List of German field marshals

Field marshal (German: Generalfeldmarschall) was the highest military rank in the German Empire and, after 1918, Germany, for seventy-five years.[1][a] Although the rank had existed in northern German states since 1631 under a different name,[2] it was re-created in 1870 for Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Emperor Frederick III for the purpose of making them senior to other generals.[2] It became the most prestigious and powerful rank an officer could reach until it was abolished in 1945.[1] For Field Marshals of southern German States, who often served the Austria Empire prior to the 1871 creation of the German Empire, see List of Austrian field marshals.

In total more than 100 generals have become field marshals in northern German states or the subsequent unified Germany between 1806 and 1945. The vast majority of the people promoted to field marshal won major battles in wars of their century. Field marshals played a compelling and influential role in military matters,[3] were tax-exempt, members of the nobility,[3] equal to government officials,[3] under constant protection or escort,[3] and had the right to directly report to the royal family.[3]

Electorate (1356-1806) and Kingdom of Saxony (1806–1918)Edit

Name Date of promotion Birth and Death Image Reference
Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg 21 June 1631 1583–1641   [4]
Francis Albert of Saxe-Lauenburg 24 November 1632 1598–1642  
Rudolf Graf von Marzin 19 October 1638 1585–1645   [5]
Ernst Albrecht von Eberstein 1 January 1666 1605–1676  
Joachim Rüdiger of Goltz 28 August 1681 Unknown   [6]
Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming 8 September 1688 1632–1706  
Hans Adam von Schöning 9 April 1691 1641–1696  
Jeremias of Chauvet 10 May 1693 Unknown-1699
[7]
Heinrich VI Reuß zu Obergreiz 30 September 1697 1649–1697  
Adam Heinrich von Steinau 27 August 1699 unknown-1712
Georg Benedikt von Ogilvy 3 December 1706 1651–1710  
Jacob Heinrich von Flemming 22 February 1712 1667–1728  
Christoph August of Wackerbarth 17 April 1730 1662–1734   [8]
Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels 26 November 1735 1685–1746   [9]
Frederick Augustus Rutowsky 11 January 1749 1702–1764  
Johann Georg, Chevalier de Saxe 27 July 1763 1704–74   [10]
Frederick of Anhalt-Dessau 6 January 1775 1705–81  
Albert of Saxony 11 July 1871 1828–1902   [11]
Georg of Saxony 14 June 1888 1832–1904  

Brandenburg-Prussia and the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1870)Edit

Name Date of promotion Birth and Death Image Reference
Otto Christoph von Sparr 20 June 1657 1599–1668   [12]
John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau 24 January 1670 1627–93   [12]
Georg von Derfflinger 18 February 1670 1606–95   [12]
Alexander Hermann, Count of Wartensleben 23 March 1706 1650–1734   [13]
Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau 1712 1676–1747   [14]
Carl Philipp, Reichsgraf von Wylich und Lottum 1713 1650–1719   [15]
Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten 1713 1661–1728   [16]
Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer 1728 1654–1739   [17]
Albrecht Konrad Finck von Finckenstein 1733 1660–1735   [18]
Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow 1737 1678–1739   [17]
Kurt Christoph von Schwerin 1740 1684–1757   [19]
Caspar Otto von Glasenapp 1741 1664–1747   [20]
Samuel von Schmettau 1741 1684–1751   [21]
Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst 16 May 1742 1690–1747   [22]
Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau 17 May 1742 1700-51   [23]
Friedrich Wilhelm von Dossow 15 January 1745 1669–1758   [24]
Henning Alexander von Kleist 24 May 1747 1677–1747   [25]
Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein 24 May 1747 1677–1747   [25]
Dietrich of Anhalt-Dessau 24 May 1747 1702–1769   [25]
James Francis Edward Keith 18 September 1747 1696–1758   [26]
Hans von Lehwaldt 1751 1696–1758   [27]
Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau 1757 1712–60   [28]
Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 15 November 1758 1721–92   [29]
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1787 1735–1806   [30]
Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf 1793 1724–1816   [31]
Alexander von Knobelsdorff 20 May 1798 1723–99   [32]
Friedrich Adolf Graf von Kalckreuth 1807 1737–1818   [33]
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher 19 October 1813 1742–1819   [34]
Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf 1821 1762–1823   [35]
Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg 1821 1759–1830   [36]
August Neidhardt von Gneisenau 1825 1760–1831   [37]
Hans Ernst Karl, Graf von Zieten 1839 1770–1848   [38]
Karl Freiherr von Muffling 5 October 1847 1775–1851   [39]
Hermann von Boyen 7 October 1847 1771–1848   [40]
Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck 9 October 1847 1768–1848   [41]
Karl Friedrich Emil zu Dohna-Schlobitten 14 March 1854 1784–1859   [42]
Friedrich Graf von Wrangel 5 August 1856 1784–1877   [43]
Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia 28 October 1870 1828–85   [2]
Emperor Frederick III 28 October 1870 1831–88   [2]

German Empire (1871–1918)Edit

Name Date of promotion Birth and Death Image Reference
Karl Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld 8 April 1871 1796–1884   [44]
Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz 8 April 1871 1796–1877   [45]
Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke 16 June 1871 1800–91   [46]
Albert, Crown Prince of Saxony 11 July 1871 1828–1902   [47]
Albrecht von Roon 1 January 1873 1803–79   [48]
Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel 1873 1809–85   [49]
Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal 15 March 1888 1810–1900   [50]
Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony 15 March 1888 1832–1904   [11]
Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Albrecht of Prussia 19 June 1888 1837–1906   [51]
Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen 19 June 1888 1817–95   [52]
Franz Joseph I of Austria 27 February 1895 1830–1916   [53]
Alfred von Waldersee 6 May 1900 1832–1904   [54]
Gottlieb Graf von Haeseler 1 January 1905 1836–1919   [55]
Wilhelm von Hahnke 1 January 1905 1833–1912   [56]
Walter von Loë 1 January 1905 1828–1908
[57]
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 9 September 1906 1850–1942   [58]
Carol I of Romania 20 April 1909 1839–1914   [59]
Alfred von Schlieffen 1 January 1911 1833–1913   [60]
Constantine I of Greece 8 August 1911 1868–1923   [61]
Paul von Hindenburg 2 November 1914 1847–1934   [62]
Karl von Bülow 27 January 1915 1846–1921   [63]
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen 22 June 1915 1856–1936   [64]
August von Mackensen 22 June 1915 1849–1945   [65]
Ludwig III of Bavaria 26 June 1915 1845–1921   [66]
Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf 1916 1852–1925   [67]
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria 18 January 1916 1861–1948   [68]
William II of Württemberg 23 July 1916 1848–1921   [69]
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria 1 August 1916 1869–1955   [70]
Prince Leopold of Bavaria 1 August 1916 1846–1930   [71]
Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg 1 August 1916 1865–1939   [72]
Charles I of Austria 12 February 1917 1887–1922   [73]
Hermann von Eichhorn 18 December 1917 1848–1918   [74]
Remus von Woyrsch 18 December 1917 1847–1920   [75]

Weimar Republic (1918–33)Edit

After the loss of the First World War, Germany was transformed into what became known as the Weimar Republic, which was established according to rules formulated under the Treaty of Versailles.[76] These required the reduction of the German Army to 100,000 men,[77] a reduction of the German Navy,[77] and the abolition of the German Air Force.[77] As a result of the new military arrangements, there were no field marshals created during the Weimar Republic.

Nazi Germany (1933–45)Edit

Name Date of promotion Branch Ref
Blomberg, WernerWerner von Blomberg
(1878–1946)
20 April 1936  German Army[78]
Göring, HermannHermann Göring
(1893–1946)
4 February 1938  Luftwaffe[79]
Bock, FedorFedor von Bock
(1880–1945)
19 July 1940  German Army[80]
Brauchitsch, WaltherWalther von Brauchitsch
(1881–1948)
19 July 1940  German Army[81]
Kesselring, AlbertAlbert Kesselring
(1885–1960)
19 July 1940  Luftwaffe[82]
Keitel, WilhelmWilhelm Keitel
(1882–1946)
19 July 1940  German Army[83]
Kluge, GüntherGünther von Kluge
(1882–1944)
19 July 1940  German Army[84]
Leeb, WilhelmWilhelm Ritter von Leeb
(1876–1956)
19 July 1940  German Army[85]
List, WilhelmWilhelm List
(1880–1971)
19 July 1940  German Army[86]
Milch, ErhardErhard Milch
(1892–1972)
19 July 1940  Luftwaffe[87]
Reichenau, WaltherWalther von Reichenau
(1884–1942)
19 July 1940  German Army[88]
Rundstedt, GerdGerd von Rundstedt
(1875–1953)
19 July 1940  German Army[89]
Sperrle, HugoHugo Sperrle
(1885–1953)
19 July 1940  Luftwaffe[90]
Witzleben, Erwin vonErwin von Witzleben
(1881–1944)
19 July 1940  German Army[91]
Böhm-Ermolli, Eduard vonEduard von Böhm-Ermolli
(1856–1941)
31 October 1940  German Army[92]
Rommel, ErwinErwin Rommel
(1891–1944)
22 June 1942  German Army[93]
Küchler, Georg vonGeorg von Küchler
(1881–1968)
30 June 1942  German Army[94]
Manstein, Erich vonErich von Manstein
(1887–1973)
1 July 1942  German Army[94]
Paulus, FriedrichFriedrich Paulus
(1890–1957)
31 January 1943  German Army[94]
Busch, ErnstErnst Busch
(1885–1945)
1 February 1943  German Army[95]
Kleist, PaulPaul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist
(1881–1954)
1 February 1943  German Army[94]
Weichs, MaximilianMaximilian von Weichs
(1881–1954)
1 February 1943  German Army[94]
Richthofen, WolframWolfram Freiherr von Richthofen
(1895–1945)
16 February 1943  Luftwaffe[94]
Model, WalterWalter Model
(1891–1945)
1 March 1944  German Army[96]
Schörner, FerdinandFerdinand Schörner
(1892–1973)
5 April 1945  German Army[97]
Greim, RobertRobert Ritter von Greim
(1892–1945)
25 April 1945  Luftwaffe[98]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In 1940 Hermann Göring was promoted to Reichsmarschall, a rank higher than that of field marshal and was the only one to hold this rank. This was done so as to make Göring superior to other field marshals and recognize him as the second man in Hitler's Reich.[99]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Hakim 1995, pp. 100, 105.
  2. ^ a b c d Wawro 1997, p. 310.
  3. ^ a b c d e Snyder 1976, p. 111.
  4. ^ Irmer 2005, pp. 5, 35.
  5. ^ Guthrie 2003, p. 48.
  6. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 790.
  7. ^ Glozier & Onnekink 2007, p. 209.
  8. ^ Phillips 1871, p. 943.
  9. ^ Long 1844, p. 360.
  10. ^ Carlyle 2002, p. 709.
  11. ^ a b Riley 2014, p. 232.
  12. ^ a b c Citino 2005, p. 428.
  13. ^ Gruyter 2006, p. 355.
  14. ^ Paret & Morgan 2014, p. 391.
  15. ^ König 1789, p. 434.
  16. ^ Johannes 2004, p. 34.
  17. ^ a b MacDonogh 2001, p. 436.
  18. ^ Colby & Williams 1906, p. 620.
  19. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 239.
  20. ^ Ohm & Boehlke & Boehlke 1997, p. 6.
  21. ^ Lund 1999, p. 182.
  22. ^ Alexeevna 2007, p. 236.
  23. ^ Siebigk 1883, pp. 352, 356.
  24. ^ Siebigk 1883, pp. 364, 365.
  25. ^ a b c Anton Balthasar König, Henning Alexander von Kleist,Biographisches Lexikon aller Helden und Militärpersonen: T. G-L, A. Wever, 1789, pp. 275–276. Accessed 26 September 2015.
  26. ^ MacKillop & Murdoch 2003, p. 103.
  27. ^ Siebigk 1883, pp. 166, 167.
  28. ^ Ross 1997, p. 134, 135.
  29. ^ Ballard 2011, p. 54.
  30. ^ Debrett 1836, p. 151.
  31. ^ Stoker 2014, p. 52.
  32. ^ Bruce & Stanard 1958, p. 88.
  33. ^ Phillips 1871, p. 378.
  34. ^ Leggiere 2014, p. 535.
  35. ^ Siebigk 1883, p. 127.
  36. ^ Droysen 1851, p. 158.
  37. ^ Gneisenau & Marston 1815, pp. 1, 8.
  38. ^ Veve 1992, p. 30.
  39. ^ Muffling 1997, p. 174.
  40. ^ Parkinson 2000, p. 259.
  41. ^ Jensen & Rothstein 2000, p. 110.
  42. ^ Siborne 1895, p. 96.
  43. ^ Röhl 1996, p. 274.
  44. ^ Chisholm & Garvin 1926, p. 405.
  45. ^ Hughes 2009, p. 423.
  46. ^ Heal 2012, p. 206.
  47. ^ Maitland 1762, p. 24.
  48. ^ Large 2007, p. 2.
  49. ^ Marrs 2010, p. 25.
  50. ^ Darmstaedter 2008, p. 414.
  51. ^ Burke 2012, p. 17.
  52. ^ Hakim 1995, p. 65.
  53. ^ Murad 1968, p. 61.
  54. ^ Clarke 2000, p. 12.
  55. ^ Ross 1997, p. 452.
  56. ^ Hahnke 2012, p. 47.
  57. ^ Steinberg 2011, p. 407.
  58. ^ Browne 2013, p. 105.
  59. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, pp. 666, 667.
  60. ^ Ehlert 2014, pp. 1, 2.
  61. ^ Vatikiotis 2014, p. 1.
  62. ^ Hargreaves 2010, p. 20.
  63. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 243.
  64. ^ Riley 2013, p. 471.
  65. ^ Sandler 2002, p. 523.
  66. ^ Pawly 2012, p. 63.
  67. ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 143.
  68. ^ Tague 2011, p. 359.
  69. ^ Blumberg 1990, p. 238.
  70. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 1007.
  71. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 687.
  72. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 82.
  73. ^ Wheatcroft & Keegan, 2014. p. 62.
  74. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 390.
  75. ^ Pope & Wheal 2007, p. 476.
  76. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 96.
  77. ^ a b c Kershaw 2008, pp. 80, 90, 92.
  78. ^ Tague 2011, p. 62.
  79. ^ Alford 2003, p. 67.
  80. ^ Wheeler-Bennett 1967, p. 497.
  81. ^ Biesinger 2006, p. 288.
  82. ^ Kesselring 1970, p. 64.
  83. ^ Goldensohn 2010, p. 157.
  84. ^ Biesinger 2006, p. 510.
  85. ^ Mineau 2004, p. 109.
  86. ^ Williamson 2006, p. 109.
  87. ^ Wright 2009, p. 110.
  88. ^ Tague 2011, p. 28.
  89. ^ Wood 2014, p. 35.
  90. ^ Frankel 2004, p. 14.
  91. ^ Mitcham 2006, p. 14.
  92. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 216.
  93. ^ Breuer 2002, p. 131.
  94. ^ a b c d e f Matthews 2013, p. 349.
  95. ^ Tague 2011, p. 326.
  96. ^ Mitcham 2007, p. 200.
  97. ^ Pawly 2012, p. 289
  98. ^ Wistrich 1982, p. 84
  99. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 198.

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