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  68. ^ "Governor Johnston Sworn into Office". Public Ledger. July 27, 1848. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  69. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1307–1308.
  70. ^ "William Bigler". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  71. ^ "Inauguration of Gov. Bigler". Sunbury American. January 24, 1852. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  72. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 1308.
  73. ^ "James Pollock". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  74. ^ "The Inauguration of Hon. James Pollock". Carlisle Weekly Herald. January 17, 1855. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  75. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1309.
  76. ^ "William Fisher Packer". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  77. ^ "Packer inaugurated January 19". Pittsburgh Daily Post. January 22, 1858. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  78. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1310–1311.
  79. ^ "Andrew Gregg Curtin". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  80. ^ "Inauguration of Gov. Curtin". The Philadelphia Inquirer. January 16, 1861. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  81. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1311.
  82. ^ "John White Geary". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  83. ^ "The Inauguration of General Geary as Governor". Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette. January 16, 1867. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  84. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1312.
  85. ^ "John Frederick Hartranft". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  86. ^ "Inauguration of Gen. Hartranft". Reading Times. January 22, 1873. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  87. ^ "1874 Pa. Const. art. IV, § 3". www.stateconstitutions.umd.edu. Retrieved December 20, 2023.
  88. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1312–1313.
  89. ^ "Henry Martyn Hoyt". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  90. ^ "Governor Hoyt". The Philadelphia Inquirer. January 22, 1879. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  91. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1313–1314.
  92. ^ a b "Robert Emory Pattison". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  93. ^ "The Inauguration". Intelligencer Journal. January 17, 1883. p. 2. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  94. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1314–1315.
  95. ^ "James Addams Beaver". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  96. ^ "Inauguration Day". Lancaster New Era. January 18, 1887. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  97. ^ "Governor Pattison". The York Dispatch. January 20, 1891. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  98. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1315.
  99. ^ "Daniel Hartman Hastings". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  100. ^ "Is Now Governor Hastings". Lebanon Daily News. January 15, 1895. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  101. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1316.
  102. ^ "William Alexis Stone". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  103. ^ "Inauguration of Governor Stone". Wilkes-Barre Times Leader. January 17, 1899. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  104. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1316–1317.
  105. ^ "Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  106. ^ "Pennypacker Takes Oath As Governor". Wilkes-Barre Times Leader. January 20, 1903. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  107. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1317–1318.
  108. ^ "Edwin Sydney Stuart". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  109. ^ "Edwin S. Stuart Inaugurated Governor To-Day at Harrisburg". Wilkes-Barre Times. January 15, 1907. p. 1. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
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