List of European windstorms
The following is a list of notable European windstorms.
Historic and notorious European windstormsEdit
|Grote Mandrenke (known as St Maury's wind in Ireland)||15–16 January 1362||A southwesterly Atlantic gale swept across England, the Netherlands, northern Germany and southern Denmark, killing over 25,000 and changing the Dutch-German-Danish coastline.|
|All Saints' Flood||1 November 1570 (11 November, New Style)|||
|Spanish Armada storms||1588||After the Battle of Gravelines, the Armada was forced to flee northwards, and attempted to return to Spain by sailing around Scotland and Ireland. Here, the ships ran into a series of powerful westerly gales. Already in poor condition after an extended period at sea, many ships were sunk, or driven onto the coast and wrecked, with over 50 ships lost. The late 16th century, and especially 1588, was marked by unusually strong North Atlantic storms, perhaps associated with a high accumulation of polar ice off the coast of Greenland, a characteristic phenomenon of the "Little Ice Age."|
|Hard Candlemas||2 February 1602||The Faroe Islands were hit by a great storm, today still remembered as the hard Kyndelmisse. The storm permanently destroyed the sheltered natural harbour at Saksun.|
|Burchardi Flood||11–12 October 1634||Also known as "second Grote Mandrenke", hit North Frisia, drowned about 8,000-15,000 people and destroyed the island of Strand.|
|Culbin Sands storm||Autumn 1694||A storm saw 20–30 km² of farmland overwhelmed by sand at the Culbin Estate, Moray Scotland.|
|Great Storm of 1703||26 November 1703||Severe gales affected south coast of England. Between 8,000 and 15,000 lives were lost overall.|
|Portugal and Madeira storm||18–19 November 1724||One of the most destructive storms ever experienced in Portugal since the early 17th century, causing damage to the east coast of Madeira and central and northern Portugal (though unclear if it was not a tropical system such as Hurricane Vince, which impacted Europe in 2005).|
|St Hilaire–Prisca storms||14–18 January 1739||Between 14 and 18 January 1739, a series of storms severely affected France, Switzerland and southern Germany. The period has been named after the saints' days of the first and the last day of its occurrence. The storms are considered to be similar to Lothar and Martin of 1999.|
|St Barbara storm||4 December 1739||Affected Portugal.|
Severe European windstorms between 1800 and 1899Edit
|Galnemåndagen||11 March 1822||A severe storm in Norway which may have caused over 300 deaths in the country of fishermen.|
|Night of the Big Wind||6–7 January 1839||The most severe windstorm to hit Ireland in recent centuries, with hurricane-force winds, killed between 250 and 300 people and rendered hundreds of thousands of homes uninhabitable.|
|Moray Firth fishing disaster||August 1848|
|Royal Charter Storm||25–26 October 1859||The Royal Charter Storm was considered to be the most severe storm to hit the British Isles in the 19th century, with a total death toll estimated at over 800. It takes its name from the Royal Charter ship, which was driven by the storm onto the east coast of Anglesey, Wales with the loss of over 450 lives.|
|Great Gale of 1871||10 February 1871||A severe storm affected England with 28 ships wrecked on the northeast coast, total fatalities are estimated at over 50.|
|"Lothar's big brother"||12 March 1876||Maximum winds crossed northern France, Belgium, Luxembourg and into Germany. Swiss Re report that this was the worst event in the 19th and early 20th century, with a footprint similar to the storm Lothar of 1999.|
|The Tay Bridge Disaster||28 December 1879||Severe gales (estimated to be Force 10-11) swept the east coast of Scotland, infamously resulting in the collapse of the Tay Rail Bridge and the loss of 75 people who were on board the ill-fated train.|
|Eyemouth Disaster||14 October 1881||A severe storm struck the southeast coast of Scotland. 189 fishermen were killed, most of whom were from the small village of Eyemouth.|
|The Ochtertyre storm||19–28 January 1884||A series of deep Atlantic depressions crossed the northwestern areas of the UK, a storm on 26 January saw the UK's record lowest air pressure measured at Ochtertyre, Perthshire of 925.6 hPa. Swiss Re stated the storm's damaging swathe of winds were larger than those of the Burns Day storm of 1990.|
|The great storm of November 1893||16–20 November 1893|||
|"North German Express"||12 February 1894||A rapidly moving storm brought high winds to Northern Ireland, Scotland, Northern England and northern Germany, reaching a maximum depth estimated at 945 hPa over Norway.|
Severe European windstorms between 1900 and 1974Edit
|Christmas Hurricane of 1902||25-26 December 1902||The Danish Meteorological Institute report a single measurement from a balloon at Hald in central Jutland with an hourly mean wind value of 35 metres per second (130 km/h). DMI estimate the strongest winds probably reached 50 metres per second (180 km/h) or more. The storm was relatively short-lived and caused extensive damage to forestry as it passed from southern Norway to the Gulf of Riga, with a swathe of damage stretching from north Jutland to Bornholm. The storm also saw significant flooding.|
|"Ulysses Storm"||26-27 February 1903||Probably the most severe to affect Ireland since the Night of the Big Wind, with an estimated 1000-3000 trees uprooted in Phoenix Park, Dublin. Following a stormy period between the 18-26 which saw several depressions pass close by to the west coast of Ireland. The storm's low pressure was estimated at 975 mb (Lamb, 1991). A quote from Ulysses by James Joyce is likely based on the aftermath of this storm- "O yes, J.J. O'Molloy said eagerly. Lady Dudley was walking home through the park to see all the trees that were blown down by that cyclone last year and thought she'd buy a view of Dublin."|
|Ulvsund storm||23-24 October 1921||The S.S. Ulvsund capsized during the storm on a sailing between Copenhagen and Nakskov, Lolland.|
|28 January 1927||A storm strongly affected the UK and Ireland, with a gust of 90 knots (100 mph) recorded in Paisley.|
|Lacken Disaster||28 October 1927||Storm affected the west coast of Ireland, with 45 people drowned, led to the abandonment of the Inishkea Islands. There was also coastal flooding in the Irish Sea along Cardigan Bay and 5 fatalities in Fleetwood, Lancashire.|
|1928 Thames flood||6–7 January 1928||Snow melt combined with heavy rainfall and a storm surge in the North Sea led to flooding in central London and the loss of 14 lives.|
|Western Europe windstorm||23–25 November 1928||A windstorm affected parts of Northwestern Europe for more than two days and killed 38 people, mainly in England.|
|Central Europe windstorm||Early July 1929||A severe and deadly windstorm moved through central Europe in early July 1929 and killed 38 people.|
|Southern and central England gales||5–8 December 1929||A stormy period from 5 to 8 December 1929 saw two depressions (central pressure of 950 mb), move north-eastwards across Ireland bringing severe gales in south-west England. Mean hourly wind speeds around 55-60 kt with gusts exceeding 80 kt at Falmouth on each day from the 5th to the 8th and at Scilly from the 6th to the 8th. Extremes during this period were: mean hourly winds of 61 and 60 kt at Falmouth on the 5th and 6th and 59 kt at Scilly on the 7th, and gusts of 89 kt at Falmouth on the 6th and 7th and Scilly on the 7th, while on the evening of the 6th Scilly registered a gust of 96 kt, equalling the then highest ever recorded at a low-level station in Great Britain in December. Mean wind speeds between 40 and 50 kt, and gusts between 65 and 75 kt, occurred in many parts of the country during the period.|
|16–17 September 1935||Formed as a secondary depression west of Ireland, before moving over southern Ireland to Northern England. The low brought severe gales to south western England, Wales and southern England.|
|Iberian windstorm||13-15 February 1941||A storm made a direct hit on Lisbon while damaging winds affected the whole of Portugal. Low of 950 hPa, reaching winds up to 180 km/h (110 mph) in San Sebastián, Spain. It remains one of the top five most severe windstorms across Europe during the 20th Century.|
|October Gales||24-26 October 1945||Gales in October 1945 killed two and washes up many mines along the south coast of England with winds over 90 mph.|
|North Sea storm disturbance||8 January 1949|||
|North Sea Flood of 1953||31 January–1 February 1953||Considered to be the worst natural disaster of the 20th century both in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, claiming over two thousand lives altogether. A storm originating over Ireland moved around the Scottish west coast, over Orkney, down the east coast of Scotland and England and across the North Sea to the Netherlands. Sea defences in the Netherlands and eastern England were overwhelmed. The ferry MV Princess Victoria, travelling between Scotland and Northern Ireland, was lost with 133 people drowned, and over a quarter of the Scottish fishing fleet was also lost. In the Netherlands, flooding killed 1,835 people and forced the emergency evacuation of 70,000 more as sea water inundated 1,365 km² of land. An estimated 30,000 animals drowned, and 47,300 buildings were damaged of which 10,000 were destroyed. Total damage was estimated at that time at 895 million Dutch guilders.|
|Hurricane Debbie||17 September 1961||North-west Ireland, much of Scotland and the Northern Isles hit by severe gales, which were the residuals of Hurricane Debbie.|
North Sea flood of 1962
(The Sheffield Gale)
|16–17 February 1962||Including the Sheffield Gale 1962, westerly gales swept the entire United Kingdom during 16 and 17 February 1962, a "resonant lee wave effect" over the Pennines led to over 150,000 houses in Sheffield, nearly two-thirds of the city's entire housing stock being damaged. The storm moved south-east and reached the German coast of the North Sea with wind speeds up to 200 km/h. The accompanying storm surge combined with high tide pushed water up the Weser and Elbe, breaching dikes and caused extensive flooding, especially in Hamburg. 315 people were killed, around 60,000 were left homeless.|
|Channel Islands storm||9 October 1964||A storm tracked along the English Channel bringing intense winds and damage to the Channel Islands.|
|Ferrybridge cooling tower collapse||1 November 1965||Ferrybridge power station near Pontefract saw three cooling towers collapse due to vibrations in 85 miles per hour (137 km/h) winds. The grouped shape of the cooling towers meant that westerly winds were funnelled into the towers themselves, creating a vortex. Three out of the original eight cooling towers were destroyed and the remaining five were severely damaged. The towers were rebuilt and all eight cooling towers were strengthened to tolerate adverse weather conditions.|
|"Adolph Bermpohl" storm||23–24 February 1967||Named after the German Maritime Search and Rescue Service ship Adolph Bermpohl which was lost in the storm. The German Naval Observatory at the time reported the storm brought the highest winds ever measured in the North Sea.|
|Scandinavian storm (Lena)||17-18 October 1967||October 1967 was one of the wettest in Denmark with several areas of low pressure passing the country. Wind speeds over 40 metres per second (140 km/h) were recorded across Denmark and at the southern tip of Öland, Sweden.|
|1968 Scotland storm||15 January 1968||This storm tracked north up the west coast of Scotland. In Glasgow, some 20 people were killed, 40 injured and 2,000 people made homeless, Ayrshire and Argyll also affected.|
|Quimburga||11–14 November 1972||A storm that struck northern Europe in mid-November 1972 and spawned a tornado that killed 28 in Germany. The MV Mebo II radio ship of RNI ran adrift losing one of her anchors. The crew managed to start the engines, and after sailing back to her original anchoring spot near Scheveningen, the spare anchor was securing the vessel's position again.|
|Unnamed||13 April 1973||A storm affecting the north and west coastal areas of the Netherlands, northern German and western Danish coastal areas, getting the unmotorised MV Norderney radio ship of Radio Veronica stranded at the Scheveningen coast. Widespread destruction of ca. 2 Million trees at the Veluwe.|
|Irish windstorm||11–12 January 1974||Record winds, sometimes of hurricane force, recorded in many parts of Ireland. The strongest ever sea level gust in Ireland, at exactly 200 km/h, was recorded in Kilkeel, County Down. Many trees and buildings were damaged and 250,000  premises were left without electricity (approx 1 in 4 in the county).|
|Norway windstorm||Mid February 1974||Winds up to 100 mph (160 km/h) battered the United Kingdom and Norway in Mid February 1974, killing 19.|
Severe European windstorms between 1975 and 1999Edit
|Gale of January 1976 ("Capella storm")||2-5 January 1976||Central UK windspeed gusts of 105 mph (169 km/h) were measured at RAF Wittering. Middlesbrough saw winds of 114 mph (183 km/h). Widespread wind damage was reported across Europe from Ireland to Central Europe. Coastal flooding of 400 homes occurred in Cleethorpes, United Kingdom. In Ruisbroek, Antwerp Belgium dike failures and floods on the Scheldt estuary led to the adoption of the Sigmaplan (the Belgian equivalent of the Dutch Delta Works) The highest storm surge of the 20th Century was recorded on the German North Sea coast, with some flooding of coastal marshes.|
|Fastnet Disaster Storm||13–14 August 1979||An unusual storm during the 1979 Fastnet yachting race resulted in 24 yachts being disabled or lost and 15 fatalities.|
|1981 Storm series||November and December 1981||
|Christiansborg storm||18 January 1983||A windstorm affected Denmark, blowing a roof off Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen which killed two.|
|Unnamed||13 January 1984||A Class 4 storm affected Denmark.|
|Ex-Hurricane Charley||25 August 1986||Rainfall records were broken in Ireland (e.g. 200 mm in Kippure) with consequent flooding, up to 2.4 metres in Dublin, and the storm also caused flooding in Wales and England. At least eleven people were killed in Ireland and Britain.|
|Unnamed||20 October 1986||A windstorm primarily affecting the Netherlands, Germany and Poland.|
|Great Storm of 1987||15–16 October 1987||This storm mainly affected southeastern England and northern France. In England maximum mean wind speeds of 70 knots (an average over 10 minutes) were recorded. The highest gust of 117 knots (217 km/h) was recorded at Pointe du Raz in Brittany. In all, 19 people were killed in England and 4 in France. 15 million trees were uprooted in England. This storm received much media attention, not so much because of its severity, but because these storms do not usually track so far south, the trees and buildings are not used to such winds (indeed, in mid-October most deciduous trees still have their leaves and were therefore more susceptible to windstorm damage and, following weeks of wet weather, the ground was sodden, providing little grip for the trees' roots), the severity of the storm was not forecast until approximately 3 hrs before it hit and it struck after midnight, meaning few people had advance warning.|
|Scottish windstorm||13 February 1989||During this storm, a gust of 123 knots (228 km/h) was recorded at the Kinnaird Lighthouse (Fraserburgh) on the north-east coast of Scotland. This broke the highest low-level wind speed record for the British Isles. Much higher (unofficial) windspeeds have been recorded on the summit of Cairn Gorm and on Unst in Shetland.|
|1990 Storm series||25 January-1 March 1990||1990 saw 8 storms impacting Europe between January and March.
|Undine||5–6 January 1991||Undine crossed Ireland, the UK and Germany becoming one of the costliest storms of the 1990s with and estimated cost of £545m. A storm surge was noted with the storm's passage with waves up to 30 m high recorded out at sea. The storm was one of three which affected Europe in two weeks.|
|Unnamed||9 January 1991||A class 4 storm affected Denmark.|
|Iceland storm (Greenhouse low)||3 February 1991||A severe storm in Iceland saw in the Vestmannaeyjar (south of the Icelandic mainland) winds up to 56 metres per second (200 km/h) with gusts probably exceeding 62 metres per second (220 km/h), which was then the maximum the measuring stations were able to measure. Reykjavik reported hurricane-force winds with gusts up to 41 metres per second (150 km/h). In the capital winds blew the roof off the Landspítali National University Hospital, while in Kópavogur the wind was filmed blowing over parked cars. 944 hPa.|
|New Year's Day Storm (Nyttårsorkanen) (Hogmanay hurricane)||1 January 1992||This storm affected much of northern Scotland and western Norway, unofficial records of gusts in excess of 130 knots (67 m/s) were recorded in Shetland, while Statfjord-B in the North Sea recorded wind gusts in excess of 145 knots (75 m/s). DNMI estimated the strongest sustained winds (10 min. average) to have reached 90 knots (45 m/s), comparable to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale. Very few fatalities occurred, mainly due to the very low population of the islands and the fact that the islanders are used to very high winds.|
|1993 Storm series||8–17 January 1993||
|Lore||28 January 1994|||
|Christmas Eve Storm (Yuma)||23–25 December 1997||On Christmas Eve, an intense secondary depression tracked north-east across Scotland, bringing severe gales and heavy rain. The storm caused 6 fatalities, extensive structural damage and disruption to National Grid. Blackpool's North Pier in north-west England was also damaged.|
|Fanny||1–5 January 1998||An intense secondary depression crossed Ireland and northern England bringing severe gales to Wales and southern England, with winds gusting up to 77 miles per hour (124 km/h). This was probably the most severe storm since the Burns Day Storm of 1990 in southern England and Wales, bringing widespread disruption to power and communications and property, including river and coastal flooding.|
|Xylia||28 October 1998|||
|Boxing Day Storm (Stephen)||26 December 1998||Severe gales over Ireland, northern England, and southern Scotland. Winds speeds of 103 mph were recorded at Prestwick airport, and 93 mph (150 km/h) in Glasgow. Widespread disruption and power outages in Northern Ireland and southern Scotland. The Forth Road Bridge was fully closed for the first time since its construction in 1964.|
|Anatol||3 December 1999||Hurricane like storm Anatol hits Denmark and neighbouring countries. Killing 7 in Denmark alone. Pressure: 952.4 hPa. Wind speeds above 85 mph (38 m/s), gusts up to 115 mph (51 m/s).|
|Cyclone Lothar and Martin||26–28 December 1999||France, Switzerland and Germany were hit by severe storms and rain. Over 100 people were killed, and the storm caused extensive damage to property and trees and the French and German national power grids, including an emergency due to flooding at the Blayais Nuclear Power Plant. The first storm in the series, dubbed Lothar by European forecasters, rapidly developed just off of the French coast and swept inland. Each of these systems was associated with an intense jet stream aloft and benefitted from latent heat release through atmosphere-ocean exchange processes. "Lothar" and "Martin", as the second storm was dubbed, were extratropical cyclones and had a hurricane-like shape, with an eye at the center. In the first storm, a gust of 184 km/h was recorded at Ushant (Fr. Ouessant) in Brittany and in the second storm, the highest gust was of 200 km/h at Île de Ré in France.|
Severe European windstorms between 2000 and 2009Edit
|Name (other name)||Dates||Minimum pressure||Meteorological history|
|Oratia||30 October–5 November 2000||941 hPa||A deep area of low pressure swept across the United Kingdom bringing gusts in excess of 90 mph (140 km/h) and severe flooding to Southern England, it was the strongest system of its kind to hit the UK since the Burns Day Storm of 1990. Contributing to the Autumn 2000 western Europe floods.|
|Janika||13–16 November 2001||980 hPa||A severe windstorm hit southern and central Finland, causing damage worth 20 million euros. Northerly winds trailing the low pressure were exceptionally gusty, with F2 damage on Fujita scale.|
|Jeanett||25–31 October 2002||975 hPa||A strong windstorm ripped through the British Isles, killing 24. Winds peaked at 95 mph (153 km/h).|
|Dagmar||16–20 December 2004||983 hPa||A storm generating 80 mph (130 km/h) winds hit northern France, including Paris, killing 6 people and leaving thousands of homes without power.|
|January 2005||5–12 January 2005||961 hPa 944 hPa||
|Renate||2–8 October 2006||999 hPa||A powerful storm battered the south west coast of France with gusts of 150 km/h in the coastal areas. The storm uprooted many trees, and many homes remained without power for many hours. Two people were badly injured in a helicopter crash. One person died in a house fire, which originated from a candle that he was using for illumination.|
|Britta||29 October–4 November 2006||979 hPa||In the afternoon of the second and in the night a storm made its way through the North Sea with gusts reaching 174 km/h in Denmark and southern Sweden. The countries affected were Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Germany and Scotland. The storm killed 15 people and detached an oil rig, which then was rescued and pulled back to safety.|
|Franz||10–13 January 2007||951 hPa||A strong depression north of Scotland brought high winds to most of the United Kingdom. A strong jet stream was also present at the time. This system was one of several strong storms to hit the United Kingdom during the winter of 2006–2007, linked to the strong North Atlantic Oscillation event taking place at the time. With a central pressure of 951 hPa, sustained winds exceeded 60 mph (97 km/h) and a gust of 94 mph (151 km/h) was recorded in Benbecula late on 10 January. Additional hurricane-force gusts were recorded in Scotland. Gale-force winds were recorded in the south of the United Kingdom and in the Midlands, and gusts of over 50 mph (80 km/h) affected the entire country. Northern areas received gusts of between 60 and 90 mph (140 km/h). The depression was named Franz by the Free University of Berlin.
Six fatalities have been confirmed, along with several injuries. Five people were killed when a trawler sank off the coast near Wexford, in Ireland and another person was killed near Taunton, Somerset when a tree crushed his car. Another trawler went missing. Two survivors were recovered. One woman went missing after falling overboard on a ferry near Falmouth. A supermarket in Wales had its roof damaged, and residents across the United Kingdom reported other minor damage. 80,000 homes lost power in Wales. Flooding occurred in several areas, with several rivers overflowing. The Environment Agency issued 59 flood warnings.
|Hanno (Per)||9–16 January 2007||965 hPa||The powerful storm Per hit south-western Sweden with wind gusts up to about 90 mph (140 km/h). Six people were reported dead in different storm-related accidents, thousands of trees were blown down, and thousands of households lost electricity. This storm also caused damage and flooding in Lithuania.|
|Kyrill||17–23 January 2007||963 hPa||In the wake of Kyrill, already regarded as one of the most violent and destructive storms in more than a century, storm-warnings were given for many countries in western, central and northern Europe with severe storm-warnings for some areas. Schools in particularly threatened areas had been closed by mid-day, to allow children to get home safely before the storm reached its full intensity in the late afternoon. At least 53 people were killed in northern and central Europe, causing travel chaos across the region. Britain and Germany were the worst hit, with eleven people killed as rain and gusts of up to 99 mph (159 km/h) with sustained windspeeds of up to 73 mph (117 km/h) swept the UK. Thirteen people were killed in Germany, with the weather station on top of the Brocken in the Saxony-Anhaltian Harz mountain range recording wind speeds of up to 121 mph (195 km/h). Direct damage in Germany was estimated to amount to €4.7 billion. Five people were killed in the Netherlands and three in France. The gusts reached 151 km/h at the Cap Gris Nez and 130 km/h in many places in the north of France. In both Germany and the Netherlands the national railways were closed. At Frankfurt International Airport over 200 flights were cancelled.|
|Uriah||23 June–1 July 2007||980 hPa||A rather unseasonal weather system brought gale-force winds to the UK, but was more memorable for causing severe flooding, with many areas receiving more than a months' rainfall in a single day. The storm exacerbated existing flooding problems (caused by violent thunderstorms a week earlier) and areas such as Sheffield were worst affected. Over 102 flood warnings were issued, and by 29 June, five people were dead, many areas flooded and there was severe damage to the Ulley reservoir, where cracks appeared in the dam wall, causing fears that it might collapse. 700 people were evacuated from the area. Over 3000 properties were flooded across the country and more than 3,500 people were evacuated from their homes. See June 2007 United Kingdom floods.|
|Tilo (Andrea)||6–11 November 2007||974 hPa||A strong European windstorm struck Northern Scotland. All schools in Orkney were closed and hundreds of homes lost power. Gusts as high as 90 mph (140 km/h) were reported, along with early snow for the Scottish highlands. The Northlink ferry company cancelled sailings between Lerwick and Aberdeen. There were also reports of trees and roofs being blown down, such as in Grampian. The combination of Northwesterly winds exceeding 60 mph (97 km/h), low pressure and high spring tides led authorities to expect severe flooding in the east of England, to close the Thames Barrier. Many said that these conditions mirrored the North Sea Flood of 1953. In the Netherlands, the Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier and the gigantic Maeslantkering (sealing off the Rotterdam harbor) were closed. For the first time since 1976, the entire coastline was put on alert and under round-the-clock surveillance. The tidal surge traveling down the North Sea turned out to be too weak to cause any significant problems to the strong Dutch coastal defenses.|
|Paula||24–27 January 2008||971 hPa||A strong European windstorm, Paula hit Poland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. At least one person died in Poland. The gusts reached 165 km/h in the Eastern Alps, 155 km/h in Poland, 150 km/h in Norway and 140 km/h in Germany.|
|Emma||28 February–7 March 2008||959 hPa||A strong European windstorm, Emma hit Germany, Austria, Czech Republic and Poland. At least 12 people died. The gusts reached 190 km/h in Eastern Alps, 170 km/h in Poland and 140 km/h in Germany and Czech Republic. The results were catastrophic.|
|Klaus||23–27 January 2009||963 hPa||A European windstorm that hit southern France and northern Spain, said to be the most damaging in the area since that of December 1999. The storm caused widespread damage across the countries, especially in northern Spain. Twelve fatalities have been reported as of 24 January, as well as extensive disruptions of public transport. Many homes lost power, including over a million in southwestern France. The gusts reached 206 km/h. Wildfires were also in Catalonia and Benidorm.|
|Quinten||8–13 February 2009||975 hPa||Severe windstorm across France, the Benelux and Germany in early February. Highest winds were recorded at the Feldberg-Mountain (Black Forest), Germany. Here the gusts reached 166 km/h.|
Severe European windstorms between 2010 and 2014Edit
|Name (other name)||Dates||Minimum pressure||Meteorological history|
|Xynthia||26 February–7 March 2010||967 hPa||A severe windstorm which was generated close to Madeira and from there moved across to the Canary Islands, then Portugal and much of western and northern Spain, before moving on to hit western and southwestern France. The highest gust speeds recorded as of midnight were at approximately 2130 UTC at Alto de Orduña (228 km/h (142 mph)). 50 people have been reported to have died.|
|Becky and Carmen||7–19 November 2010||951 hPa||Becky originated from a low-pressure area that formed off the southeast coast of Greenland on 7 November 2010. It moved rapidly towards the United Kingdom, deepening to 960 hPa on 8 November. While Becky was making landfall on Cornwall on 9 November, a low-pressure area over Nova Scotia was named Carmen. By 10 November, Becky had weakened and become more elongated, Carmen had moved offshore and began strengthening. On 11 November, Becky had been absorbed by Cyclone Anneli and Carmen had rapidly deepened to 965 hPa. Carmen strengthened slightly on 12 November, while centred just offshore Aberdeen, Scotland. On 13 November, it was centred over Scandinavia. It had split into two vortexes by that time. It began moving rapidly to the northeast, and moved out of the Free University of Berlin's tracking charts on 16 November.|
|Ex-Hurricane Katia||11–18 September 2011||954 hPa||A tropical depression formed near the Cape Verde Islands in late-August, and strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane on 5 September. However, it later weakened rapidly to a Category 1 the next day. It later struck the United Kingdom with near hurricane-force winds and moved across the rest of northern Europe in the next few days. The remnants of Katia killed a man when a tree blew down on his car. A maximum gust of 132 km/h (82 mph) was recorded, and caused widespread power outages throughout Europe, as far east as Russia.|
|Berit (Xaver)||22–29 November 2011||944 hPa||A tropical wave that developed east of the Lesser Antilles was first noted for a 10% chance of becoming a tropical or subtropical cyclone by the National Hurricane Center on 19 November. The center then said on 21 November that the wave had a 60% chance of becoming a subtropical cyclone, and was also gaining frontal characteristics. The system then acquired extratropical features and on 22 November, it was named Xaver by the Free University of Berlin. Xaver then began a rapid strengthening phase, and deepened almost 30 millibars to 944 mb (27.9 inHg). Wind gusts reached 184 km/h (114 mph) in the Faroe Islands causing widespread damage. One woman died after her car got blown into a loch in Scotland.|
|Bawbag (Friedhelm)||7–13 December 2011||956 hPa||The system that would become Friedhelm formed over the Labrador Sea on 5 December 2011 with a central pressure of 997 mb (29.4 inHg). As the system moved into the North Atlantic Ocean, it was named Friedhelm by the Free University of Berlin. On 8 December at midnight, Friedhelm was located west of the British Isles with a central pressure of 977 mb (28.9 inHg). By the next day, 9 December, the large system was located over the North Sea with a deep central pressure of 956 mb (28.2 inHg). Friedhelm then weakened as it moved over Scandinavia.|
In preparation for the storm, the Met Office issued a red wind warning for the Scottish Central Belt. Most schools in Scotland were closed by lunchtime. The Forth, Tay, Erskine and Skye Bridges were all closed due to strong winds. The summit of CairnGorm recorded a gust up to 165 mph (266 km/h), also recording sustained winds up to 105 mph (169 km/h). As the storm moved into Scandinavia, the Swedish Meteorological Institute issued a Class 2 warning.
The storm was named Friedhelm on 7 December by the Free University of Berlin and was named Bawbag in Scotland, which, became the most common name.
|Hergen||11–19 December 2011||946 hPa||On 11 December 2012, an area of low pressure emerged over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near Newfoundland. By the next day, Hergen intensified rapidly as it sped across the Atlantic, deepening to 980 mb (29 inHg). Bombing occurred within the center of the storm and it attained peak intensity on 13 December with a central pressure of 945 mb (27.9 inHg), equivalent to a category 4 hurricane. Hergen was so strong that it had absorbed the circulation of another low named 'Gunther'. By this time, the Cairn Gorm weather station had recorded a 111 mph (179 km/h) wind gust. As Hergen moved northeastwards, it began to weaken while located over the Shetland Isles on 14 December. The storm remained stationary until 16 December offshore the west coast of Norway. The vortex continued to weaken until it dissipated on 20 December.|
|Joachim||15–21 December 2011||968 hPa||A low-pressure area formed north of Puerto Rico on 13 December and rapidly moved towards Europe. The storm caused power outages and travel disruption in France, Germany, and Switzerland.|
|Patrick (Dagmar)||24–27 December 2011||964 hPa||Formed as secondary low to Cato, affecting central Norway, Sweden and Finland. A F2 tornado was reported in Hellesylt, Norway.|
|Ulli (Emil)||31 December 2011–6 January 2012||952 hPa||A weak low pressure system formed over the Mid-west of the United States on 30 December. This low moved into the Atlantic Ocean the next day and was named Ulli by the FU-Berlin. On 2 January, the Met Office began issuing weather warnings for most of the country. Blizzard warnings were issued for northern Scotland, while a heavy rain advisory was issued for southern England. SkyWarn UK also issued their first Particularly Dangerous Situation warning of the year, along with a severe weather warning. The storm rapidly deepened 9 millibars in just less than six hours. One person was killed after an oak tree fell on his car. This storm was described as the worst in Scotland since the Boxing Day Storm of 1998 by the UK Met Office.|
|Andrea||3–9 January 2012||966 hPa||Closely following Cyclone Ulli, the first named storm of 2012 formed southwest of Iceland, moving down into the North Sea affecting UK, Netherlands, Denmark and Germany.|
|Gong||18–24 January 2013||968 hPa||An explosively deepening cyclone from the Atlantic brought high wind to Portugal. The cities of Lisbon and Porto registered wind gusts of 29 metres per second (100 km/h) and 32.3 metres per second (116 km/h). Widespread fallen trees and power cables left more than 1 million people without power.|
|Christian (Saint Jude Day storm)||26–31 October 2013||965 hPa||Named after the feast of Saint Jude the Apostle on 28 October, impact N Europe from 27 October. The storm was widely reported in the British press on 25 October, with predicted intensity comparisons made to the Great storm of 1987 and the Burns' Day storm of 1990. It hit the UK, and parts of northern Europe with gusts of up to 120 mph recorded in Denmark. More than 10 people were killed in the storm.|
|Nordic Storm Series 2013||13 November – 19 December 2013||971 hPa||
A series of storms affected the Nordic Nations during November and December as high pressure over Europe directed westerly flow over the Atlantic to Northern Europe.
|Xaver (Bodil)||4–11 December 2013||962 hPa||Force 12 winds were forecast over the North Sea on 5 December. The system impacted densely populated areas in the UK, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Poland.|
|2013–2014 Atlantic winter storms in Europe||17 December 2013–20 February 2014||927 hPa||
|Nordic Spring Storms||8–24 March 2014||The first three weeks of March 2014 saw areas of low pressure repeatedly cross Norway from the North Atlantic, coming in from the Norwegian Sea across to the Barents Sea. These storms brought with them warm and humid/moist air from the south west.|
|Lena (Ursula)||7–11 August 2014||985 hPa||An unusually powerful area of low pressure for the time of year brought record winds to the west of Norway ahead of Ex-hurricane Bertha, the highest gust of 42.0 metres per second (151 km/h) was recorded at Kråkenes Lighthouse.|
|Alexandra & Billie||7–15 December 2014||950 hPa
Severe European windstorms since 2015Edit
|Name (other name)||Dates||Minimum pressure||Meteorological history|
|Elon, Felix & Hermann||7–19 January 2015||970 hPa
|Ole||6–9 February 2015||965 hPa||Ole named by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (Othmar FUB, Laina Finland) brought record breaking winds to some locations in Northern Norway and Swedish Lapland.|
|Niklas||29 March–3 April 2015||971.4 hPa||Niklas is believed to be one of the strongest storms in Germany in recent years, preceded by the low Mike which also brought hurricane strength winds to Europe. also named Lentestorm (spring storm) by KNMI, affected areas of western and central Europe with widespread disruption to air, shipping and road transport at the end of March 2015. The storm also caused forestry and property damage, power outages, and led to the loss of several lives.|
|Zeljko||22–30 July 2015||995 hPa||An unusually strong storm developed over the North Sea for the time of year, which according to KNMI is the strongest storm of its type witnessed in the Netherlands during summer.(NL)|
|Uwe||6–11 December 2015||944 hPa|| A severe storm affected Iceland, and was given the local name Diddú on Twitter. The storm brought maximum wind gusts of 72.6 m/s (over 160 mph) to the East Iceland weather station at Hallormsstaðaháls, with hurricane-force winds reported from 33 weather stations in the country, and was the worst storm to affect Iceland since 1991.|
|Egon||12–13 January 2017||981 hPa||Egon was the first storm to surpass the Perils.org reporting threshold of €200 million since storm Niklas in 2015.|
|Thomas (Doris)||23–28 February 2017||974 hPa|||
|Zeus||5–8 March 2017||996 hPa||Zeus affected France on a trajectory stretching from Brittany to the Italian border. Zeus was not named by a national meteorological agency but was widely used in French media, believed to be a misappellation of another low named by the Free University of Berlin charts|
|Xavier||4–6 October 2017||985 hPa|
|Ex‑Ophelia||16–17 October 2017||959 hPa|
|Herwart||28–29 October 2017||970 hPa|
|Eleanor (Burglind)||2–3 January 2018||966 hPa|
|Friederike (David)||18 January 2018||974 hPa||Schiphol closed. Record winds recorded in Rotterdam. Deutsche Bahn cancelled all long distance services. At least 10 dead in Germany. Record winds recorded at Brocken: 203 km/h. Damage estimated at 1 billion EUR to 2.6 billion EUR. Deutsche Bahn has decided to hire an additional 150 foresters because of damaged incurred by the storm.|
|2018–19 European windstorm season|
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- Free University Berlin Adopt a Vortex
- Met Office, University of Exeter & University of Reading: Extreme Wind Storms Catalogue
- Météo-France: Notable storms in France (in French)
- Graph of notable storms in France since 1980
- Météo-France Historic Storms (in French)
- KNMI list of severe storms
- List of extreme weather events named by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (in Norwegian)
- Stormar i Sverige (Storms in Sweden) (in Swedish)
- DMI; Storms in Denmark Since 1891 (continuously updated)