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The Governor of New Jersey is the head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New Jersey Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason or impeachment.[1]

Governor of New Jersey
Coat of Arms of New Jersey.svg
Governor Phil Murphy.jpg
Incumbent
Phil Murphy

since January 16, 2018
Style
Status
ResidenceDrumthwacket
SeatTrenton, New Jersey
Term lengthFour years, renewable once consecutively
Constituting instrumentNew Jersey Constitution of 1776
PrecursorGovernor of New Jersey (Great Britain)
Inaugural holderWilliam Livingston
FormationAugust 31, 1776
(242 years ago)
 (1776-08-31)
DeputyLieutenant Governor of New Jersey
Websitestate.nj.us/governor

There have been 55 official governors of New Jersey, 1 of which were female, with several others acting as governor for a time.[a] In the official numbering, governors are counted only once each, and traditionally, only elected governors were included. However, legislation signed on January 10, 2006, allowed acting governors who had served at least 180 days to be considered full governors. The law was retroactive to January 1, 2001; it therefore changed the titles of Donald DiFrancesco and Richard Codey, affecting Jim McGreevey's numbering.[2] The current governor is Phil Murphy, who took office on January 16, 2018.

Contents

GovernorsEdit

New Jersey was one of the original thirteen colonies and was admitted as a state on December 18, 1787. Prior to declaring its independence, New Jersey was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The first New Jersey State Constitution, ratified in 1776, provided that a governor be elected annually by the state legislature, the members of which were selected by the several counties.[3] Under this constitution, the governor was president of the upper house of the legislature, then called the Legislative Council.[3] The 1844 constitution provided for a popular vote to elect the governor,[4] who no longer presided over the upper house of the legislature, now called the Senate. The 1844 constitution also lengthened the governor's term to three years, set to start on the third Tuesday in January following an election, and barred governors from succeeding themselves.[5] The 1947 constitution extended terms to four years, and limits governors from being elected to more than two consecutive terms, though they can run again after a third term has passed.[6]

The 1776 constitution provided that the vice-president of the Legislative Council would act as governor (who was president of the Council) should that office be vacant.[3] The 1844 constitution placed the president of the Senate first in the line of succession,[7] as did the subsequent 1947 constitution.[8] A constitutional amendment in 2006 created the office of lieutenant governor,[9] to be elected on the same ticket for the same term as the governor,[10] and if the office of governor is vacant, the lieutenant governor becomes governor.[11] This office was first filled in 2010.

Governors of the State of New Jersey
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[b]
1     William Livingston August 31, 1776

July 25, 1790
Federalist 1776 Office did not exist
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
[c]
Elisha Lawrence July 25, 1790

October 29, 1790[d]
Federalist
2   William Paterson October 29, 1790[d]

March 30, 1793
Federalist 1790
1791
1792
[e]
Thomas Henderson March 30, 1793

June 3, 1793
Federalist
3 Richard Howell June 3, 1793

October 31, 1801
Federalist 1793
1794
[f]
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
4   Joseph Bloomfield October 31, 1801

October 28, 1802
Democratic-
Republican
1801
  John Lambert October 28, 1802

October 29, 1803
Democratic-
Republican
1802
[g]
4   Joseph Bloomfield October 29, 1803

October 29, 1812
Democratic-
Republican
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
[h]
5   Aaron Ogden October 29, 1812

October 29, 1813
Federalist 1812
6   William Sanford Pennington October 29, 1813

June 19, 1815
Democratic-
Republican
1813
1814
[i][j]
William Kennedy June 19, 1815

October 26, 1815
Democratic-
Republican
7   Mahlon Dickerson October 26, 1815

February 1, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
1815
1816
[k]
8   Isaac Halstead Williamson February 6, 1817

October 30, 1829
Federalist[l]
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
  Garret D. Wall Democratic 1829
[m]
9   Peter Dumont Vroom November 6, 1829

October 26, 1832
Democratic
1830
1831
10   Samuel L. Southard October 26, 1832

February 27, 1833
Whig 1832
[n]
11   Elias P. Seeley February 27, 1833

October 25, 1833
Whig
9   Peter Dumont Vroom October 25, 1833

November 3, 1836
Democratic 1833
1834
1835
12   Philemon Dickerson November 3, 1836

October 27, 1837
Democratic 1836
13   William Pennington October 27, 1837

October 27, 1843
Whig 1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
14   Daniel Haines October 27, 1843

January 21, 1845
Democratic 1843
15   Charles C. Stratton January 21, 1845

January 18, 1848
Whig 1844
[o]
14   Daniel Haines January 18, 1848

January 21, 1851
Democratic 1847
16   George Franklin Fort January 21, 1851

January 17, 1854
Democratic 1850
17   Rodman M. Price January 17, 1854

January 20, 1857
Democratic 1853
18   William A. Newell January 20, 1857

January 17, 1860
Republican 1856
19   Charles Smith Olden January 17, 1860

January 20, 1863
Republican 1859
20   Joel Parker January 20, 1863

January 16, 1866
Democratic 1862
21   Marcus Lawrence Ward January 16, 1866

January 19, 1869
Republican 1865
22   Theodore Fitz Randolph January 19, 1869

January 16, 1872
Democratic 1868
20   Joel Parker January 16, 1872

January 19, 1875
Democratic 1871
23   Joseph D. Bedle January 19, 1875

January 15, 1878
Democratic 1874
24   George B. McClellan January 15, 1878

January 18, 1881
Democratic 1877
25   George C. Ludlow January 18, 1881

January 15, 1884
Democratic 1880
26   Leon Abbett January 15, 1884

January 18, 1887
Democratic 1883
27   Robert Stockton Green January 18, 1887

January 21, 1890
Democratic 1886
26   Leon Abbett January 21, 1890

January 17, 1893
Democratic 1889
28   George Theodore Werts January 17, 1893

January 21, 1896
Democratic 1892
29   John W. Griggs January 21, 1896

January 31, 1898
Republican 1895
[p]
  Foster McGowan Voorhees January 31, 1898

October 18, 1898
Republican
  David Ogden Watkins October 18, 1898

January 17, 1899
Republican
30   Foster McGowan Voorhees January 17, 1899

January 21, 1902
Republican 1898
[q]
31   Franklin Murphy January 21, 1902

January 17, 1905
Republican 1901
[r]
32   Edward C. Stokes January 17, 1905

January 21, 1908
Republican 1904
33   John Franklin Fort January 21, 1908

January 17, 1911
Republican 1907
[s]
34   Woodrow Wilson January 17, 1911

March 1, 1913
Democratic 1910
[t][u]
  James Fairman Fielder March 1, 1913

October 28, 1913
Democratic
  Leon R. Taylor October 28, 1913

January 20, 1914
Democratic
35   James Fairman Fielder January 20, 1914

January 16, 1917
Democratic 1913
[v][w]
36   Walter Evans Edge January 16, 1917

May 16, 1919
Republican 1916
[w][x][y]
  William Nelson Runyon May 16, 1919

January 13, 1920
Republican
  Clarence E. Case January 13, 1920

January 20, 1920
Republican
37   Edward I. Edwards January 20, 1920

January 15, 1923
Democratic 1919
38   George Sebastian Silzer January 15, 1923

January 19, 1926
Democratic 1922
39   A. Harry Moore January 19, 1926

January 15, 1929
Democratic 1925
40   Morgan Foster Larson January 15, 1929

January 19, 1932
Republican 1928
39   A. Harry Moore January 19, 1932

January 3, 1935
Democratic 1931
[z]
Clifford Ross Powell January 3, 1935

January 8, 1935
Republican
Horace Griggs Prall January 8, 1935

January 15, 1935
Republican
41   Harold G. Hoffman January 15, 1935

January 18, 1938
Republican 1934
39   A. Harry Moore January 18, 1938

January 21, 1941
Democratic 1937
42   Charles Edison January 21, 1941

January 18, 1944
Democratic 1940
36   Walter Evans Edge January 18, 1944

January 21, 1947
Republican 1943
43 Alfred E. Driscoll January 21, 1947

January 19, 1954
Republican 1946
1949
[aa]
44 Robert B. Meyner January 19, 1954

January 16, 1962
Democratic 1953
1957
45
Richard J. Hughes January 16, 1962

January 20, 1970
Democratic 1961
1965
46   William T. Cahill January 20, 1970

January 15, 1974
Republican 1969
47   Brendan Byrne January 15, 1974

January 19, 1982
Democratic 1973
1977
48   Thomas Kean January 19, 1982

January 16, 1990
Republican 1981
1985
49   James Florio January 16, 1990

January 18, 1994
Democratic 1989
50   Christine Todd Whitman January 18, 1994

January 31, 2001
Republican 1993
1997
[ab]
51   Donald DiFrancesco January 31, 2001

January 8, 2002
Republican
  John Farmer Jr. January 8, 2002

January 8, 2002
Republican
John O. Bennett January 8, 2002

January 12, 2002
Republican
  Richard Codey January 12, 2002

January 15, 2002
Democratic
52   Jim McGreevey January 15, 2002

November 15, 2004
Democratic 2001
[ac]
53   Richard Codey November 15, 2004

January 17, 2006
Democratic
54   Jon Corzine January 17, 2006

January 19, 2010
Democratic 2005
[ad]
55   Chris Christie January 19, 2010

January 16, 2018
Republican 2009   Kim Guadagno
2013
56   Phil Murphy January 16, 2018

Present
Democratic 2017
[ae]
Sheila Oliver

Acting governorEdit

Prior to 2010, unlike most other states, New Jersey did not have the office of lieutenant governor. Until 2010, when the office of governor was vacant or the governor was unable to fulfill his/her duties through injury, the President of the State Senate served as the acting governor. The Senate President continued in the legislative role during his/her tenure as the state's acting chief executive, thus giving the person control over executive and legislative authority. The acting governor served either until the a special election (which would occur if the governor died, resigned or was removed from office with more than 16 months before the end of the term), until the governor recovered from his/her injuries, or, if the governor died, resigned or was removed from office less than 16 months before end of the term, until the end of the term. Richard Codey served as acting governor of New Jersey until January 2006, following the resignation of Jim McGreevey in late 2004. Following the resignation of Christine Todd Whitman in 2001 to become EPA Administrator, Donald DiFrancesco assumed the acting governor's post. The position of lieutenant governor was created in the 2005 state election effective with the 2009 election.

Following Whitman's resignation and DiFrancesco's departure, John O. Bennett served as acting governor for three and a half days. During that time, he signed a few bills into law, gave a State of the State Address, and held parties at Drumthwacket, the New Jersey governor's mansion. Similarly, Richard J. Codey served as acting governor as well. Because control of the New Jersey State Senate was split, resulting in two Senate co-presidents, Codey and Bennett, each held the office of acting governor for three days. Perhaps this spectacle as much as any other factor led to the voters' decision to amend the state constitution to create the office of Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey.

Other high offices heldEdit

This is a table of congressional seats, other federal offices, and other governorships held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented New Jersey. Acting governors are included only when they filled a vacancy in the office of governor, not when they acted for a time when the governor was out of state or unable to serve.

Denotes an office for which the governor resigned the governorship, in order to assume the noted office.
† Denotes an office that the person resigned, to become governor.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
U.S. House U.S. Senate
William Livingston 1776–1790 Continental Delegate (1774–1776) [43]
William Paterson 1790–1793 S† Continental Delegate, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court* [44]
Thomas Henderson 1793 H Elected as a Continental Delegate but declined [45]
Joseph Bloomfield 1801–1802
1803–1812
H [46]
John Lambert 1802–1803 S [47]
Aaron Ogden 1812–1813 S [48]
Mahlon Dickerson 1815–1817 S* U.S. Secretary of the Navy (1834–1838) [49][50]
Peter Dumont Vroom 1829–1832
1833–1836
H Minister to Prussia [51]
Samuel L. Southard 1832–1833 S* President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate, U.S. Secretary of the Navy [52]
Philemon Dickerson 1836–1837 H† [53]
William Pennington 1837–1843 H Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (Feb. 1, 1860 – Mar. 3, 1861) [54]
Charles C. Stratton 1845–1848 H [55]
Rodman M. Price 1854–1857 H [56]
William A. Newell 1857–1860 H Governor of the Territory of Washington (1880–1884) [57]
Marcus Lawrence Ward 1866–1869 H [58]
Theodore Fitz Randolph 1869–1872 S [59]
Robert Stockton Green 1887–1890 H† [60]
John W. Griggs 1896–1898 U.S. Attorney General* [61]
Woodrow Wilson 1911–1913 President of the United States* [62]
Walter Evans Edge 1917–1919
1944–1947
S* Ambassador to France (1929–1933) [63]
Edward I. Edwards 1920–1923 S [64]
A. Harry Moore 1926–1929
1932–1935
1938–1941
S†* [65][66]
Harold G. Hoffman 1935–1938 H [67]
Charles Edison 1941–1944 U.S. Secretary of the Navy [68]
William T. Cahill 1970–1973 H† [69]
James Florio 1990–1994 H† [70]
Christine Todd Whitman 1994–2001 Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency* (2001-2003) [71]
Jon Corzine 2006–2010 S† [72]
Phil Murphy 2018–present Ambassador to Germany (2009–2013)

Living former U.S. governors of New JerseyEdit

As of January 2018, there are eight former governors of New Jersey and two former acting governors of New Jersey who are living, the oldest of which is Thomas Kean (served 1982–1990, born 1935). The most recent former governor to die and the most recently serving former governor to have died was Brendan Byrne (served 1974–1982), on January 4, 2018.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Thomas Kean 1982–1990 (1935-04-21) April 21, 1935 (age 84)
James Florio 1990–1994 (1937-08-29) August 29, 1937 (age 81)
Christine Todd Whitman 1994–2001 (1946-09-26) September 26, 1946 (age 72)
Donald DiFrancesco 2001–2002 (1944-11-20) November 20, 1944 (age 74)
John Farmer, Jr. 2002 (acting) (1957-06-24) June 24, 1957 (age 62)
John O. Bennett 2002 (acting) (1948-08-06) August 6, 1948 (age 71)
Richard Codey 2002 (acting)
2004–2006
(1946-11-27) November 27, 1946 (age 72)
Jim McGreevey 2002–2004 (1957-08-06) August 6, 1957 (age 62)
Jon Corzine 2006–2010 (1947-01-01) January 1, 1947 (age 72)
Chris Christie 2010–2018 (1962-09-06) September 6, 1962 (age 56)

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Only acting governors who filled a vacant office are included in the list. People who acted as governor for a period when the governor was out of state or unable to serve for a period are noted with their governor. It is possible other people acted as governor for short periods but were not recorded.
  2. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 2006 and was first filled in 2010.
  3. ^ Livingston died in office; as vice-president of the Legislative Council, Lawrence acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  4. ^ a b The National Governors Association states Paterson took office on October 30; however, older books specify that he took office on October 29.[12]
  5. ^ Paterson resigned to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States; as vice-president of the Legislative Council, Henderson acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  6. ^ Howell was in Pennsylvania in command of the New Jersey militia during the Whiskey Rebellion; during his absence, Thomas Henderson, as vice-president of the Legislative Council, acted as governor from September 20 to December 25, 1794.[13]
  7. ^ The 1802 election was deadlocked, with the legislature unable to pick a candidate, giving up on November 25, 1802. Lambert, as vice-president of the Legislative Council, acted as governor until the next election.[14]
  8. ^ Bloomfield was in New York in command of Military District 3 during the War of 1812; during his absence, Charles Clark, as vice-president of the Legislative Council, acted as governor from June 1 to October 29, 1812, when Bloomfield's term ended.[15]
  9. ^ Pennington resigned to be a federal judge in the District of New Jersey; as vice-president of the Legislative Council, Kennedy acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  10. ^ All official listings omit Kennedy, who acted as governor for four months.[16]
  11. ^ Dickerson resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; Williamson was elected by the legislature to succeed him.[17] No source mentions anyone acting as governor between Dickerson's resignation and Williamson's election; the vice-president of the Legislative Council at the time was Jesse Upson, so he likely acted as governor.[18]
  12. ^ Williamson was known to be a Federalist; though the Federalist Party ceased existing around 1820, no sources say Williamson changed his party affiliation, perhaps choosing to remain loyal to the Federalist ideals.[19] One source describes him as an "ex-Federalist" before he was even elected.[20] A contemporary source says he remained in office until the "Jackson party" controlled the legislature; as this is a reference to the Democratic-Republican Party, it can be assumed Williamson did not switch to that party.[21]
  13. ^ Wall was elected on October 30, 1829; however, he declined the post, effective November 6, 1829.[22] Vroom was then elected by the legislature to replace him.
  14. ^ Southard resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; Seeley was vice-president of the Legislative Council at the time, but he was elected governor rather than simply acting in the post for the rest of the term.[23]
  15. ^ The constitution increased term lengths from one to three years beginning with this term.[5]
  16. ^ Griggs resigned to be United States Attorney General. As president of the senate, Voorhees acted as governor until he resigned from the senate; he had been nominated for governor for the 1898 election, but the constitution prohibited governors from succeeding themselves, so he resigned to run, winning the race.[24] This left Watkins, as speaker of the house of representatives, acting as governor for the remainder of the term.</ref>
  17. ^ Voorhees was out of the country in Europe for several weeks in 1900; William M. Johnson, as president of the Senate, formally acted as governor from May 21 to June 19.[25][26][27]
  18. ^ Murphy was out of the state twice in 1904; Edmund W. Wakelee, as president of the Senate, formally acted as governor twice, and according to page 284 the 1905 Manual of the Legislature, served from April 25 to June 5, when Murphy was in Europe, and from June 14 to June 27, when Murphy was visiting Chicago and St. Louis.[28] However, page 16 of the same book states that he served from April 25 to June 5, and June 15 to June 27.[25] He actually took the oaths of office on April 26 and June 14.[27]
  19. ^ Fort was out of the state for some time in 1909; Joseph Sherman Frelinghuysen, Sr., as president of the Senate, acted as governor for an unknown period.[29]
  20. ^ Wilson resigned to be President of the United States. As president of the senate, Fielder acted as governor until he resigned from the senate; he had been nominated for governor for the 1898 election, but the constitution prohibited governors from succeeding themselves, so he resigned to run, winning the race.[30] This left Taylor, as speaker of the house of representatives, acting as governor for the remainder of the term.
  21. ^ Wilson was out of the state for multiple periods during his administration.[26] Documented episodes include from May 3 to June 3, 1911, during which time Ernest R. Ackerman, as president of the Senate, acted as governor,[31][32] though another source states he took the oath on May 4.[33] Ackerman also acted as governor from October 25, 1911, for about a week, and again for about a week in mid-November, 1911.[34] John Dyneley Prince became president of the Senate in 1912, and is known to have acted as governor on at least 11 different occasions.[34]
  22. ^ Fielder was out of the state for a time in June 1914; John W. Slocum, as president of the Senate, acted as governor for an unknown period.[35] Walter Evans Edge later became president of the Senate, and acted as governor for five weeks in 1915.[36] Later again, George W. F. Gaunt became president of the Senate and acted as governor, though only two days are specifically known: September 19, 1916 and October 9, 1916.[37]
  23. ^ a b One source states that George W. F. Gaunt, as president of the Senate, acted as governor in 1917, but it is unknown if he was acting in place of James Fairman Fielder or Walter Evans Edge.[26]
  24. ^ Edge resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as president of the senate, Runyon acted as governor until his senate term ended, then Case acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  25. ^ Edge was out of the state for a time in 1918; Thomas F. McCran, as president of the Senate, is known to have acted as governor, but for an unknown period.[26]
  26. ^ Moore resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. As president of the senate, Powell acted as governor until his senate term expired, at which point Prall, as the new president of the senate, acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  27. ^ This was the first term under the 1947 constitution, which increased term lengths to four years.[6]
  28. ^ Whitman resigned to be Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. As president of the senate, DiFrancesco acted as governor until his senate term expired. However, a 2006 law considers anyone who has acted as governor longer than 180 days to be considered a full governor, retroactive to January 1, 2001, and as such, DiFrancesco is considered to have fully succeeded to the post. However, there were 90 minutes between the end of the senate term and the beginning of the next one; during this time, Attorney General Farmer acted as governor.[38] The new state senate was evenly split between Republicans and Democrats.[39] The compromise to pick a senate president – and therefore, an acting governor – was to have John Bennett, a Republican, act as governor from 1:30pm January 8 to 12:01am January 12, and Democrat Richard Codey would then act from 12:01am January 12 to noon on January 15, at which point the elected governor took office.[40]
  29. ^ McGreevey resigned due to a sex scandal. As president of the senate, Codey acted as governor until his senate term expired. However, a 2006 law considers anyone who has acted as governor longer than 180 days to be considered a full governor, retroactive to January 1, 2001, and as such, Codey is considered to have fully succeeded to the post.
  30. ^ Corzine was severely injured in a car accident on April 12, 2007; Richard Codey, as president of the Senate, acted as governor until May 7, 2007.[41] Corzine also left the country in 2010 for a vacation to Switzerland; Stephen M. Sweeney, as president of the Senate, acted as governor from January 14 to around January 17.[42]
  31. ^ Murphy's first term expires on January 18, 2022.

ReferencesEdit

General
  • Biographies of New Jersey Governors, New Jersey State Library
  • "Governors of New Jersey". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  • Lundy, F.L.; et al. (1905). Manual of the Legislature of New Jersey, One Hundred and Twenty-Ninth Session. Trenton, New Jersey: J. L. Murphy Publishing Company. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  • Lundy, F.L.; et al. (1921). Manual of the Legislature of New Jersey, One Hundred and Forty-Fifth Session. Trenton, New Jersey: State Gazette Publishing Company. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  • Lee, Francis Bazley (1902). New Jersey as a Colony and a State. New York City: The Publishing Society of New Jersey. ISBN 1-146-76658-0. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  • Kerney, James (1926). The Political Education of Woodrow Wilson. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  • Report of the Adjutant-General of the State of New Jersey for the year ending October 31st, 1906. Somerville, New Jersey: The Union-Gazette Printing House. 1907. pp. 122–131. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ NJ Constitution article V
  2. ^ New Jersey Legislature. P.L.2005, c. 282.: Provides title of person who serves as Acting Governor for continuous period of at least 180 days will be "Governor of the State of New Jersey" for official and historical purposes. Approved January 9, 2006, retroactive to January 1, 2001. Accessed January 6, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c 1776 Constitution article 7
  4. ^ 1844 Constitution article V, § 2
  5. ^ a b 1844 Constitution article V, § 3
  6. ^ a b NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 5
  7. ^ 1844 Constitution article V, § 12
  8. ^ NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 6, original
  9. ^ NJ Constitution article XI, § 7
  10. ^ NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 4
  11. ^ NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 6, as amended
  12. ^ Report p. 122
  13. ^ Report p. 123
  14. ^ Lee pp. 155–156
  15. ^ Report p. 124
  16. ^ Report pp. 125–126
  17. ^ Lee pp. 160–161
  18. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 127
  19. ^ Whitehead, John (1897). The Civil and Judicial History of New Jersey, Volume I. The Boston History Company. p. 361. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  20. ^ Birkner, Michael (1984). Samuel L. Southard: Jeffersonian Whig. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8386-3160-7. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  21. ^ Elmer, Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus (1872). Collections of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume VII. p. 175. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  22. ^ Lee pp. 377–378
  23. ^ "Elias Pettit Seeley" (PDF). New Jersey State Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  24. ^ "Foster McGowan Voorhees" (PDF). New Jersey State Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  25. ^ a b Lundy et al. (1905) p. 16
  26. ^ a b c d Lundy et al. (1921) p. 22
  27. ^ a b "Governor's Oaths". New Jersey Department of State. Archived from the original on January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  28. ^ Lundy et al. (1905) p. 284
  29. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 252
  30. ^ "James Fairman Fielder" (PDF). New Jersey State Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  31. ^ Documents of the One Hundred and Thirty-Sixth Legislature of the State of New Jersey and the Sixty-Eighth Under the New Constitution. I. Trenton, New Jersey: State Gazette Publishing Company. 1912. p. 475. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  32. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 262
  33. ^ Kerney p. 140
  34. ^ a b Kerney p. 141
  35. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 361
  36. ^ Congress, United States (1920). Official Congressional Directory, 2nd Edition, February 1920. p. 64. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  37. ^ Jersey, New (1916). Acts of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey. pp. 1009–1010. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  38. ^ David Kocieniewski (January 8, 2002). "Newark Stadium Bill Dies in Final Session". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2010. During the 90 minutes between Mr. DiFrancesco's departure and Mr. Bennett's swearing in, Attorney General John J. Farmer Jr. will formally hold the title of acting governor.
  39. ^ David Kocieniewski (January 12, 2002). "The Hours of Power of an Acting Governor: Deconstructing Bennett's 3-Day Legacy". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  40. ^ "New Jersey Governor John O. Bennett". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  41. ^ David W. Chen (May 6, 2007). "Corzine to Resume Duties as Governor on Monday". The New York Times. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  42. ^ "New Jersey's New Senate President Fills in for Corzine". WNYC. January 15, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
  43. ^ "Livingston, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
  44. ^ "Paterson, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
  45. ^ "Henderson, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  46. ^ "Bloomfield, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
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