List of European tornadoes and tornado outbreaks

This is a list of notable tornadoes, tornado outbreaks, and tornado outbreak sequences that have occurred in Europe.

The rainwrapped F3 tornado that appeared in May 2015 in Bützow, Germany.

Pre-20th century

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
Sardegna tornado 200 Sardegna, Italy 1 ? Tornado in Sardegna. Earliest known European tornado and the first-ever recorded tornado.[1]
France tornado of 580 580 France 1 Many fatalities Tornado tracked 1 mile (1.6 km), killing many people.[1]
France tornado of 588 588 France 1 Unknown Tornado, described as "snakes from the clouds", that destroyed a village.[1]
689 Sachsen tornado 689 Sachsen, Germany 1 Unknown Tornado in Sachsen.[1]
788 Freising tornado Summer 788 Freising, Francia 1 ? Tornado in Freising.[2][3]
Northern Umbria tornado 793 Umbria, Italy 1 ? Tornado in the northern parts of Umbria.[1]
885 Württemberg tornado 885 Württemberg, Germany 1 ? Tornado in Württemberg.[1]
962 Poitiers tornado March 962 Poitiers, France 1 Unknown Tornado reported in Poitiers.[1]
979 Kiev tornado 979 Kiev, Kievan Rus' 1 ? Tornado in Kiev. The tornado was never rated.[1]
989 Sachsen tornado 989 Sachsen, Germany 1 Unknown Low-end F1/T2 tornado in Sachsen.[1]
1011 Württemberg tornado 1011 Württemberg, Germany 1 ? Tornado in Württemberg.[1]
1043 Kievan Rus' waterspout 1043 Kievan Rus' 1 ? Waterspout in the mouth of the Danube River in Kievan Rus'.[1]
Rosdalla tornado 30 April 1054 Kilbeggan, Ireland 1 0 Recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters, which described a "round tower of fire" (Irish: cloictheach tenedh) that sucked in birds, a greyhound dog, and clothing, then dropped them.[4][5]
Northern Umbria tornado of 1067 6 December 1067 Umbria, Italy 1 ? Tornado in the northern parts of Umbria.[1]
London tornado of 1091 17 October 1091 London, Middlesex, Kingdom of England 1 2 The London Tornado of 1091 is the earliest reported tornado in England, occurring in London on Friday, 17 October 1091.[6][7] It has been reckoned by modern assessment as possibly a T8 on the TORRO scale (roughly equivalent to low-end F4 on the Fujita scale) making it potentially the strongest recorded tornado in the British Isles,[8] although this estimate is based on reports written 30 years after the tornado.[4] The church of St Mary-le-Bow in the city of London was badly damaged; four rafters 26 feet (7.9 m) long were driven into the ground so that only 4 feet (1.2 m) protruded above the surface.[4] Other churches in the area were demolished, as were over 600 (mostly wooden) houses. For all the damage inflicted, the tornado claimed just two known victims from a population of about 18,000.[4][8][9] The tornado is mentioned in chronicles by Florence of Worcester and William of Malmesbury, the latter describing it as "a great spectacle for those watching from afar, but a terrifying experience for those standing near".[8]
Vyšehrad Tornado 30 July 1119 Vyšehrad, Bohemia 1 ? Earliest known and perhaps strongest Czech tornado, possibly rated F3/F4. Destroyed the palace of the Czech duke at Vyšehrad, which is now in Prague.[10][11]
Czech tornado of 1144 14 May 1144 Bohemia 2 0 Two tornadoes near the military camp of Duke Vladislaus II. This source may describe the first storm chasers ever documented in history.[10]
1255 Prague tornado 8 April 1255 Prague, Bohemia 1 1 Tornado at Prague Castle.[10]
Russian tornado of 1406 1406 near Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 1 1 fatality known According to the Trinity Chronicle, a tornado occurred near Nizhny Novgorod. This is the earliest known Russian tornado. It is said to have picked up a horse-drawn carriage and threw it so far away that it could no longer be seen. The carriage and the horse were later found but the man remained missing.[12][13] Another source says that "a mighty storm and whirlwind ravage[d] the village", suggesting that structures were also affected by the tornado.[14]
1406 Venice tornado 1406 Venice, Venetian Republic 1 Many fatalities A strong tornado hit Venice, destroying many houses and killing many people. [citation needed]
1453 Rodenberg tornado 1453 Rodenberg, Germany 1 18 A strong tornado moved through the village, destroying all barns and around 50 houses. 18 people were killed. According to tornadoliste it was rated F2.[15]
1535 Oleśnica tornado 11 September 1535 Oleśnica, Poland 1 5 An F4 tornado[16] destroyed part of the town. The roofs and gables on several houses were destroyed and streets were littered with shingles as a result. A brewery was completely destroyed. The tornado also damaged the castle of Henry IV, Duke of Saxony. 5 people were killed when the gable of the city hall collapsed on them.[17]
Lequile tornado 22 June 1546 Lequile, Italy 1 24 A tornado struck the villages of Lequile and San Pietro in Lama in southern Apulia near Lecce, causing catastrophic damage along a roughly 3 km long path. The tornado uprooted trees, destroyed houses and blew the roof off a church. 24 people were reportedly killed.[18]
Grand Harbour of Malta tornado 23 September 1551 (or 1556) Malta 1 ≈600 fatalities An intense waterspout came on-shore and struck the Grand Harbour of Valletta. A shipping armada which was about to go into battle was destroyed, causing the deaths of around 600 people. TORRO suggests the tornado caused T7 damage, equivalent to a high-end F3 or low-end F4 on the Fujita scale. Perhaps the deadliest European tornado.[4]
Nottingham tornado 7 July 1558 (or 1 July or 11 July) Nottingham, United Kingdom 1 5 - 7 On either 1, 7 or 11 July (sources differ) 1558 a tornado struck Sneinton (which today is a suburb of Nottingham). According to one contemporary report, the tornado tore through two towns, destroying all the houses and churches. Another independent report cites the near total destruction of the village of Sneinton. It is also reported that the tornado sucked water out of the river Trent and ripped trees out of the ground, throwing them several feet away. One child and 5 (possibly 6, sources differ) men were killed. TORRO suggests a rating of T7 for the tornado, equivalent to high-end F3.[19]
Kestřany tornado 24 May 1582 Kestřany, Bohemia 1 ? A tornado struck Kestřany, destroying houses and uprooting trees. The tornado received a rating of F3.[20][21]
Rockhausen tornado 15 July 1582 Rockhausen, Germany 1 ? The tornado which was rated F4 nearly completely destroyed the village of Rockhausen; only two houses remained untouched.[22]
Neznašov tornado 6 July 1585 Neznašov, Bohemia 1 ? A tornado formed near Neznašov. From there it moved through a forest, uprooting trees along the way, before it reached the village of Temelín, where it completely destroyed several houses. The tornado then continued to Sedlec where it destroyed another house and turned a barn upside down. Multiple academic sources list this tornado as an F3.[10][20][23]
Koclířov tornado 14 August 1585 Koclířov, Bohemia 1 ? A tornado formed near Kocléřov, which uprooted trees and destroyed several houses, including one manor. People were reportedly hurled into the air by the tornado and thrown into the mud, where they laid unconscious for some time. ESWD lists this tornado as an F3.[20][24]
Augsburg tornado 2 July 1587 Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire 1 ? [25]
Rome tornado of 1645 4 December 1645 Rome, Papal States 1 Many fatalities Probably F3.[26]
Lincolnshire tornado 23 October 1666 Lincolnshire, United Kingdom 1 3 On 23 October 1666 the most intense tornado on record for the UK (and England) passed through Welbourn, Wellingore, Navenby and Boothby Graffoe in Lincolnshire. The tornado has been rated at T8-9, roughly equivalent to an F4 on the Fujita scale. The tornado tracked for 5 km and reached a maximum path width of 200 meters. Thomas Short writing in 1749 described it as "it came with such Violence and Force, that at Welbourn it levelled most of the Houses to the Ground; broke down some, and tore up other Trees by the Roots, scattering abroad much Corn and Hay. One Boy only was killed. It went on to Wellingore, where it overthrew some Houses, and killed two Children in them. Thence it passed on and touched the Skirts of Navenby, and ruined a few Houses. Keeping its Course to the next Town Boothby Graffoe, where it dashed the Church Steeple in pieces, furiously rent the Church itself, both Stone and Timber Work, left little of either standing, only the Body of the Steeple."[4]
La Rochelle – Paris tornadoes September 1669 France >2 ? Longest tracked tornado family in Europe at 400 km (250 mi), but the distance may be greater as the tornado possibly started as a waterspout over the Bay of Biscay. Earliest-known French tornadoes.[4]
Cádiz tornado 15 March 1671[27] Cadiz, Andalucia, Spain 1 ≥600 fatalities[28] Sánchez-Laulhé (2005) classified this tornado as an F3,[28] although ESWD lists it as an F4.[29] The tornado destroyed houses and capsized many ships leading to the death of at least 600 people, although the number could be as high as 1500 fatalities.[28]
Utrecht tornado 1 August 1674 Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands 1 Likely around 50 Destroyed part of the Dom Tower of Utrecht. At least one other farmhouse outside of the city was also destroyed by the tornado. It is difficult to say how many people were killed by the tornado but it was likely around 50. Due to the poor economic situation Utrecht was in at the time, it took the city almost a century to recover.[30]
Veneto tornado 29 July 1686 Terrazzo, Dolo, Italy 1 8 fatalities A strong and long tracked tornado caused extensive damage from Terrazzo to Dolo, travelling for 40 miles in 1 hour, killing 8 people and injuring many others.[31] This might have been an F3.[26]
Kaliningrad tornado 12 August 1701 Kaliningrad, Russia 1 ? ESWD lists this tornado as an F3.[32]
Olomouc tornado 13 August 1701 Olomouc, Moravia 1 ? Strong winds presumably from a tornado caused serious damage at Jindřichův Hradec and at Praskolesy near Telč. A number of houses were reportedly completely swept away. Despite this scientific literature only indicates an intensity of F1-F2.[20][33]
Schleswig-Holstein Tornado 26 February 1718 Schleswig-Holstein, Holy Roman Empire 1 ? On the night of 25 to 26 February 1718 a violent tornado struck somewhere in modern day Schleswig-Holstein. Not much is known about this tornado but reliable sources list the rating as an F4/T8 and indicate that well built stone houses were destroyed by this tornado.[34][35]
Möklinta Tornado 27 September 1725 Möklinta, Sweden 1 ? One of the earliest known tornadoes in Sweden. The ESWD mentions that the tornado had an average width of 82 meters.[36]
Rome tornado of 1749 12 June 1749 Rome, Papal States 1 2 Originated as a waterspout over the Tyrrhenian Sea before coming on land and tracking for about 38 km. Reportedly devastated large parts of Rome. ESWD lists a rating of F3.[26][37]
Groden Tornado 26 June 1756 Cuxhaven, Holy Roman Empire 1 0 A violent tornado struck Groden (today part of Cuxhaven). A strong "whirlwind" accompanied by severe hail and heavy rain caused extensive damage in the village. According to contemporary sources several houses were destroyed or severely damaged. The roof of the local church also suffered extensive damage. Large trees were either snapped or uprooted. Tornadoliste lists this tornado as an F4.[38][39]
Padua tornado 17 August 1756 Veneto, Italy 1 0 A strong tornado, possibly an F3, hit the city of Padua, apparently damaging the Palazzo della Ragione, destroying part of its roof.[26][40]
Great Malvern tornado of 1761 14 October 1761 Malvern, Worcestershire, Great Britain 1 ? [41]
1764 Woldegk tornado 29 June 1764 Germany, Poland 3 1 Small tornado outbreak over Poland and Germany with 1 F5, 1 F3 and 1 F1. The F5 tornado traveled for 35 km along a 400–800 m wide path. 1 person was killed and 3 more were injured. A very detailed survey of the damage caused by this tornado was conducted by Gottlob Burchard Genzmer. This survey was remarkable for its time and would even hold up to modern scientific standards. The tornado caused phenomenal damage. In a field, the stumps of previously felled trees were pulled out of the ground and carried away. Houses were completely razed down to their foundations. Heavy cobblestones weighing 75 kg were rolled and according to eyewitness reports, a meteorological tsunami-like event occurred as the tornado tracked over a lake. ESWD lists the strongest tornado from this outbreak as an F5/T11, T11 being the highest rating on the TORRO scale. This tornado is regarded as the strongest in German history and is one of only 2 F5 tornadoes that have ever been recorded in the country.[42][43][44]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 1 0 1 0 1
1774 Central Europe tornadoes 19–20 June 1774 Germany, Czech Republic 2 3 High-end F2/T5 tornado hit Götzenhain, Germany along an 11.5 kilometer path, killing 3. An F1 tornado hit Telč, Czech Republic [45]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
Belfast and Carrickfergus tornado 2 September 1775 Ireland 1 ? A small tornado which damaged crops and structures and lifted people into the air. It also lifted the waters in Larne Lough, hit land on Islandmagee and then disappeared into the North Channel.[46]
1776 Barbaira Tornado 6 August 1776 France 1 0 F2 tornado hit Barbaira, France.[45]
Gräfenberg tornado 8 June 1778 Germany 1 7 fatalities,

10 injuries

A low-end F3/T6 tornado struck the town, killing 7 people and injuring 10 others.[47]
Hainichen tornado 23 April 1800 Germany 1 0 A violent tornado formed near the town of Hainichen at around 4-5 pm and subsequently tracked for around 8 minutes for 9.5 km in the north-northeast direction. The tornado was 50 meters wide. In Arnsdorf all houses lost their roofs. The tornado subsequently apparently intensified before striking Dittersdorf, where several houses and stables were completely destroyed. Lots of livestock was wiped out and several people were severely injured. After this, the tornado tracked into a forest, where no tree in its path remained standing. Some trees were reportedly debarked and thrown hundreds of meters away. Finally, the tornado struck Etzdorf, where several houses were completely leveled. Thankfully no-one was killed in the tornado because most people were out in the fields but 5 people were injured. ESWD lists this tornado as an F5/T10, one of only two documented F5 tornadoes in Germany.[48][49]
Southsea tornado 14 December 1810 Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, UK 1 0 Third-strongest British tornado, rated a T7-8 (high-end F3 to low-end F4). Some homes were completely leveled and others so badly damaged that they had to be demolished. Chimneys were blown down and lead on a bank roof was 'rolled up like a piece of canvas'.[4]
Horb Tornado 15 April 1831 Horb am Neckar, Germany 1 0 A tornado affected Horb am Neckar in modern-day Baden-Württemberg. The tornado reportedly ripped the roofs off several buildings, destroyed numerous trees and threw people and animals alike high into the air, although no fatalities were reported.[50] ESWD lists this tornado as an F2/T5.[51]
Louny tornado 2 May 1831 Louny, Bohemia 1 1 2 people were reportedly killed by the tornado, which might have been an F2 to F3.[20]
Carrickfergus tornado 12 June 1834 Carrickfergus, Ireland 1 0 A tornado struck Kilroot, damaging a house and taking the thatch off it. It also killed a hen, which was carried into the wind, and lifted two people off the ground; they were uninjured.[52]
Nýrsko tornado 25 May 1843 Nýrsko, Bohemia 1 2 A tornado killed several people, threw people and cows high into the air and damaged 28 houses as well as the church.[20] ESWD lists a rating of F2 and a rather long path length of 37 km.[53]
Cartagena Tornado 21 November 1843 Cartagena, Spain 1 4 The tornado is listed in ESWD as an F2.[53]
Southern Germany Tornadoes 22 June 1845 Engstingen, Germany 2 ? An outbreak of severe weather across southern Germany produced at least 2 tornadoes. One tornado rated F3 caused a 9.5 km long path of destruction through a forest near Engstingen. In Straubing, Bavaria an F2 tornado damaged several houses and a church.[54][55][56][57]
Seine-Maritime tornado 19–20 August 1845 France 5 70–200 A small outbreak produced at least 5 tornadoes in France, the Netherlands and Germany. The strongest tornado of this outbreak was an F5 tornado that passed through the Cailly Valley after having formed near Le Houlme. Along its path the tornado caused damage that experts at Keraunos described as beyond imagination. The tornado completely destroyed three spinning mills, some of which had just been built. One of the mills was a solid 4 story brick building and another was of a build quality that one quote: "dared to qualify as excessive ". The tornado also destroyed several regular houses and uprooted, snapped and debarked numerous large trees, throwing some of them a considerable distance away. Debris of various kinds was found scattered up to 30 km away from the tornado. The tornado killed at least 75 people and injured 130 more, making it the deadliest tornado in French history. It is also one of only 2 recorded F5 tornadoes in France, the other being the one that occurred in Palluel on 24 June 1967. Keraunos also mentions two other tornadoes that occurred in France on that day: an F3 in Villey-sur-Tille and an F1 in Avosnes. There were also at least 2 other tornadoes outside of France: one in Zevenbergen, the Netherlands and another in Trier, Germany.[58][59]
1851 Sicily tornadoes 8 December 1851 Sicily, Kingdom of Sicily 2 ≈500 fatalities Among the deadliest European tornadoes.[4]
Middle Poland tornado 31 May 1866 Jarluty Duże, Humięcino 4 ≥7 fatalities, 18 injuries A small outbreak of 4 tornadoes occurred across western and central Poland. The strongest of the outbreak was an F3-F4 tornado that hit Humiecino and Jarłuty, destroying several houses and lifting animals. The tornado killed at least 7 people, although 12 remained missing. It reportedly tore the limbs off some of its victims. The tornado was proceeded by a hailstorm, producing hail up to potato size, coating the ground in a 9-inch layer of hail. Another tornado, listed as F2 in the ESWD, touched down just northeast of this tornado a short time later and destroyed 2 houses. This second tornado was presumably from the same cyclic parent supercell. Two other tornadoes occurred further west earlier that afternoon. One of these near Święte just northwest of Wroclaw was rated F2 on account of damaging 31 houses and lifting an entire windmill.[60][61]
Palazzolo dello Stella tornado 28 July 1867 Palazzolo dello Stella, Italy 1 15 fatalities, 50 injuries A strong tornado, which might have been an F3-F4, hit the villages of San Mauro, Ronchis and especially Palazzolo dello Stella. 15 people were killed and 50 more were injured.[26][62]
Veneto tornado 24 September 1867 Venice, Italy 1 20 fatalities, 15 injuries[63] A strong tornado, possibly an F3-F4, struck Venice and caused damage along a 25 km path. The tornado killed 20 people and 15 more were injured.[26]
Tuscany tornado 29 July 1868 Roccatederighi, Grosseto, Italy 4 0 An intense 400 m wide tornado, possibly an F3, struck Roccatederighi, Roccastrada and surrounding areas in Tuscany. Several houses lost their roofs and some were even partially demolished. Some olive groves are said to have been almost completely annihilated and several large chestnut, walnut and oak trees were snapped and twisted. Ground scouring was also reportedly observed.[26]
Brno tornado 13 October 1870 Brno, Moravia 1 0 Detailed scientific description by Gregor Mendel. Mendel's detailed study of the tornado's damage reportedly would also hold up to modern standards today. One interesting thing is that Mendel, who witnessed the tornado personally, described the rotation as anticyclonic or clockwise in the northern hemisphere, which is unusual for these parts. Scientific literature suggests a rating of F0-F1.[10]
Vienna tornado 29 June 1873 Vienna, Austria 1 ? A (possible) tornado struck Vienna during the 1873 Vienna World's Fair and affected the festivities. Besides the tornado, the thunderstorm also caused large hail and torrential rain, which caused widespread flooding. According to contemporary newspaper reports the tornado damaged several houses, including damage to gables, chimneys, roofs and windows, and uprooted several trees. Some later sources attribute several fatalities to this tornado but ESWD only mentions many chickens being "battered to death" and newspaper reports only mention two people who drowned in the floodwaters. ESWD lists this tornado as an F2/T4 but also mentions that this might have been a gustnado instead of a tornado.[64][65][66][67][68][69]
Gødvad - Kattrup tornado 6 September 1882 Gødvad, Kattrup, Denmark 1 ? A long tracked, violent F4 tornado struck Gødvad and Kattrup along a 32.3 kilometer long path. 6 half-timbered oak homes were destroyed, and trees were uprooted and thrown. A pond had all of its water sucked up. Several fields sustained scouring, and in one case the scouring was very deep. This is the strongest tornado ever recorded in Denmark.[70]
Catania tornado 7 October 1884 Catania, Italy 1 30 fatalities, 600 injured A strong tornado (possibly an F3 or F4) caused great destruction around Catania. Many buildings were (almost) completely destroyed, telecommunications infrastructure damaged and trees uprooted along a 25 km path. 30 people died and about 600 others were injured.[71][26]
Caprarica di Lecce tornado 23 November 1884 Caprarica di Lecce, Italy 1 1 killed, 8 injured An intense tornado struck Caprarica di Lecce and caused great destruction within the village. Among other things the bell tower collapsed, crushing 2 people. One of the two men crushed by the bell tower was killed, while the other was injured along with 7 others. ESWD lists this tornado as an F3.[72][73]
Madrid tornado 12 May 1886 Madrid, Spain 1 47 An F3 tornado struck Madrid, causing extensive damage to buildings, some of which collapsed, killing the occupants, on a 12 km path from Carabanchel to Ciudad Lineal with a width of 1 km. It is the deadliest Spanish tornado of the last two centuries.[74]
Rhineland tornado 1 July 1891 North Rhineland, Germany 5 3 fatalities, 100 injured Tornado outbreak over central Germany. 3 tornadoes are unclassified. 1 was an F0 that travelled 12 km from Beeskow to Müllrose (Brandenburg), and 1 was a powerful F4 that brought the total destruction of Anrath, a small village, killing 3 people and injuring 100 on a 20 km path while moving at 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph). 8 cm hail fell near Anrath before the arrival of the tornado.[75]
Novska tornado 31 May 1892 Croatia, Austria-Hungary 2 1 Strongest known tornado in Croatia. A large multivortex F4 twin-tornado struck the southern part of the village of Novska and surrounding woods. 1 person was killed, 3 people were heavily injured, and many had minor injuries. At least 150,000 trees were destroyed in its path. A train was derailed; one train wagon (14 t) was lifted at least 6 m into the air and thrown 30 meters onto a field. The average width of the tornado was 800 m, with the maximum width exceeding 1.2 km. Hail size from this tornadic supercell was 8 cm.[citation needed]
Badalona tornado 15 June 1892 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain 1 3 fatalities "La Vanguardia" – newspaper.[76]
Polesella tornado 19 July 1892 Polesella, Veneto, Italy 1 2 fatalities and 21 injured A strong tornado struck the village of Polesella. This tornado might have been an F3 or F4.[77][26]
Paris tornado 10 September 1896 Paris, France 1 5 The Paris tornado of 10 September 1896 is the only documented case of a tornado forming and dissipating within an urban area in France.[78]
Central Germany tornado outbreak 18 March 1897 Germany 5 4 fatalities, 4 injured A tornado outbreak produced 5 tornadoes over central Germany. The outbreak began with two tornadoes that struck the city of Gelsenkirchen. One of the tornadoes, which affected the district of Schalke, damaged several houses, commercial buildings and a glass factory. This tornado ended up killing 3 people and injuring 4 more.[79] An F3/T6 tornado struck Kirberg and other nearby villages on a 40 km path, killing 1 person.[80] Two other tornadoes struck Stelzen (Thüringen) and Fürth am Berg (Bayern).[81]
Oria tornado 21 September 1897 Oria, Apulia, Italy 1 59 fatalities, 267 injuries A strong F4 tornado struck the villages of Sava and Oria, killing 59 people and injuring 267 on a 40 km long and up to 850 meter wide path. At least 21 houses were destroyed and other buildings were severely damaged.[82][83]
Cologne tornado 7 August 1898 Cologne, Germany 1 3 fatalities, 100 injured A violent tornado struck the city of Cologne. The storm began 3 km from the city center, in Zollstock, accompanied by hail of 5 cm. The tornado caused heavy damage and was classified as an F4/T8. For instance, the tornado caused severe damage to a factory complex on the west side of the Rhine, where no building remained untouched and damage exceeded 400 thousand German Mark (about 3 million euros in today's money[when?]). On the other side of the Rhine damage was also severe: countless houses lost their roofs or were otherwise severely damaged, the spire of a Catholic church was torn off and a large dance hall was almost completely destroyed. The storm ended just northwest of Wipperfürth after it had traveled for 38 km and after it had killed 3 people and injured about 100.[84][85]

20th century

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
1902 Javaugues tornado 3 June 1902 France 1 1 fatality An F3 tornado struck Javaugues and other villages along its 7 km path. With a width of 3 km, this is the widest documented French tornado.[4]
1904 Moscow tornado 29 June 1904 Moscow, Russia 2[86] 9-100+ fatalities Two strong F2-F4 tornadoes struck eastern Moscow, causing severe damage along its 42 km path in a densely populated area and with a width of 400-700m. They killed over 100 people and wounded over 800.[87]
1905 Armavir tornado 1 March 1905 Armavir, Russia 1 ? Details unknown.[88]
1906 Opladen tornado 14 August 1906 Opladen, Germany 1 1 fatality An F3 tornado struck several villages along its 15 km path, killing 1 person and injuring 25 others.[citation needed]
1910 Central Europe tornado outbreak 11 May 1910 Germany, Czech Republic and Austria 10 1 injured Tornado outbreak over Central Europe. 1 F3 tornado in the Czech Republic struck Klatovy and other villages over a 13 km path, with a width of 1 km.[89]
1910 Lower Saxony tornadoes 4 June 1910 Lower Saxony, Germany 2 0 1 F3 tornado and 1 F4 tornado struck Bad Zwischenahn and Ostrhauderfehn.[citation needed]
1910 Germany tornadoes 22 July 1910 Germany 12 0 Tornado outbreak over Germany, with 12 tornadoes, causing severe damage. 1 F3 tornado struck Platten (Rhineland-Palatinate). Several other tornadoes produced F2-F3 damage, with paths of 10–30 km.[citation needed]
1910 Lombardy tornado 23 July 1910 Lombardy, Italy 1 36 fatalities A violent long-tracked tornado caused severe damage along a 62 km path north of Milan. The tornado completely destroyed many homes in Busto Arsizio, Solaro, and Saronno, killing 36 people and injuring another 50, becoming one of the most destructive Italian tornadoes.[citation needed]
1912 Brețcu tornado 13 May 1912 Brețcu, Romania 1 17 fatalities A violent F3 tornado struck the town of Brețcu, destroying 1,548 houses and killing 17 people and injuring another 150.[citation needed]
1913 Plochingen tornado 1 June 1913 Plochingen, Germany 3 40 injuries A violent F3 tornado struck Echterdingen and Plochingen, traveling for 20 km and injuring 40 people. On the same day, 2 other tornadoes touched down in Germany: 1 F1 in Nürtingen and 1 in the Taunus region.[citation needed]
1913 United Kingdom tornado outbreak 27 October 1913 United Kingdom, Ireland 13+ 5 deaths, 150 injuries The 1913 United Kingdom tornado outbreak occurred on 27 October 1913, mainly in England and Wales. It started off with a deadly F3 tornado that tracked through Dyffryn Dowlais, Llantwit Fardre, Treforest, Cilfynydd, Abercynon, Edwardsville and Bedlinog, killing at least 5 people and injuring over 100. 2 F2 tornadoes struck Bulkeley and Widnes. Other tornadoes were reported in England at Blackpool, Craypole, Peckforton, Oundle, Exeter, Collumpton and Worthing. The final tornado of the outbreak was reported at Witcombe Park, Gloucester at around 17:20 on 28 October. A tornado was reported in Scotland at Crathes and in Ireland at Crosshaven. However, all of these tornadoes were generally weak.[90][91][92][93]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
10 0 0 2 1 0 0
1916 Itzgrund tornado 3 January 1916 Itzgrund, Bavaria-Germany 2 1 A long-tracked F3 tornado struck the cities of Itzgrund and Grafenwöhr, traveling for 85 km and killing 1 person and injuring another. On the same day, an F2 tornado struck Greiz.[citation needed]
1916 Wiener Neustadt tornado 10 July 1916 Wiener Neustadt, Vienna, Austria 3 35 fatalities, 328 injured This F4 tornado was the deadliest and strongest tornado in Austria. More than 150 homes were destroyed along a 20 km path. 2 other tornadoes were confirmed: 1 F2 in Theresienfeld (Austria) and 1 F3 tornado in Saxony (Germany).[citation needed]
1920 Germany tornado outbreak 28–30 June 1920 Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt 9 3 injured Small outbreak over the northern part of Germany, with 1 F3 tornado that struck Bargteheide, 5 F2 tornadoes that caused 3 injuries and 3 F1 tornadoes.[94]
1924 Southern Netherlands tornado outbreak 26 April 1924 Netherlands ≥3 ? [citation needed]
1924 Pilisvörösvár tornado 13 June 1924 Pilisvörösvár, Hungary 1 6 fatalities, 33 injured A strong F4 long-tracked tornado killed 6 people near Budapest. The storm traveled for 65 km with a width of up to 500 m. Several villages were razed to the ground and an F5 intensity was suspected, but according to windspeed, was more likely an F4.[citation needed]
1924 Jels tornado 20 July 1924 Jels, Denmark 1 ? The tornado appeared near the Jels and Grønnebæk areas and traveled for 2.7 km. Unknown damage.
1924 Østervrå tornado 9 September 1924 Østervrå, Denmark 1 5 injuries A strong F2 tornado severely damaged homes. Barns collapsed and large animals were killed. 5 people sustained injuries.[95]
1923 Solihull tornado 24 October 1923 Solihull, England 1 1 fatality, 7 injured A strong F1/T3 tornado struck the towns of Shirley and Solihull in England, carving a 3-mile damage path from Burman Road in Shirley to Damson Lane in Elmdon Heath, destroying a barn, killing a man taking shelter inside.
1924 Nice tornado 1 December 1924 Nice, France 1 30 injured An F3 tornado struck the city of Nice, damaging the city for 4.5 km in a 100 m wide area. 30 people were injured by the storm.[citation needed]
1925 Netherlands tornado outbreak 10–12 August 1925 Netherlands, Germany and Czechoslovakia 5 4 fatalities A powerful F4 tornado struck the town of Borculo, with several houses destroyed nearly to its foundation walls. The church was also seriously damaged. Another F3 tornado killed 1 and injured another 13 in Uetersen in Germany.[citation needed]
1927 Netherlands tornado outbreak 1–2 June 1927 Netherlands/Germany 7 8 fatalities Strong tornadoes over the Netherlands and Germany, with 1 high-end F4 tornado in Neede that killed 7 people and another one near Vrees in Germany, where 10 people were injured by an F4 tornado. A strong F3 tornado struck Schepsdorf and Lingen, causing severe damage along a 6 km path, killing 1 person and injuring 17.[citation needed]
1927 Asipovichy tornado 12 June 1927 Belarus 1 1 fatality At 17:30 local time an F3 tornado crossed the territory of the Staryya Darohi and Asipovichy districts. The tornado destroyed some residences, outbuildings and crops, and left a 250–300 m wide сlearing in the forest. One farmer, who was driving a dray, was tossed into the air along with his horse and load of logs and chips and thrown into the distance. He died two hours later. The tornado threw off a loaded train from the trackbed embankment on the construction site of the Asipovichy-Mahilyow railway line. The observers noted the rotation of the parent cloud. The phenomenon was accompanied by a thunderstorm and torrential rain. The tornado travelled a path of 37 km, with a width between 100 and 200 m.
1927 Austria tornado outbreak 29 September 1927 Austria 3 1 fatality 2 F3 tornadoes caused extensive damage in Sankt Ruprecht an der Raab and Unterrohr. The first tornado destroyed several homes, some also with ground floor walls having collapsed, injuring 10 people over a 20 km path with a width of 1 km. An F1 tornado struck Hirnsdorf, damaging some trees and roofs. The third tornado struck Unterrohr and other towns over a 15 km path, killing a 14-year-old boy who was lifted, thrown down and hit by roof tiles.[citation needed]
1928 Monza tornado 29 August 1928 Monza, Italy 1 8 fatalities A strong tornado struck the city of Monza, killing 8 people and injuring about 60 others.
1928 Hostrup tornado 24 November 1928 Denmark 1 ? An F4 tornado erased a farmhouse to the ground and deroofed several other homes. A pump was ripped off the ground and thrown 10 meters.[96]
1930 Montello tornado 24 July 1930 Montello, Veneto, and Friuli in Italy 1 23 fatalities This is the strongest tornado in Europe, together with the 1845 Montville tornado in France, which was very similar in power.[4] The storm possibly crossed almost the entire province of Treviso, even going so far as the province of Pordenone, with a total path of about 80 km. The event lasted a total of 84 minutes, with possibly other events happening throughout the day. The tornado was an F5, with winds of up to 500 km/h, killing 23 people.[97]
1930 Naples tornado 16 August 1930 Naples, Italy 1 4 A strong tornado struck Naples, causing severe damage, killing 4 and injuring 70 people along a 4 km path.
1931 Birmingham tornado 14 June 1931 United Kingdom 1 1 fatality A strong F3 tornado struck the suburbs of Birmingham, killing 1 woman and injuring many other people.[98]
1931 Plettenberg tornado 17 June 1931 Germany 2 4 fatalities A tornado damaged the town of Willertshagen and Plettenberg in North Rhine-Westphalia. 4 people were killed and 80 others were injured.[citation needed]
1931 Lublin tornado [simple] 20 July 1931 Poland 1 3 fatalities A strong F4 (or low F5) tornado struck Lublin and Zemborzyce, killing 3 people and injuring many others along a 20 km path.[99]
1932 Finland tornado outbreak 4 August 1932 Finland 6 1 fatality 6 tornadoes (one F3) tracked 20 km.[100]
Kalundborg tornado 11 February 1934 Kalundborg, Denmark 1 Unknown ESWD mentions that an F2 tornado struck Kalundborg.
1934 Finland tornado outbreak 11–15 July 1934 Finland 8 1 fatality Includes an F4 tornado, the strongest one in Finland.[100]
1934 Kyrenia tornado 17 October 1934 Cyprus 1 3 fatalities A strong tornado struck the city of Kyrenia, causing the collapse of the church tower and the roof of a school, killing 3 children.[citation needed]
1935 Bezděkov pod Třemšínem tornado 8 April 1935 Bezděkov pod Třemšínem, Czechoslovakia 1 1 fatality [24]
1935 Polichno tornado 6 September 1935 Polichno, Czechoslovakia 1 1 fatality F3 tornado.[24]
1936 Düsseldorf tornado 10 January 1936 Germany 2 2 fatalities An F4 tornado damaged Düsseldorf, causing extensive damage, 2 fatalities and 37 injuries along a 10 km path. On the same day, an F3 tornado struck Hamm (Sieg).[citation needed]
1936 Wiepkenhagen tornado 15 July 1936 Germany 2 ? A violent tornado struck Wiepkenhagen (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), causing severe damage indicative of F4 intensity.[citation needed]
1937 Mottola tornado 13 September 1937 ApuliaItaly 1 10 injured A long-tracked F3 tornado caused severe damage to the towns of Mottola, Martina Franca, and in the Monopoli area, traveling for 43 km with severe damage to homes and trees. 10 people were injured.[citation needed]
1938 Nienhagen tornado 8 July 1938 Germany 1 0 A long-tracked F2 tornado caused damage to Nienhagen, Lower Saxony up to Uelzen, traveling for 75 km.[citation needed]
1945 Moscow tornado 2 September 1945 Moscow, Russia 1 Several fatalities A strong tornado, with a diameter of 50 to 300 meters and a speed of about 60 km/h, traveled for 12–15 kilometers and destroyed two villages near Moscow – Khomutovo and Oboldino.[101] The tornado was accompanied by large hail the size of a chicken egg.[102]
1948 Bavaria tornado outbreak 22 July 1948 Germany 3 5 fatalities 3 tornadoes were confirmed. A strong tornado hit the Nürnberg city area, destroying 40 homes, killing 4 people and injuring 11 others. Another strong tornado caused damage from Auerbach up to Grafenwöhr, killing a 12-year-old boy by falling debris.[citation needed]
Buckinghamshire – Cambridgeshire, England tornadoes 21 May 1950 United Kingdom 4 0 An F2 tornado crossed Britain for 107 km (one of the longest-lived tornadoes in Europe) from Little London (Buckinghamshire) to Coveney (Cambridgeshire). Three other F1 tornadoes were documented on the same day.[citation needed]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 3 1 0 0 0
1950 Borod tornado 23 July 1950 Borod, Germany 1 0 An F2 tornado lasted only a few minutes as it passed the town's outskirts. All the tiles of many houses were torn off, trees were pulled out of the ground and some houses lost their entire roofs, including rafters and boards.[103]
1950 Gelderland–Friesland tornado outbreak 23 August 1950 GelderlandFriesland, Netherlands 4 0 Strongest recorded tornado in Netherlands, causing F5 damage[citation needed] along a 50 km path in Veluwe Forest.[citation needed]
1951 Osterholz-Scharmbeck tornado 11 July 1951 Lower Saxony, Germany 2 0 A strong F3 tornado caused severe damage along a 52 km path from Hude to Gnarrenburg in Lower Saxony.[citation needed]
1951 Khimki tornado 17 August 1951 Khimki, Soviet Union 1 ? A strong and multivortex tornado,[104] accompanied by rain and hail, swept through the Khimki district. The village of Skhodnya suffered the most, where a wooden railway platform was overturned.[88]
16 May 1953 event 16 May 1953 Germany and Denmark 4 0 Tornadoes struck Germany and Denmark. The 2 strongest were rated F2. 1 high-end F2/T5 tornado touched down in the German region of Schleswig-Holstein. A second F2 tornado touched down in Hejls, Denmark. Trees were uprooted or snapped in a forest, homes were deroofed and a chicken barn was picked up and thrown several kilometers into the ocean.[105]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 1 2 0 0 0
1953 Turin tornado 29 May 1953 Turin, Italy 1 5 fatalities A F1 tornado struck the centre of Turin, causing considerable damage and the collapse of part of the roof of the Mole. 5 people were killed.[citation needed]
1954 Castelo Branco tornado 6 November 1954 Portugal 1 5 fatalities, 220 injuries A strong F3 tornado struck the town of Castelo Branco, causing extreme damage to the city, killing 5 people and injuring 220 others.[citation needed]
1954 United Kingdom tornado outbreak 8 December 1954 United Kingdom 7 0 7 tornadoes were confirmed that day over England, and in particular over the western parts of the Greater London area, where 3 tornadoes (1 of them caused F3 damage from Gunnersbury to Southgate) were confirmed. In total, there was 1 F3 tornado, 4 F1 tornadoes and 2 F0 tornadoes.[citation needed][106]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 2 4 0 1 0 0
1956 Naro-Fominsk tornado outbreak 25 August 1956 Naro-Fominsk-Soviet Union 1 0 A group of long-tracked F2 tornadoes caused severe damage along an 80 km path in a 200–350 m wide area.[101]
1957 Robecco Pavese tornado 16 June 1957 Robecco Pavese, Italy 1 7 fatalities, 80 injuries A violent tornado struck the villages of Argine, Robecco Pavese and Vallescuropasso, causing severe damage. The tornado was an F4 tornado, but at some point, it may have produced F5 damage. 7 people died and about 80 were injured along a 10 km path. This is the second most violent tornado to ever hit the country.[107]
1958 Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto tornado 15–16 May 1958 Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto in Poland 2 3 fatalities, >100 injuries [108]
1960 Rzeszów tornado 20 May 1960 Poland and Ukraine 8 5 fatalities, ≥100 injuries Tornado outbreak over southern Poland and northern Ukraine with 8 tornadoes. 1 was an F4 tornado that struck the town of Niechobrz, causing the total destruction of some houses and killing 3 people. The tornado may have reached F5 intensity as well. Another 2 victims were recorded in Dynów and Gorliczyna.[107][109]
1960 United Kingdom tornado outbreak 26–27 August 1960 United Kingdom 13 0 A light tornado outbreak over southern England with 13 tornadoes over a 2-day period. Most of them were at F0/F1 strength. The strongest tornadoes (F1) struck Hornchurch (Greater London) and Poulton, Gloucestershire.[citation needed]
1961 Évreux tornadoes 4 May 1961 France 2 1 fatality and 100 injured Two powerful F3 tornadoes struck Évreux and Cormeilles. In the city of Évreux, 1 person died and 100 others were injured.[citation needed]
1961 Bavaria tornadoes 14 May 1961 Germany 2 5 injuries A strong F3 tornado struck Gangkofen and Wurmannsquick, traveling for 22 km and injuring 5 people. A second tornado struck Mitterskirchen and Hirschhorn, traveling for 30 km and producing F2 damage. Both tornadoes caused extensive damage.[citation needed]
1961 Central Europe tornado outbreak 8 August 1961 Germany and Austria 7 1 fatality All the tornadoes were classified as F1. They caused severe damage near Hamburg, while an F1 tornado struck Innsbruck, producing large hail and killing 1 person.[citation needed]
1961 Pomezia tornado 30 October 1961 Pomezia, Italy 1 3 fatalities An F3 tornado traveled 20 km on land near Rome. 25 wooden and brick houses were completely destroyed, six factories were strongly damaged and some concrete houses were completely destroyed. 3 people died and 60 were injured.[citation needed]
1962 Holstebro tornado 11 February 1962 Denmark 1 Unknown Injuries A powerful high-end F3 tornado struck Holstebro in Denmark, causing devastating damage. More than 100 houses were badly damaged or destroyed, making this event the most devastating tornado in Denmark's history, and the third strongest tornado documented in Denmark. Many injuries were reported, but the number is not exactly known. The tornado traveled 13 km, with a maximum width of 500 meters, while remaining on the ground for 25 minutes. ESWD mentions that F4 intensity may have been reached.[110]
1962 Isla del Moral tornado 27 October 1962 Spain 1 1 fatality An F1 tornado hit Isla del Moral, killing 1.[111]
1962 Brenes tornado 14 December 1962 Spain 1 3 fatalities, 30 injuries An F1 tornado hit Brenes, killing 3 and injuring 30 others.[111]
1963 Fårvang tornado 27 August 1963 Denmark 2 Unknown The day started with a waterspout over the Baltic Sea. A couple hours later, a high-end F3 tornado caused severe damage to 20 homes in Fårvang, Denmark, including a large school. The school partially collapsed and a further two homes collapsed. ESWD mentions that F4 intensity may have been reached.[112]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 0 0 1 0 0
1964 Kirovo-Chepetsk tornado 20 May 1964 Soviet Union 1 0 A long-track tornado struck Kirov Oblast and Udmurtia, travelling for 175 km from Kirovo-Chepetsk to Glazov. It was classified as an F2 tornado.[113]
1964 Lower Saxony tornadoes 15–16 September 1964 Germany 3 ? 3 F3 tornadoes struck several villages in Lower Saxony. The first tornado struck on the 15th, killing 1 person and injuring 20 others along a 20 km path from the town of Minden to Stadthagen. The other 2 tornadoes struck Mellendorf and Schessinghausen.[citation needed]
1965 Italy tornado outbreak 4–5 July 1965 Italy 7 15 fatalities, 215 injuries Violent outbreak of tornadoes. Fatalities included 1 in Busseto, 7 in Fiorenzuola d'Arda, 3 in Torricella di Sisa, 3 in Piedmonte and 1 in Ostellato. Overall 15 people were killed and 215 people were injured.[114][115][116]
1966 Czech tornado 18 July 1966 Czechoslovakia 1 8 injuries F3 tornado.[24]
1967 Western Europe tornado outbreak 24–25 June 1967 FranceNetherlandsBelgium - Germany 7 15 - 20 fatalities, 112 injured From 24 to 25 June 1967, a violent tornado outbreak struck western Europe. The event started with an unrated tornado which occurred near Jüterbog in eastern Germany at around noon. This was followed by an intense F3 that travelled for 8 km and struck Davenescourt, France during the evening. Shortly after, an F5 struck Palluel, killing 6 and injuring 30, and a violent F4 struck Pommereuil, killing 2 and injuring 50. The next day started with an F2 which travelled 12 km and struck Argoules. It was followed by 3 unrated tornadoes in areas further north, that struck the communities of Boulogne-sur-Mer, Merck-Saint-Liévin and Bergues. Shortly after these tornadoes, an F3 struck Oostmalle in Belgium, damaging homes. Another F3 struck Ulicoten, Chaam and Gilze killing 2. The final tornado of the outbreak was a high-end F3 that struck Nieuwaal, Crob, Deil and Tricht, killing at least 5, although some sources say up to 10 were killed in Tricht.[115][117][118]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 0 0 1 4 1 1
1968 Black Forest tornado 10 July 1968 France and Germany 2 2 fatalities A long-tracked F3 tornado struck Uberach and other villages in Alsace, causing 3 injuries. The same supercell produced a powerful F4 tornado that struck Ittersbach and Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg), killing 2 people (one additional person was killed during clean-up efforts) and injuring 300 others.[119]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 0 0 1 1 0
1968 Catania tornado 31 October 1968 Sicily-Italy 1 2 fatalities A powerful tornado hit the Piana di Catania along a path of 16 km, killing 2 people and injuring 100 others.[citation needed]
1969 Belarus tornado outbreak 31 May 1969 Belarus 4 0 A powerful tornado outbreak produced 3 F2 and 1 F1 tornadoes across Belarus. The strongest one struck Svetlahorsk (Gomel Region).[citation needed]
1969 Nicosia tornadoes 22 December 1969 Cyprus Several 4 fatalities Waterspouts (probably tornadic) came ashore.[citation needed]
1970 Soviet Union tornado outbreak 6 July 1970 Soviet Union 6 0 6 long-tracked F1 tornadoes struck 400 km south of Moscow. One of them had a path length of 100 km.[citation needed]
1970 Venice–Padua tornado 11 September 1970 Veneto, Italy 1 36 fatalities A violent tornado struck the outskirts of Padua and Venice, causing heavy damage and killing 36 people. 21 of the victims were on a ferry on the island of St. Helena when the tornado hit. 12 people died in a campsite in Ca'Savio, where some cars were found more than 200 meters away. The F4 tornado traveled 70 km.[citation needed]
1971 La Rochelle tornado 25 January 1971 France 1 1 fatality An F4 tornado struck La Rochelle traveling for 2.9 km, causing severe damage in a 50 m wide area. 1 person died and another 12 were injured.[citation needed]
1971 L'Abbaye tornado 18 October 1971 Switzerland 1 0 A powerful F4 tornado struck Bois d'Amont and L'Abbaye, causing severe damage to houses, cars and completely destroying sections of forests. The path of the storm is similar to that of the 1890 F4 tornado.[citation needed]
1971 Kiel tornado 18 October 1971 Germany 1 1 fatality An F3 tornado struck Kiel, killing 1 person and injuring 13 others.[citation needed]
1972 Ameland Island tornado 11 August 1972 Friesland, Netherlands 7 fatalities, 90 injuries [citation needed]
1973 Northern France tornado outbreak 20 September 1973 France 3 2 fatalities 3 F3 tornadoes struck Fleury-les-Aubray, Sancy-les-Provins and Grainville-Langannerie killing 2 people and injuring 14 others.[citation needed]
1974 Nizhny Novgorod tornado 3 July 1974 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 1 ? South-east of the village Dubenki, at about 17:00, an F3 tornado suddenly formed. Passing along the Volga River, accompanied by a thunderstorm, rain and hail, the tornado broke the equipment of the weather station "Myza" and traveled to a residential area of a new building in the Prioksky City District. All buildings in the path of the tornado were severely damaged, with the roof of the Annunciation Monastery also torn off. Crossing the Volga, in the port of the Spit of Nizhny Novgorod, the tornado dropped a 240-ton crane into the river, tore off the hatch covers of a cargo steamer standing in the port, and scattered the goods prepared for shipment.[101][120] Then the whirlwind went into the field and disappeared near Lake Kislenko. After the tornado, a squally wind swept through the city.[121] As a result, a lot of material damage and possibly human casualties occurred.[122]
1978 Seville Airport tornado 27 Dec 1978 Seville, Spain 1 Unknown The F3 tornado hit the airport in the city of Sevilla. Multiple cars were overturned, and a plane was moved and overturned. 70 vehicles were affected by the tornado. Later, the tornado tore off the roof of a house in which a girl was sleeping. Miraculously, the girl was not hurt.
1979 Christ's Ascension Day outbreak 24 May 1979 Germany 6 3 injured A major outbreak struck parts of Eastern Germany with one violent F4 tornado near Bad Liebenwerda (Brandenburg) where harvesters were sent flying.[citation needed]
1980 Ukraine tornado outbreak 2 June 1980 Ukraine 4 0 4 tornadoes were confirmed. 3 of them were of F2 strength, while the first tornado was an F1.[citation needed]
Mid-June 1980 Germany tornado outbreak 14–15 June 1980 Central Germany 7 8 fatalities, at least 11 injuries (serious) Some tornadoes struck the Central German states of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. A campsite was severely damaged with some fatalities. The tornadoes were classified as being of F1-F2 strength.[citation needed]
1981 Lithuania tornado 29 May 1981 Eastern Lithuania 1 ≥1 fatality An F2 tornado travelled for 6 km with a path 100–300 m wide.[123] This was the strongest known tornado in Lithuania. One fatality documented.[124]
1981 Moerdijk tornado 6 October 1981 North Brabant, Netherlands 1 17 fatalities NLM CityHopper Flight 431 encountered a tornado shortly after takeoff and crashed.
1981 United Kingdom tornado outbreak 23 November 1981 United Kingdom 104 8 injuries Largest known European outbreak,[4] though predominantly weak tornadoes.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
21 24 57 2 0 0 0
1982 Levier tornado 2 June 1982 France 1 ? A powerful F4 tornado struck Levier, causing severe damage along a 3 km path.[125]
1982 France–Belgium tornadoes 20 September 1982 France and Belgium 3 7 injured 3 tornadoes were confirmed, 1 F2 and 2 F3s. A strong F3 tornado struck Belgium, injuring 3 people along a 31 km path. Possibly the strongest tornado event in Belgium.[citation needed]
1984 Soviet Union tornado outbreak 9 June 1984 Western Russia ≥8 69 – 400+ fatalities, 213 injured The deadliest tornado outbreak in Russia.[4] Two violent tornadoes touched down, both rated F4, in the outbreak that damaged 36 cities and villages, including Tver and Kostroma, in a wide area north of Moscow. Almost three F2 tornadoes were fixed over no-population areas, and an F3 tornado also occurred.[citation needed]
1986 Ojos Negros tornado 23 September 1986 Spain 1 ? An F3 tornado that moved 4 km, damaging a mine, destroying a farm, destroying entire crops, and killing hundreds of livestock. Damages were estimated at €32 million.
1987 Shel'vov tornado 20 July 1987 Ukraine 1 4 fatalities 30 injured F3 tornado that destroyed the town of Shel'vov.
1991 Humlebæk tornado 18 May 1991 Humlebæk, Denmark 1 Unknown ESWD mentions an F2 tornado struck Humlebæk.
1992 Ameland Island tornado 17 August 1992 Friesland, Netherlands 1 1 fatality [citation needed]
1992 Ciutadella-Ferreries tornado 9 October 1992 Ciutadella-Ferreries, Spain 1 0 The F3 tornado reached wind speeds of 320 km/h. Thousands of trees were destroyed.
1993 Sigüenza tornado 24 May 1993 Sigüenza, Spain 1 0 F2 damage in a path across the town.[citation needed]
1994 Espluga de Francolí tornado 31 August 1994 Espluga de Francolí, Spain 1 0 fatalities, 0 injuries A tornado struck Espluga de Francolí. The tornado destroyed roofs of houses, high voltage towers, trees and railroad tracks. The tornado was rated F2.
1994 Northern Italy tornado outbreak 31 August-14 September 1994 Piedmont, Liguria, Tuscany, Umbria, Veneto and Friuli, Italy 23 Many fatalities Between 31 August and 2 September, 9 tornadoes struck Liguria and the Po Valley, with fatalities and damages; on 2 September, two other tornadoes formed in Pordenone and Brescia; on 14 September, a violent cold front entered northern Italy, producing 12 tornadoes all over the northern regions.
1997 Spijkenisse tornado 7 June 1997 Netherlands 1 0 F1 damage to houses, and trees ripped out from the ground.[citation needed]
1997 Eastern Europe tornado outbreak 23 June 1997 Ukraine, Belarus, and Poland 11 17 fatalities, 50 injuries As a cold front moved across Eastern Europe, it produced many deadly wedge tornadoes. The tornadoes affected an area from Lublin Voivodship to Lutsk Oblast to the Minsk Region. The outbreak began at 13:00 local time when at least 5 F1s touched down. Many homes would be destroyed and 1 person would die in Łaszczów. Later that day, an F2 touched down in Pidrichchia, Ukraine, killing two. As the storm moved through Ukraine, it is thought 9 more people were killed but it is unsure how many of those deaths were related to tornadoes. Within the span of 20 minutes, 2 tornadoes touched down in Belarus, one in Molodovo, and another in Chatava, both F1s. 3 more F2s touched down across the Minsk Region, one in Krasnahorki, one in Skamaroški, and one that killed 5 people and injured 50 in Rubiaževičy. Overall, the storms killed 17 people, with 50 more being injured.[126][127]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 7 4 0 0 0
1997 Copenhagen tornado 30 June 1997 Denmark, Germany, Russia 3 Unknown An F1 tornado struck the capital city of Denmark. Based on the ESWD, the tornado traveled 0.7 km with a maximum width of 60 meters. 1 F1 tornado struck near Ginsheim in Germany, while a landspout tornado touched down in Russia.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 2 0 0 0 0
1998 Selsey tornado 7 January 1998 Selsey, West Sussex, England 1 0 The Selsey tornado was the widest tornado in the UK. The tornado had a maximum width of 900 m where it initially made landfall as a waterspout. Fortunately, no one was hurt as the event occurred slightly before midnight.[4]
1998 Mikkeli tornado 12 June 1998 Finland 1 0 An F3 tornado traveled 10 km, destroying some airport facilities.[citation needed]
1998 Nørager tornado 31 August 1998 Nørager, Denmark 1 Unknown ESWD mentions that an F2 tornado struck Nørager. The tornado traveled 4 km with a max width of 500 meters.
1999 San Leonardo de Yagüe tornado 1 June 1999 Spain 1 0 F3 damage and thousands of trees uprooted in a forest near Soria, Spain.[citation needed]
1999 Gudar Range tornado 28 August 1999 Sistema Ibérico, Spain 1+ 0 F3 tornado in mountainous terrain.[128]

21st century



Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
2000 Rakvere tornado 15 July 2000 Rakvere, Estonia 1 1 fatality, 1 injury An F2 tornado struck Rakvere killing 1 person and injuring 1.[129]
2001 Milošovice tornado 31 May 2001 Milošovice, Czech Republic 2 None F3 tornado[24]
2001 Concorezzo tornado 7 July 2001 Concorezzo, Italy 3 92 injuries A strong F3 tornado struck Concorezzo and Arcore, causing severe damage and injuring 92 people. A number of houses and warehouses were unroofed and some cars were lofted into the air. 2 other tornadoes (F1 and F2) were recorded on the same day in northern Italy.[130]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 1 1 1 0 0
2001 Catalonia-Southern France tornado outbreak 20 October 2001 Catalonia and Languedoc-Roussillon 6 None 4 F1 tornadoes and one F0 tornado touched down in Spain; One F1 tornado touched down in France.[131]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 5 0 0 0 0
2002 Athens tornado 27 July 2002 Athens, Greece 1 None Struck near airport.[132]
2002 Southern Romania tornadoes 12 August 2002 Southern Romania 2 3 fatalities, 15 injuries A strong F3+ tornado, up to 1,000 metres (1,100 yd) wide, struck Făcăeni in southern Romania. 33 houses were destroyed on a 74 km (46 mi) path. The storm killed 3 people and injured 15 others. Another tornado struck near Floreasca.[133]
2003 Cyprus tornado outbreak 27 January 2003 Southern Cyprus 4 1 fatality Tornadoes and waterspouts; Limassol was hit the worst, with a F2 tornado.[134]
2004 Cyprus tornado outbreak 22 January 2004 Cyprus 7+ Multiple injuries Severe weather outbreak with several F1-2 tornadoes and waterspouts.[134]
2004 Czech Republic tornado outbreak 9 June 2004 Czech Republic 2 None There were 2 tornadoes in the Czech Republic; the first was probably an F1, the second an F3. The first tornado appeared in Seninka at 14:15 UTC. The second and stronger one appeared only 15 minutes after the first one in Litovel.[24]
2004 Germany tornado outbreak 23 June 2004 Northern and Eastern Germany 6 8 injuries At least one F1, an F2, and an F3 tornado caused significant damage. The villages of Micheln and Trebbichau in Saxony-Anhalt were heavily impacted by one of the most damaging tornadoes in modern German history.[135]
2004 Finland tornado outbreak 20 August 2004 Finland 3 None 1 F3 (track 10 km) and 2 F1 tornadoes were reported.[136]
2005 Romania tornado outbreak 7 May 2005 Romania 9 None 9 tornadoes touched down in Romania. One of them struck Movilita, causing F1 damage on a 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) path. 2 houses, a church tower, trees and roofs were damaged.[137]
2005 Hajdúbagos-Hosszúpályi tornado 18 May 2005 Hungary 1 None A registered F2 tornado hit two villages near Debrecen. The tornado touched down in the eastern part of Hajdúbagos and followed an approx. 10 km path through Hosszúpályi. 80% of the forests in the Hajdúság Landscape Protection Area between the two villages were completely destroyed and several houses were damaged.[138]
2005 July Outbreak 25–29 July 2005 United Kingdom, central and eastern Europe 46 63 injured Widespread tornado outbreak with 46 reports reported to ESWD. The outbreak started off with 9 tornadoes on 25 July, highest being rated F1. Moderate roof damage was reported in Ipatovo, Russia, while another low-end F1 tornado uprooted trees near Großaitingen, Germany. On 26, 5 July tornadoes touched down, one of which caused F2 damage in Yalta, Ukraine. 10 homes reported damaged across a 15 km long path, some of which had their roofs torn entirely off. A bus and lorry was lifted & a bus-stop was smashed. A cow was picked up as well. Another high-end F1 tornado hit Kalsdorf, Austria. On 27, 8 July tornado reports were reported. An F1 tornado caused damage across a 4 km long and a 100 meter wide path in Romaney, Germany, while another F1 tornado downed a bunch of trees. In the Netherlands, 3 F0 tornado caused damage. In Moordrecht, a shed were damaged & 2000 windows on a greenhouse were damaged, while another 6500 m2 large greenhouse complex saw roof damage by another tornado in Noorden. 1000 m2 out of the 6500 m2 were damaged. In Garderen, an F0 tornado twisted tree tops & damaged roofs. Multiple stands on a marketplace was turned upside down. 3 people were injured by flying debris. A second tornado touched down near the town about 30 min later. Rated F1. An F1 tornado caused damage in Plouaret, France. Across its 2.5 km long and 100 meter wide path, the tornado severely damaged 5 roofs. Trees were uprooted, snapped or twisted. A tree about 4 meter high & 25 cm wide were sectioned at the base and found 60 meters away. Sheet metal were tossed over 200 meters and impaled into fields. On 28, 12 July tornadoes were reported. An F2/T5 tornado struck suburbs of Birmingham, causing 39 injuries and severe damage. Roofs and walls were torn from homes, cars were flipped, and a school suffered considerable damage. Damage was consistent for 3 miles before becoming more scattered and weaker. On the same day, 2 F0 tornadoes struck Peterborough and Moulton, causing minor damage to trees and roofs. An F2 tornado caused damage near Ivoy-le-Pré in France. Trees were twisted, 2 silos were destroyed as well as hangar. Roofs were ripped off homes as well. In Sagonne, an F1 tornado uprooted Centennial trees & twisted poplars. A flower pot was carried 5 meters up into the air & parts of sheet metal roofs were carried hundred meters away. Another F2 tornado caused damage & 7 injuries in Coulanges-la-Vineuse. Two Unrated tornadoes touched down in Poland. One of them caused 250000 EUR worth of damage. On 29 July, 12 tornadoes were reported. A large F2 tornado caused damage in western Czech Republic across a 21 km long and 1000 meter wide path (1093 yards). Roofs were torn off & trees were severely damaged. An F2 tornado caused damage in Johanngeorgenstadt, Germany, causing 2 injuries while another F2 tornado hit Erlabrunn. Multiple other F2 tornadoes touched down in Germany, as well as an F1 tornado that caused 10 injuries as it hit a campsite. An F2 tornado hit Mitro-Ayupovo in Russia. Many houses was damaged, including one home that collapsed & others who had their roof torn off. Trees & Poles were snapped. Windows were destroyed as well. A Grain-cleaning complex was lifted up and completely destroyed when smashed into the ground. An F2 tornado injured 2 people in Bralin, Poland.[139][140][141][142][143][144]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
12 10 12 12 0 0 0
2005 Scandinavia tornado & waterspout outbreak 7–8 August 2005 Scandinavia, Central Europe & Ukraine 18 0 A tornado & waterspout outbreak that mainly affected Scandinavia produced 18 tornado reports. In Holbæk, Denmark, a low-end F1/T2 Tornado took a 2 km long path. In Germany, a high-end F0/T1 tornado remained on the ground for 10 minutes, 2 kilometers north of St. Gangloff b. Hermsdorf. A F1 tornado caused moderate damage in Lukashëvka, Ukraine too.[145]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
13 3 2 0 0 0 0
2005 Catalonia tornado outbreak 7–8 September 2005 Catalonia, Spain 5 0 1 F2 tornado, 3 F1 tornadoes, 1 F0 tornado and more than 10 waterspouts in 24 hours[citation needed]
2006 Hamburg tornado outbreak 27 March 2006 Germany 8 2 fatalities, 2 injuries 8 tornadoes were spotted, two of which were rated F2. One of them struck Hamburg, causing 2 deaths and 2 injuries on a 7 km path. The other tornadoes were F1.[citation needed]
2006 central Europe tornado outbreak 20–21 May 2006 Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Netherlands 16 0 The outbreak struck the central part of Europe, in particular the central region of Germany, with 16 tornadoes across the region. 5 were F2, 10 F1 and 1 F0. The most powerful hit Westerwiehe (F2); however, the longest path was that of an F1 that lasted for 23 km.[citation needed]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 10 5 0 0 0
2006 Noordwijkerhout tornado 21 May 2006 Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands 1 0 F1-2 tornado causing damage to crops and buildings.[citation needed]
August 2006 UK tornado outbreaks 16–18 August 2006 United Kingdom 4 8 injuries At least 4 tornadoes.[citation needed]
August 2006 Mainland Europe outbreak 21 August 2006 Western Europe 7+ 38 injuries At least 7 confirmed tornadoes, a further 4 unconfirmed.[citation needed]
2006 Tarragona and Barcelona coast tornado outbreak 13 September 2006 Catalonia, Spain 4 0 3 F1 tornadoes, 1 F0 tornado and more than 5 waterspouts in 24 hours.[citation needed]
2006 London tornado 7 December 2006 London, England, UK 1 6 injuries[146]
Cyclone Kyrill tornado outbreak 17–18 January 2007 Germany, Poland, Czechia, Sweden,

and the Netherlands

12 5 The first tornado was an F0 in the Netherlands on the 17th. On the 18th, 11 tornadoes were reported, starting with an unrated tornado in Unnaryd, Sweden. Another unrated tornado later occurred near Steinhude in Germany, where the strongest tornadoes of the outbreak would occur. The community of Brachwitz was hit by an F3 tornado, completely destroying two houses and damaging multiple others. Shortly after, an F2 caused significant vegetation damage near Meseberg, and an F3 struck the city of Wittenberg. Here, houses were severely damaged and cars were thrown. This was followed by an F1 tornado in Silna, Poland and another tornado in Germany. The latter was the strongest of the outbreak, and one of the strongest German tornadoes of the century. It received a rating of high-end F3, although low-end F4 damage might have occurred in some locations. The tornado was long-tracked and completely levelled four houses, damaging many more, as well as partly debranching trees. Two more damaging F2 tornadoes then occurred in Poland near Osiek and Andrespol. Another F2 also occurred in Czechia near Treben. It is possible that more tornadoes occurred with this event, but could not be confirmed.[147][148]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
2 1 1 5 3 0 0
2007 Guidizzolo tornado 9 July 2007 North Italy 3 12 injuries 3 tornadoes formed over Veneto, Lombardia and Piemonte. In Piemonte, a landspout tornado occurred near Vercelli. In Lombardia, a strong F2 struck the village of Guidizzolo, causing severe damage on a 12 km path. In Veneto, an F1 struck Farra D'Alpago, causing some damage to roofs.[citation needed]
2007 central England tornado outbreak 23 September 2007 Central England 6 0 At least 6 tornadoes were reported in Warwickshire, Northamptonshire and the West Midlands. 4 of them were F1 tornadoes.[149]
2008 northern Poland tornadoes 23 February 2008 Northern Poland 3 0 Low pressure system produced 3 tornado reports to ESWD. In Naklo nad Notecia, an F2 damaged some roofs and destroyed a barn. Another strong but unrated tornado was reported near Bydgoszcz. A tornado was also reported in Georgia.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
2 0 0 1 0 0 0
2008 Salboro (Padua) tornado 6 July 2008 Padua, Veneto, Italy 1 0 A small F0 tornado that hit an urban area.[150]
2008 Hautmont tornado 3 August 2008 Hautmont, France 1 4 fatalities, 13 injuries Same outbreak as below; F4 damaged several villages.[151][152]
2008 northern Netherlands tornado outbreak 3 August 2008 Friesland, Groningen, Netherlands 2 confirmed, 4 reported 0 Same outbreak as above; F2-3 tornadoes caused damage to property.[citation needed]
2008 Poland tornado outbreak 15–16 August 2008 Poland 12 4 fatalities, 100 injured 12 were reported. A strong, multiple vortex F3 (possibly an F4) tore through seven villages, causing severe damage and injuring 15 people. Another F3 touched down near Piłka and struck Rusinowice, Kalina and Herby, killing a woman in Kalina. A third F3 caused severe damage in Blachownia. Near Mykanów, an F2 flipped and lifted a bus, injuring 40. A fourth F3 killed one person in Gorzkowice. Downbursts in Slovakia killed two people. In total, 4 people were killed and about 100 were injured in the outbreak.[citation needed]
2009 Málaga tornado 1 February 2009 Málaga, Spain 1 0 fatalities, 25 injuries An F2 tornado struck Málaga. The tornado damaged 250-300 homes, 70 company buildings, and 400 vehicles. The tornado reached 215 km/h.
2009 Ilia tornado March 2009 Ilia, Greece 1 1 fatality, 30 injuries An F3 tornado travelled through the city center of Ilia for 2 km, killing 2 people. [citation needed]
2009 Krasnozavodsk tornado 3 June 2009 Krasnozavodsk, Russia 1 1 fatality, 185 injuries An F3 tornado struck the town of Krasnozavodsk, damaging 42 homes. A boy died when a tree fell on him.
2009 northern Italy outbreak 6 June 2009 Piemonte and Veneto, Italy 3 28 injuries An F0 tornado was reported near Vercelli, Piemonte in the afternoon. At the same time, a supercell produced a strong F3 tornado in Riese Pio X, in the village of Vallà, causing heavy damage, in some parts like an F3/F4 tornado. It travelled for 10.6 km and injured 28 people. The last tornado hit Valvasone, in Friuli, damaging some buildings, cars, trucks and woods, causing damage like an F2 tornado on a 10.5 km path.[citation needed]
2009 Stornoway tornado 29 July 2009 Stornoway, Isle of Lewis, Scotland 1 0 A possible F0/F1 tornado flipped cars, ripped slates and ironwork from houses, uprooted trees and smashed windows. A thrown car narrowly missed a fuel depot near the ferry terminal. Lightning cut electricity at around 10pm for half an hour.
2009 Nicosia tornado 19 September 2009 Nicosia, Cyprus 1 17+ injuries 10 homes with serious damage.[153]


Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
2010 Chalkidiki tornado 12 February 2010 Northern Greece 1 0 F2 tornado.[154]
2010 White Monday outbreak 24 May 2010 Eastern Germany 4 confirmed 1 fatality, 38 injuries An F1, an F2 and an F2+ (possibly F3) caused massive destruction in the States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg, with at least €250 million in damages and one fatality.[citation needed]
2010 Lichtenvoorde – Vragender – Winterswijk tornado 12 July 2010 Netherlands 1 6 injuries A tornado destroyed the church tower in Vragender and the Zwarte Cross Festival area in Lichtenvoorde. Damage was F2-3, uncertainty about nature of winds, some sources cite a strong derecho as cause of damage. [citation needed]
2010 Veneto tornado outbreak 23 July 2010 Veneto, Italy 3 1 fatality, some injuries 3 tornadoes hit near the cities of Venice, Padua and Vicenza; strong thunderstorms with downbursts in other places. A man was killed near Verona.[155][156]
2010 Hungary tornado outbreak 16 August 2010 Hungary 3 confirmed 0 3 tornadoes, 2 of them likely F2; the villages where tornadoes were reported were Diósjenő, Mezőkövesd and Felsőtárkány[citation needed]
2010 Germany tornado outbreak 22–30 August 2010 Germany 17 0 An F3 tornado in Lumda and an F2 tornado in Neppermin caused damages of about €5 million.[157][158]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 2 1 1 0 0
Portugal 7 December 2010 Portugal 1 0 fatalities, >40 injuries A long track, long-lived F3 tornado caused significant damage northeast of Lisbon.[159]
2011 northern Sweden tornado outbreak 4 June 2011 Northern Sweden ? At least 3 injuries Several tornadoes reported in the provinces of Ångermanland, Västerbotten, and Norrbotten in northern Sweden.[160][161]
2011 Lithuania tornado 27 July 2011 Northern Lithuania 1 confirmed 0 An F2 tornado formed near the town of Radviliškis, the strongest since 1981.[162]
2011 Sachsen – Anhalt tornadoes 11 September 2011 Germany 2 0 2 F1 tornadoes confirmed.[citation needed]
2011 England and Wales tornadoes 29 November 2011 England and Wales, UK 1 F0, 2 F1 tornadoes 1 injured One tornado in Greater Manchester, England, and another in Anglesey, Wales. Later that day, a F1 tornado struck north of Breighton.[citation needed]
2011 Vierlingsbeek/Overloon tornado 10 May 2012 Netherlands F0 No casualties reported Tornado (partly rainwrapped, probably multi-vortex) damage to property and crops.[citation needed]
2012 Venice tornado 12 June 2012 Veneto, Italy Likely an F2 tornado No casualties reported A tornado hit the eastern isles of Venice, notably Lido, Sant'Elena and Sant'Erasmo, and the nearby town of Treporti, with damage to houses, boats, cars/lorries and trees.[163][164][165]
2012 UK Midlands tornadoes 28 June 2012 United Kingdom 3+ At least 2 fatalities Three supercells affected England and Wales. Two of them formed over the Midlands, producing hailstones reported to be larger than golf balls, with conglomerate stones up to 10 cm across. Burbage in Leicestershire saw some of the most severe hail. At least three F2 tornadoes were sighted, causing damage to houses, uprooting trees and flipping over vehicles; one in rural Derbyshire, another in rural Leicestershire, and another near Sleaford, in Lincolnshire.
2012 French tornadoes 7 July 2012 France 4 0 4 tornadoes reported in France, 2 of which were F0 and 2 of which were F1.[166]
2012 northern Poland tornado outbreak 14 July 2012 Poland 3 1 fatality, 10 injuries 3 tornadoes hit northern Poland.[167] Severe damages to houses and infrastructure. 400 ha of forests was destroyed. Two F3 tornadoes are confirmed.[168]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 1 0 2 0 0
2012 Gandia tornado 28 September 2012 Spain 1 35 injuries An F1 tornado hit a fairground and flattened a ferris wheel.[169]
2012 Algarve tornadoes 16 November 2012 Algarve in Portugal F2 tornado plus an F0 1 fatality, 13 injuries[170] Two tornadoes hit the coast of the Algarve about 10 km from one another. The strongest of the two hit Silves[171] and Lagoa and was classified by the Portuguese national weather service as F2.[172][173] The weakest, almost certainly an F0, hit Alvor.[174]
2012 Taranto tornado 27–29 November 2012 Italy Greece 6 1 fatality, 42 injuries A tornado struck Rosignano Marittimo on the 27th, causing F1 damage. On the 28th, a huge wedge F3 tornado struck Taranto, Statte and Crispiano with a path of 23 km, causing 1 fatality and 42 injuries, and serious damage to ILVA of Taranto.[175][176] On the 29th 4 tornadoes struck Greece, one of these causing F2 damage and the other like an F1.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 4 1 1 0 0
2013 Emilia tornado outbreak 3 May 2013 Italy 3 13 injuries 3 tornadoes were reported. The first touched down near Modena and hit Castelfranco Emilia, causing F2-F3 damage. It travelled for 18.8 km. The second tornado hit the village of San Martino Spino, near Mirandola (the same region hit by the Emilia earthquakes of 2012), causing F2 damage and injuring 1. The last tornado hit Argelato, San Giorgio in Piano and Bentivoglio near Bologna, causing F3 damage on a 25 km path and injuring 12 people.[citation needed]
2013 Krnov tornado 18 June 2013 Krnov, Czech Republic 1 8 injuries F2 tornado[24]
2013 southern Europe outbreak 28–29 July 2013 France, Germany and Italy 6 15 injuries On the 28th, 2 tornadoes struck France and Germany; the first one injured 1 person and was classified as an F2. On the 29th, 4 tornadoes struck northern Italy, one of which caused strong F2 damage in Grezzago and Trezzo sull'Adda, with €15,000,000 in damages and 12 injuries.[citation needed]
2013 central Europe tornado outbreak 18–19 August 2013 Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and Norway 5 27 injuries Some F0 tornadoes over Belgium, 1 F1 in Norway and an F2 tornado in Germany on the 19th, which injured 27 people in a campsite.[citation needed]
2014 northern France outbreak 25 January 2014 United Kingdom, France and Belgium 12 3 injuries 10 F1 tornadoes and 1 F2 tornado were confirmed on that day across the United Kingdom (7), France (3) and Belgium (2). A strong F1 struck the town of Nuneaton, seriously damaging 5 houses, then an F2 tornado struck the cities of Reke, Halluin and Rekkem, with a path of 12.8 km, injuring 3 people and damaging several buildings.[citation needed]
2014 Nonantola tornado 30 April 2014 Italy 1 5 injuries 1 tornado was confirmed near Modena and two funnel clouds were reported, one of which probably touched the ground near Minerbio, the same region hit by the tornadoes of 2013. The tornado that hit Nonantola was likely an F2 that travelled for 14 km and injured 5 people in the industrial area.[citation needed]
2014 Pentecost weekend storms in Europe 7-11 June 2014 Spain, Germany 4 0 Major severe weather outbreak in western Europe, including four tornadoes. An F1 struck Ribeira, Spain, and three more tornadoes occurred in Germany, most notably an F2 which devastated a forest in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The other two cases were rated F1.[147]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 3 1 0 0 0
2014 southern Russia tornado outbreak 10-15 June 2014 Russia 13 0 Tornado activity started on 10 June with an F1 which caused slight damage in Konopat. On the following day, an F0 tornado occurred in Kidyshevkiy, followed by another F0 near Nizhneustselemovo and a strong F2 in the village of Yuldashevo, the latter being the strongest tornado of the outbreak. It caused roof damage and uprooted or snapped trees, one house was reportedly completely destroyed. Three more F0 tornadoes occurred in the comminities of Mrakovo, Ivano-Shamshevo and Oktyabr'skoye. An F1 tornado hit the village of Asavdy the following day, causing slight damage, and another tornado was reported near Terema, but did not receive a rating. The outbreak ended on 14–15 June with four more F0 tornadoes in Makan, Krasnogor'ye, Dubovka and Khutor Obrez.[147]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 9 2 1 0 0 0
2014 northern France tornado outbreak 10 August 2014 United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany 16 5 injuries 16 tornadoes struck France, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, and Germany. A long track tornado struck Achicourt in France, travelling 43 km, while 2 F2 tornadoes struck the Netherlands and Germany, causing serious damage. There were 5 injuries in total, 4 in Belgium and one in United Kingdom.[citation needed]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 6 8 2 0 0 0
2014 Kariyevo tornado 29 August 2014 Bashkortostan 1 2 fatalities, 76 injured A wedge F3 tornado struck Kariyevo and Janaul with a total path of 45 km. The storm killed 2 people and injured 76.[177][178]
2014 Catania tornado 5 November 2014 Sicily, Italy 2 0 A strong F1 tornado struck Ognina (northern area of Catania), causing severe damage. Another strong F1 tornado struck the centre of Acireale approximately one hour later.[citation needed]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 2 0 0 0 0
2014 Apulia tornado outbreak 12 November 2014 Apulia, Italy 4 0 A small tornado outbreak struck the Apulia region. One F2 tornado struck Monacizzo, causing major damage. 2 other F1 tornadoes struck Carosino and Ginosa Marina, while an F0 waterspout struck Gallipoli.[citation needed]
2015 northern Germany tornado outbreak 5 May 2015 northern Germany, Netherlands 7 1 fatality, at least 37 injured A QLCS struck northern Germany, producing severe wind gusts and tornadoes. The first tornado of the day touched down in the city of Lübeck, but did not receive a rating. Another unrated tornado occurred shortly after near Neu Kaliß. It was followed by two simultaneously occurring tornadoes, one F1 and one F2. The F2 tornado caused severe damage in Groß Laasch and a nearby forest. Especially the train station was hard hit, with the main building partly collapsing.[179] Then, an embedded supercell formed within the QLCS, responsible for at least 3 tornadoes. First, a weak F1 occurred in Brüel, causing some damage. The storm then produced a large, intense high-end F3 wedge tornado that struck the town of Bützow. Major damage occurred in the town and at least 30 people, including the mayor were injured by flying debris. A car with the driver still inside was thrown over a distance of 70 meters. After the destructive wedge tornado lifted, the parent storm produced one last F1 tornado near Woland, damaging a forest.[180] Widespread damaging winds also occurred in northern Germany and the Netherlands in connection with the QLCS. A man was killed in Hamburg after being hit by flying debris, 7 more were injured in Amsterdam.[181]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
2 0 3 1 1 0 0
2015 south-central Germany tornado outbreak 12–13 May 2015 south-central Germany, France at least 8 0 Just one week after a tornado outbreak hit northern Germany, strong supercells hit the central and southern parts of the country. The event started with an F1 that struck Arfurt in Germany, causing vegetation damage. It was followed by a strong F2 tornado in Kirchgandern, severely damaging roofs and trees in town. Shortly after, another F1 caused minor damage in the municipality of Nohra.[182] The last tornado on 12 May was an F0 near Alten. The following day began with an F2 in France, the only confirmed tornado from this event outside of Germany. It struck the community of Gerbépal at F2 strength, damaging houses, cars and forested areas nearby. An unrated but likely strong tornado occurred in the Black Forest, where it moved down a wide swath of forest, but not hitting any buildings. The parent supercell then dropped another tornado, the strongest of the outbreak. Along its 16 km long track, it mostly affected uninhabited areas, where it cut wide paths into the forests. Trees were torn out of the ground, some debranched and partly debarked in the worst hit areas. Several large metal truss transmission towers were blown down and mangled, and nearby farm fields were scoured. The tornado hit the far southern edge of Bonndorf, where one house sustained severe roof damage and two box vans were blown over. Before dissipating, it partly destroyed an old farmhouse. This tornado was given a rating of high-end F3. One more F3 occurred later in Affing near Augsburg, where multiple homes sustained severe damage within a narrow path, and some cars were flipped and thrown short distances.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 1 2 2 2 0 0
2015 Ohausen bei Freystadt tornado 29 May 2015 Oberfranken, Bavaria, Germany 1 0 One F1 tornado which caused severe damage to buildings.[183][184]
2015 Riviera del Brenta tornado 8 July 2015 Veneto, Italy 1 1 fatality, 72 injured One F4[185] tornado struck a small area among the towns of Pianiga, Dolo and Mira, with heavy damage and several casualties; the area is inside the well-known Riviera del Brenta, famous for its villas and channels. About 500 buildings were badly damaged or destroyed,[186] among them the Villa Fini from the 17th century, which was razed to the ground.[187][188][189][190]
2015 North Holland tornado outbreak 24 August 2015 The Netherlands 2 0 A supercell formed above Belgium going north passing Amsterdam, where an F0 crossed streets where people were shopping, later on, around Hoorn, 3 funnel clouds were reported. After another 25 km, a tornado formed above farmland, destroying a farm with F4 damage; no animals or humans were injured. [citation needed]
2015 Sonnac tornado 16 September 2015 Sonnac, France 5 1 injured A long track F2 tornado struck many villages in France on a 70,2 km path. In Sonnac, some houses were badly damaged. On the same day, 4 other tornadoes struck in Belgium and Luxembourg, where a person was injured.[citation needed]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 3 2 0 0 0
2015 Athens tornado outbreak 22 October 2015 Athens, Greece 4 5 injuries A severe and violent storm hit Athens, Greece, causing 4 tornadoes. A big large EF1 tornado touched down near Tourkovounia, in the heart of Attica, passed over the northern parts of Athens (Marousi, Psyhiko), causing damages and injuring a few people for 20 minutes. Afterwards, a second tornado touched down in Parnitha, in the western part of Athens and another 2 in the southern part.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 2 2 0 0 0 0
2016 Russia tornado outbreak 14 May 2016 southwestern Russia 8 5 injuries A long track F3 tornado struck many villages in Rostov Oblast on a 56 km path, injuring 5 people. Other tornadoes were reported, but most of them remained on an open field.[citation needed]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 4 2 1 1 0 0
2016 Syktvykar tornado 24 August 2016 Russia 1 0 One F1 tornado over Syktyvkar. Some industrial zones were damaged. No fatalities or injured people.[citation needed]
Eastern Liguria major downburst event 14 October 2016 Italy 1 0 Major downburst event that occurred on 14 October 2016 over eastern Liguria in Italy. This downburst affected an area that was 30 km long and 10 km wide, producing observed wind gusts of 40 m/s, with major impacts to railways, trees, and houses, with more than 2.5 million euros in damages.[191]
The Netherlands tornado outbreak 18 October 2016 The Netherlands 4 0 A cold front came from England passing the Netherlands in the morning. An F2 tornado destroyed an old windmill in Oostzaan and caused some damage in Zaandam and at an Avia gas station. An F1 destroyed multiple houses and greenhouses in Winkel. Barneveld was hit by another F1 tornado, crossing mostly farmland and some trees. A F0 was on the ground for 600 meters, 2 km west of the Oostzaan tornado on farm land, but quickly disappeared before hitting a farm.[citation needed]
2016 Rome tornado 6 November 2016 Italy 1 2 fatalities One F2 wedge tornado over Ladispoli and Cesano travelled for 41 km north of Rome, with damage in the 2 cities and in the countryside. 2 people were killed by the storm and 20 others were injured. The tornado may have even strengthened to F3.[citation needed]
2017 Székesfehérvár tornado 15 May 2017 Hungary 1 0 One F0 tornado, lasting about 20 minutes.[citation needed]
Early-June 2017 Ural tornado outbreak 3 June 2017 Russia 28 0 On 3 June, an unusual outbreak of tornadoes affected the Ural region of Russia, which is typically not prone to tornado activity. Most of the tornadoes only caused tree damage in this sparsely-populated and heavily forested area, though the town of Staroutkinsk sustained a direct hit from an F2 tornado, where dozens of homes were significantly damaged and numerous trees were snapped in forests outside of town. The strongest tornado of the outbreak was a large F3 wedge tornado that passed near Visim, flattening a massive swath of trees in a convergent pattern. Numerous weak also caused tree damage in other unpopulated wooded areas. A total of 28 tornadoes were confirmed as a result of this outbreak, none of which caused any injuries or fatalities.[192]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 8 17 2 1 0 0
Mid-June 2017 Ural tornado outbreak 18 June 2017 Russia 16 1 fatality, 14 injuries On 18 June, the Ural region of Russia was affected by a significant tornado outbreak for the second time in one month. Two separate F2 tornadoes moved through dense forest near Novotroitskoye and Zavodoukovsk, snapping or uprooted numerous trees along their paths. Another large, multiple-vortex F2 tornado downed numerous trees and damaged multiple homes in the Baksary area as well. The most intense tornado of the outbreak was a violent F4 that struck the rural community of Maloye Pes'yanovo, where several homes sustained major damage, four well-built log homes were completely leveled, and several others were injured. Vehicles were damaged, and numerous trees were snapped or denuded along the path, some of which sustained severe debarking. The Maloye Pes'yanovo tornado was the first confirmed violent (F4+) tornado in Russia since 1984. Multiple other weak tornadoes were confirmed across the Ural region and other areas of Russia, including a tornado of unknown intensity that struck Tsentral'noye, where trees were snapped and homes sustained roof damage. A total of 16 tornadoes were confirmed.[192][193]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 4 4 3 0 1 0
2017 Vienna tornado 10 July 2017 Vienna, Austria 1 0 One F1 stovepipe tornado formed on a severe isolated supercell near Vienna. The storm was accompanied by fist-sized hailstones that damaged huge swaths of agricultural land, causing a total damage of 15 million euros. This is the second highest damage in a storm in Austria. No injuries or fatalities.
2017 Bohuslavice tornado 11 August 2017 Bohuslavice, Czech Republic 1 0 F2-F3 tornado, no injuries or fatalities.[24][194]
2018 western France tornado outbreak 1 January 2018 France 4 0 4 tornadoes were reported in the western regions of France. The first tornado touched down near Bouin, in the Pays de la Loire region, causing F2 damage.[195][196] Second weak and brief F0 tornado hit Saint-Paul-Mont-Penit, region Pays de la Loire.[197] A third F1 tornado, with a path of damage of more than 5 km, hit the Macau area, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region.[198] And The last F2 tornado hit Aize, region Centre-Val de Loire[199]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 1 2 0 0 0
2018 Värnamo tornado 27 April 2018 Värnamo, Sweden 1 0 An IF1/F1 tornado hit the industrial districts of Värnamo, along a 0.65 km long & 10 meter wide path. Multiple shoppingcentres sustained roof loss. A Commercial building lost some tiles. An un-anchored flag pole, connected to a concrete block was thrown 10 meters, landing on a nearby street. A shopping cart corral was thrown several meters. A vehicle was moved against a fence & A weak shed at a school was destroyed too. It is mentioned that it's possible it had IF2/F2 intensity.[200]
10–11 May event 10–11 May 2018 Czech Republic, Sweden 2 0 A small F0 tornado formed near the town of Klatovy, Czech Republic. Only minor damage on one farm. No injuries or fatalities. The day after, an IF2/F2 tornado touched down in Vårdsberg, Sweden, snapping & uprooting Spruce trees at a forest edge[200]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
2018 Viersen tornado 16 May 2018 Viersen, Germany 1 2 injuries An F2 tornado struck Viersen-Boisheim, Germany, damaging the roofs of several houses and felling trees on its way through a forest.[201]
2018 Southern Italy tornado outbreaks 20–25 November 2018 southern Italy 10 4 injuries Two different outbreaks; the first produced three tornadoes, an F2 around Cutro, in the Calabria region, that destroyed several stone farm buildings, an F1 around Taurisano, in Apulia, and a large waterspout that made landfall on Salerno on the 20th. After a weak F0 touched down in Aquileia in northern Italy on the 24th, a larger outbreak struck southern Italy on the 25th. Six tornadoes struck again in Calabria and Apulia, with three F1s around Cropani, Cutro and Rocca di Neto, as well as an F2 around Crotone, all in the Calabria region, that caused very severe damage to industrial structures, and a long tracked F2 that struck far southeastern Apulia together with a brief F0 around San Pancrazio Salentino.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 3 4 3 0 0 0
2019 Roetgen tornado 13 March 2019 Roetgen, Germany 1 5 injuries An F3 tornado struck Roetgen, Germany. Several homes suffered major roof damage and damage was also noted in a nearby forest.[202][203]

The path of this tornado was up to 630 m (2,070 ft) wide and 15 km long,

2019 Călăraşi tornado 30 April 2019 Călăraşi, Romania 1 12 injuries An F2 tornado damaged 16 buildings. Strong winds overturned a passenger bus, injuring 12.[204]
2019 southern Poland tornado outbreak 20–22 May 2019 Poland and Germany 13 2 injuries Small tornado outbreak that mainly struck southern Poland. In Germany, 2 tornadoes were reported, one in Saxony, near Dresden, and one in Bavaria. On the 21st, 8 tornadoes touched down in Poland, one of them reaching F2 intensity, just west of Lublin. Another 2 tornadoes touched down in the countryside near Radom. On the 22nd, a brief landspout tornado struck the countryside north of Poznan. 2 people were killed by flash floods or floods caused by heavy rain, one in Ukraine and one in Germany. A lightning strike injured 2 in Germany.
2019 Debrecen tornado 29 May 2019 Debrecen, Hungary 1 0 A small tornado touched down in the outskirts of Debrecen next to the airport. Possibly an F1.[205]
2019 Åbenrå tornado 14 June 2019 Åbenrå, Denmark 3 0 Two tornadoes touched down near the Danish and German border. 1 high-end F1 tornado touched down in Kruså. Trees were downed and a garage collapsed. In åbenrå, An F2 tornado flipped vehicles on the hospital's parking lot. Officially rated as a high-end F0, but was upgraded to a low-end F2/T4 by the ESWD based on vehicle damage. A third unrated tornado touched down near Skælskør, Denmark.[206][207][208][209]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 1 1 0 0 0
2019 Eastern Europe tornado outbreak 10 July 2019 Italy, Poland, Russia 10 0, 3 injured A tornado outbreak which mainly affected Italy produced several tornadoes. An F1 tornado hit Milano Marittima, downing trees, some of which landed on buildings and cars. 3 people were injured. An F0 Tornado hit Torre a Mare. A boat was picked up and thrown. In Poland, a high-end F0 tornado damaged a forest near Zofiówka, a hamlet of Czołczyn. An unrated but strong tornado hit Kushva in Russia. Roofs were destroyed and thrown. Trees were uprooted og snapped.[210][211][212][213] in addition, A severe windstorm claimed several lives in Greece.[214]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
5 4 1 0 0 0 0
2019 Germany tornado outbreak 12 July 2019 Hesse, Brandenburg, Rhineland 3 1 injured An F1 hit Naunheim and caused damage on a 0.9 km long and 30m wide path. Later that day, another F1 hit Bobenheim, causing major damage and injuring at least one person on its 4.5 km long and up to 150 m wide path. Another tornado touched down in Wuschewier and caused no known damage. All tornadoes were recorded and photographed.[215][216][217][218]
2019 Luxembourg/Netherlands outbreak 9 August 2019 Luxembourg, Netherlands 3 19 injuries An F2 hit the municipalities of Bascharage, Pétange, and the surrounding areas at 17:30. Amsterdam was hit by an F1. ESWD mentions that it produced another F1 tornado in the Netherlands.[219][220]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 2 1 0 0 0
2019 Germany tornado outbreak 28–29 September 2019 Lower Saxony & Schleswig Holstein 4 0 Tornadoes recorded and / or photographed in Dagebüll (F0), Herrenkoog (FU), Burhafe (FU) & Beesten (F1).[221][222][223][224][225]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
2 1 1 0 0 0 0


Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
May 2020 Denmark outbreak 2 May 2020 Denmark, Croatia, Kazakhstan 6 0 A small outbreak that mainly affected Denmark produced several confirmed tornadoes across the continent. 4 F0 tornadoes occurred across the northern region of Zealand in Denmark with no damage reported. A waterspout was observed in Croatia & a low-end IF2/F2 tornado hit Akkoyly in Kazakhstan. Brick barns were blown down, walls of homes collapsed & concrete poles were snapped. Some roofs sustained minor damage [226][227][228]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 4 0 1 0 0 0
June 2020 storm complex 7–8 June 2020 Poland, Russia, France, Lithuania, Italy 15 0 A small 2 day outbreak of 15 tornadoes occurred between 7 and 8 June 2020. On 7 June, 9 tornadoes occurred in Poland, Russia & France. A brief but strong low-end F2/T4 tornado hit the village of Kaniów in Poland, damaging 23 homes along a 1.8 km long & 85 meter wide path. Several tornadoes struck the Russian region of Kemerovo, causing mainly damage within several forests, one of which tracked through Yerunakovo, damaging roofs, including one that was heavily damaged. 2 waterspouts was observed in France. On 8, 6 June tornadoes occurred in Russia, Lithuania & Italy, 5 of which were rated F0. An unrated tornado caused damage in Lukšiai, Lithuania. 2 landspouts was observed in Russia, while a third landspout was observed in Italy.[229][230][231]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
3 5 5 2 0 0 0
2020 Makiivka tornado 13 June 2020 Makiivka, Ukraine 1 0 A small but damaging tornado in the Ukrainian city of Makiivka. A few buildings were damaged.
2020 Ustronie Morskie tornado 10 July 2020 Ustronie Morskie, Poland 1 6 injured The tornado hit several summer houses, injuring six people, including one child. In total, 8 homes were damaged.[232]
2020 Lotoshino tornado 15 July 2020 Lotoshinsky District, Russia 1 0 On the afternoon of 15 July, a tornado occurred near the village of Dora, which is part of the village of Lotoshino near Moscow. The tornado passed at a distance from the settlement; no one was injured. It lasted about five minutes.[233]
2020 Northampton tornado 25 July 2020 Northampton, United Kingdom 1 0 An F1 tornado damaged multiple roofs, took down electricity cables and flipped trampolines.
2020 north and central Italy tornado outbreak 29–30 August 2020 Veneto, Lazio and Liguria, Italy 4 2 injuries Strong storms struck north and central Italy, producing 4 tornadoes, one F1 in the countryside south of Verona, one F0 in Genoa, another F0 outside Maniago and one strong F2 on 30 August that struck north of Viterbo, damaging some houses, trees, power lines and slightly injuring 2 people.

A severe downburst struck areas in northern Italy, damaging crops and entire cities, and causing severe damage and some injuries.

FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 2 1 1 0 0 0
Subtropical Storm Alpha tornado outbreak 18 September 2020 Portugal 2 0 Supercellular thunderstorms produced by the associated low of Subtropical Storm Alpha moved across Portugal, spawning two confirmed tornadoes in Beja and Palmela.[234] Both caused minor to moderate damage, and were rated F1.[235]
2020 European tornado & waterspout outbreak 22–27 September 2020 Denmark, France, Italy, Ukraine, Belgium, Croatia, United Kingdom, Greece, Russia 82 13 injuries Long lasting large & widespread outbreak. 82 tornado reports reported to ESWD during this outbreak: 3 strongest were F2 rated. A high-end F2/T5 tornado struck Velyka Oleksandrivka in Ukraine, injuring 1 person. More than 300 roofs were damaged, some entirely blown off. Trees saw partial debarking & homes saw loss of walls. An F2 tornado hit Rosignano Marittimo in Italy. Roofs were severely damaged or destroyed. 8 were injured. 1 person was injured by a large F1 tornado that started as a waterspout and hit land in Salerno, Italy. 2 schools were damaged in Albertslund, Denmark, associated with a high-end F1 tornado. Well constructed roofs saw severe roof tile loss, and a roof of a small home was ripped off. Trees with a low height to depth ratio were snapped or lost large branches. All the students were offered crisis assistance/help to combat the traumas that may have occurred. In Le Havre, France, a waterspout hit land and damaged 60 beach huts and some restaurants. A long track F1 tornado caused crop damage along a 28 km long path near Tavriyske in Ukraine. 1 person was injured by an F1 tornado in Greece. An F1 tornado caused severe forest damage near Kotlas in Russia, along a 9.1 km long and 220 meter wide path. In Port-des-Barques, a long track F2 waterspout hit land, caused significant damage to roofs, injuring 2 people. Across its 28.5 km long and 150 meter wide path, vehicles were moved or overturned, including a caravan. Trees were uprooted or snapped, some broken in half. Roofs were damaged, some badly damaged. Another F0 tornado touched down in Marennes, causing crop damage & damaging roofs.[236][237][238][239][240][241][242][243][244][245][246][247][248][249][250][251][252][253][254][255][256][257][258][259]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
60 7 12 3 0 0 0
2020 Athens tornado 15 October 2020 North Athens, Greece 1 3 injuries A dangerous F2 tornado touched down in the neighbourhood of Neo Irakleio, north of Athens, on the night of 15 October 2020, injuring three people plus one dog and causing serious damage. This tornado has been considered very dangerous because no one could see it in total darkness. Only a few cameras recorded the tornado that struck Neo Irakleio. Witnesses said there was a second tornado that night.
2021 Varhaňovce tornado 22 April 2021 Varhaňovce, Slovakia 1 0 The occurrence of a tornado was also confirmed by the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMÚ).
2021 Rewa tornado 25 April 2021 Rewa, Pomeranian Voivodeship 1 0 A waterspout touched down in the Bay of Puck near Rewa, between Gdynia and Puck.
2021 Tereszpol-Zygmunty tornado 2 May 2021 Tereszpol-Zygmunty, Lublin Voivodeship 1 0 An F2 tornado damaged several roofs. Winds also damaged several buildings in the village of Wólka Wieprzycka in Zamość County.
2021 Orosháza tornado 17 May 2021 Orosháza, Békés County, Hungary 1 0 Several roofs were damaged and several trees were knocked down.
2021 Eger tornado 20 May 2021 Eger, Heves County, Hungary 1 0 Several roofs were damaged.
2021 Northern Zealand tornadoes 21 May 2021 North Zealand 2 0 2 tornadoes confirmed across Northern Zealand in Denmark. An F0 struck Ølstykke (Ølstykke-Stenløse), damaging a conservatory and tossing a trampoline onto a garage roof. Another F0 tornado appeared near Frederikssund.[260][261]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 2 0 0 0 0 0
2021 France - Belgium tornado outbreak 19–20 June 2021 Belgium, France, Germany, Moldova 13 17 injuries An outbreak extending from 19 June to 20 June hit Europe. A long tracking cyclic supercell produced multiple tornadoes in France. The outbreak started off in France, with a tornado that may have been of F1 - F2 intensity in Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil. Here the roof of a church was ripped off. About 3 hours later, a tornado was reported near Neuvy-en-Beauce. The same supercell then produced an F0 tornado near Étampes, observed by storm spotters. A storm spotter also reported a tornado near La Ferté-Gaucher. Reims was hit by an F1 tornado that damaged a forest and more than 40 homes in the suburbs. In Belgium, multiple tornadoes were confirmed. A high-end F2 tornado damaged several roofs in Beauraing. Around 90 houses were damaged, of which 10 were declared uninhabitable. A sports hall collapsed. Roofs were ripped off of homes. A church lost a large portion of its roof. 17 people sustained minor injuries while on a terrace that collapsed. The tornado traveled 26 kilometers and was up to 500 meters wide. A tornado of F1 or F2 intensity struck Olne. The roof of a school was ripped off and other buildings were damaged. Another tornado of F2 intensity (T4) was reported near Bras. An F2 tornado damaged homes in Laloux. A church was unroofed. In Sorinne-la-Longue, an F1 tornado traveled 3 kilometers, destroying farm crops. The day after, a high-end F1 tornado severely damaged roofs and cars in Sundern, Germany. An F1 tornado was confirmed in Chetrosu, Moldova, causing damage to roofs. Another tornado was reported in France.[262][263][264][265][266][267][268][269][270][271][272][273][274]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
3 1 6 3 0 0 0
2021 South Moravia tornado 24 June 2021 Czech Republic, Germany, France, Poland, Russia 8 6 fatalities, 301+ injuries Rare multiple-vortex IF4 tornado tore through several villages in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. The village of Hrušky was hit hard, with half of the village leveled to the ground. In Hodonín, the tornado severely damaged a zoo and a retirement home.[275] In nearby Bohemia, the town of Stebno was hit by what was thought to be an F1 tornado, but was later confirmed to be a downburst, and in Poland, an F2 caused damage in Koniuszowa, injuring 1. Another F1 touched down in Boronów and a third touched down in Wrzelów. Other tornadoes were recorded in France and Germany, but caused no damage. A tornadic waterspout was also confirmed over Lake Peipus in Russia, causing no damage.[276][277][278][279]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
3 0 3 1 0 1 0
2021 United Kingdom tornado outbreak 25 June 2021 United Kingdom, Germany 3 0 Multiple tornadoes reported across Europe. 1 strong F1 tornado struck Barking in the United Kingdom, damaging buildings, uprooting trees, and downing brick walls. Another was reported near Opperhausen, Germany. Another tornado touched down near the German town of Kaspeltshub.[280][281][282]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
2 0 1 0 0 0 0
2021 Bernistap tornado 27 June 2021 Belgium/Luxembourg 1 unknown F3 tornado observed near the Belgium-Luxembourg border. Homes severely damaged & cows were killed.[283][284][285]
2021 Germany tornado outbreak 29 June 2021 Germany 2 0 In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, an F1 touched down in Schmachthagen, causing tree damage. This was a narrow tornado at 10 meters, but it traveled 3.3 km. In Brandenburg, another F1 tornado touched down in Wensickendorf, downing trees and damaging buildings. In a forest, trees were also downed and twisted; one tree landed on a car. The tornado also hit an animal sanctuary, causing minor to moderate damage.[286][287][288]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 2 0 0 0 0
2021 Odder Kommune tornadoes 2 July 2021 Odder Kommune, Køge Kommune 2 0 2 tornadoes confirmed across Denmark. 1 touched down near Odder and another near Bjæverskov. In addition, the storms caused flooding.[289]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 2 0 0 0 0 0
2021 Baltic Sea waterspout outbreak 19–20 July 2021 Baltic Sea 25 0 Large waterspout outbreak across the Baltic Sea in a span of 2 days, producing 25 known reports. ESWD mentions that 1 waterspout appeared outside Alytus in Lithuania, 1 outside Klaipėda in Lithuania, while outside Jastarnia, Władysławowo and Chałupy in Poland, 6 waterspouts were photographed and filmed. Just outside Jantar, 2 waterspouts were photographed. North of Lubiatowo, another waterspout was reported, and 2 others outside Białogóra and Łeba. Two waterspouts were also reported outside Norrtälje in Sweden. One was also reported in Russia. On the 20th, a storm spotter reported a waterspout outside Unieście in Poland. 5 waterspouts were reported in Estonia, and 2 were reported in Germany. A brief landspout was also reported near Żory in Poland. In addition, large hailstones of 10 cm were reported in Serbia.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
25 0 0 0 0 0 0
August 2021 Eastern Europe tornado outbreak 2 August 2021 Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Belarus, France, Sweden 29 4 fatalities, 15 injuries On 2 August, a significant tornado outbreak affected large portions of Europe, but mainly Eastern Europe. Ten tornadoes occurred in Tver Oblast, Russia, the most significant of which was an F3 that caused major damage in Andreapol, killing three people and injuring 10 others. Sixty-five homes were damaged or destroyed in town, structural debris was scattered throughout residential areas, large trees were snapped and denuded, power lines were downed, and vehicles were damaged. Outside of Andreapol, a wide path of trees was flattened as the tornado moved through remote forested areas. An F2 struck the small village of Rogozha, damaging homes and outbuildings, killing one person, and injuring four others. A small and poorly-anchored building was pushed off of its foundation and destroyed, and countless large trees were snapped in and around the village as well. Two additional F2s occurred in very remote areas near the towns of Zabor'ye and Glazuny as well, and cut paths of significant tree damage through areas of dense forest. A tornado also impacted the village of Kartun', causing F1 tree and roof damage. The five other tornadoes that occurred in Tver Oblast were also rated F1, and downed numerous trees and tree limbs near the small villages of Kononovo, Zaplav'ye, Krasukha, Zarech'ye, and Zabor'ye. Five additional F1s also caused tree damage in unpopulated areas of Pskov Oblast. In Belarus, a high-end F1 inflicted considerable roof damage to homes and apartment buildings in Rasony, where one person was injured by a falling tree. Four other F1s also downed numerous trees in more rural areas of Belarus that afternoon, including one that was caught on video near Strubki. Additional tornado reports were reported in other parts of Europe. Six waterspouts occurred in the Baltic Sea as well, within Sweden, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Poland, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea & the English Channel, within Croatia & France.[107][290][291][292]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
9 0 16 3 1 0 0
2021 Slovakia-Poland tornado outbreak 5 August 2021 Slovakia, Poland, Italy 6 0 In Poland, an F0 - F1 tornado caused damage in Rzeszów. Some debris lifted by the tornado (probably large tree branches) was filmed. At least two trees were downed on a bicycle path; other downed trees in this area were spotted. Another F1 tornado was reported near Józefów. At least several roofs were damaged, with one roof completely torn off. Downed trees were also reported. Another tornado was reported near Ujazd Dolny. An F2 also damaged several homes, uprooting a couple of trees near Petkovce in Slovakia. Some homes had their roof torn off. In Italy, two twin waterspouts hit land. [1][293][294][295]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
3 1 1 1 0 0 0
2021 Northern Europe tornado outbreak 15 - 16 August 2021 Denmark, Germany, Russia, Spain 9 0 An outbreak struck across Europe, with Northern Europe being hit the hardest. The outbreak began with a waterspout that hit Gelendzhik, Russia. No damage is known. About 25 minutes later, an F1 tornadic waterspout hit the port area of Oliva, Spain, flipping boats and overturning a 75 kg catamaran. A line of supercells then developed over Germany, producing a large tornadic waterspout outside Maasholm, near the Danish/German sea border. A second waterspout also developed near Laboe. About 20 minutes later, at 22:09 CEST, a tornado remained over open fields north of Maribo, Denmark. At around 23:35 CEST, a high-end F1/T3 tornado struck Neble [dk] and Lendemarke [dk]. Trees were uprooted or snapped, 3 buildings, including an outbuilding, lost their roof, walls were damaged and heavy objects were thrown. The tornado travelled 3 km with a max width up to 150 meters. The day after, an F0 tornado hit near Næsby. In Germany, an F1 tornado started as a waterspout and moved ashore, destroying decks and damaging trees. The same supercell then produced a high-end F2 tornado that hit Berumerfehn. Homes saw roof loss or severe damage, and a camper was overturned. Trees were severely damaged or partly debranched with debris wrapped around. More than 50 homes were damaged, and more than 100 trees were damaged.[296][297][298][299][300][301][302][303][304][305]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 1 3 1 0 0 0
2021 Pantelleria tornado 10 September 2021 Italy 5 2 fatalities, 9 injuries 5 tornadoes were reported to ESWD. A high-end F2 tornadic waterspout damaged several roofs, and several trees and cars were knocked down in Pantelleria. Another 3 waterspouts were reported in Italy that day. A tornado was also reported near Leerdam, the Netherlands.[306][307][308][309][310]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 0 0 1 0 0 0
2021 northern Italy tornado outbreak 19 September 2021 Italy 11 0 A series of thunderstorms produced several tornadoes in the Lombardia and Emilia Romagna regions of Italy. The tornadoes hit the towns of Roncaro, Marzano, Corte Palasio, Settimo Milanese, Soresina, Pontevico, Carpenedolo and Carpi, causing heavy damage such as collapsed farm buildings, damaged roofs and downed or snapped trees. In addition, three waterspouts were reported outside livorno, and another near Lignano Sabbiadoro.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 1 2 4 0 0 0
2021 Po Delta tornadoes 6 October 2021 Italy 24 0 A multicellular storm complex resulted in flooding and 12 tornadoes in areas south and west of Venice. Two of the tornadoes were waterspouts that remained over the water, but the other 10 developed and tracked over land. Only five of them were rated, with one causing F2 damage to buildings in the town of Rosolina. 12 more waterspouts occurred around the Italian coastlines with no additional landfalls.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
19 1 3 1 0 0 0
Storm Aurore tornado outbreak 20–21 October 2021 France, Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, United Kingdom 9 11 injuries Two tornadoes touched down in the Netherlands, one of which were rated F1 and injured 4 people in Barendrecht. Several roofs were damaged, some roof tiles flew through windows. Cars were moved and trees were uprooted, one of which landed on a car. An F0 tornado caused damage in Ferring, UK. Large branches were broken off trees and fences were blown over. 1 F1/T2 tornado was reported in the town of Kiel, Germany. Roofs were damaged & a trampoline were carried 100 meters, and 7 people were injured. another tornado was reported in Elten. An F1 tornado north of Ornebjerg in Denmark overturned a caravan & damaged trees. 2 tornadoes reported in France, one of which had no rating but may be in the F0 - F1 range, trees uprooted. A waterspout was also reported in Turkey[311][312][313][314][315][316][317][318][319][320]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 2 3 0 0 0 0
2021 Sicily tornado outbreak 16–18 November 2021 Italy 18 1 fatality, 2 injuries Starting on 16 November an outbreak of tornadoes and waterspouts affected Sicily. On the 16th eight tornadoes hit the island causing F0 and F1 damage to trees, farms and port buildings with only two causing no known damage. After dawn on the 17th two strong tornadoes hit Comiso and eastern Modica. Both were rated F2, with the Modica tornado more towards the higher end of the F2 level. In Comiso multiple industrial buildings were severely damaged while in Modica one person was killed and a couple was injured; the Modica tornado bent a steel power truss and severely damaged several stone farm buildings and homes. On the 18th a last, unrated tornado occurred near Caltabellotta. 6 more waterspouts occurred and remained over the sea, along with a seventh one in Sardinia.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
10 4 2 2 0 0 0
2022 Ballyduff tornado 7 January 2022 Ballyduff, Ireland 2 0 A high-end F0 tornado hit Ballyduff. Roof tiles were ripped off and a car was damaged by debris. A waterspout was also reported in the UK.[321]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
2022 Croatia tornado outbreak 7 February 2022 Benkovac, Mravince 3 0 An F1 tornado struck Benkovac, causing damage to 36 homes. Cars were damaged by flying debris. A caravan was destroyed & blown over a distance of 100 meters. ESWD mentions that another brief F0 tornado was observed near Mravince, causing minor damage, while a waterspout was reported in Italy.[322][323][324]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Storm Dudley tornado outbreak 17 February 2022 Germany, Poland, Italy 20 2 fatalities, 5 injuries A rainband with embedded thunderstorms associated with Storm Dudley went through central Europe during night time, producing widespread severe wind damage & at least 20 tornadoes in Germany and Poland, with 1 tornado produced by a different weather system in Italy. The first tornado of the day hit the village of Casekow in eastern Germany. Strong damage was done to a big farm building and a small forest area. Some residential buildings were also hit.[325][326] An F1 tornado caused moderate damage in Skwierzyna. Multiple roofs were damaged, including a roof of an outhouse that was ripped off. Trees were downed & debris was impaled into a concrete building. Further into Poland, buildings got heavily by several F2 tornadoes. Near Sucharzewo, an F2 tornado caused significant damage. A farm saw roof damage, while a cowshed with bulls inside was destroyed, killing a bull. A forest was severely damaged with uprooted, snapped or twisted trees. Buildings in Sucharzewo saw extensive roof damage, some entirely destroyed. In Sośnica near Dobrzyca several well-built residential buildings were significantly damaged, resulting in a high-end F2 rating. In Kraków, a brief tornado toppled a construction crane, killing the operator and another construction worker. At least 5 were injured during the outbreak.[327][328][329][330]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 0 4 12 0 0 0
2022 Çandır, Serik Tornado 2 March 2022 Çandır 1 0 The ESWD mentions a F1 Tornado reported in Çandır, Turkey.[331][332]
2022 Italy tornado outbreak 1–3 April 2022 Italy, Croatia 6 0 Outbreak of waterspouts and tornadoes hit parts of Italy and Croatia.[115]
2022 Ceuta waterspout 5 April 2022 Ceuta, Spain 1 0 A waterspout was spotted off the coast of Ceuta, Spain.[333][334]
2022 Pennal tornado 6 April 2022 Gwynedd, Wales 1 0 A tornado was confirmed in the town of Pennal, Wales, at least 93 mph winds were recorded, and over £100,000 damage was caused by the tornado. The tornado lifted lambs and ewes into the air, killing an ewe.[335][336][337][338][339]
2022 Kandel tornado 26 April 2022 Kandel, Germany 1 1 injury According to the ESWD, a tornado hit Kandel in Germany. Resulting in a power outage in parts of the town.[340][341] The tornado received an F0 rating.[180]
2022 May western Russia tornadoes 11–12 May 2022 Russia, Ukraine 4 0 On 11 May, a waterspout was confirmed off the coast of Novomikhaylovsky, Russia. Next day, a QLCS tornado was seen in Fatezh. A high-end F1 tornado in Luzhitsy damaged roofs, outbuildings and downed trees. A tornado was also reported in Martussivka, Ukraine.[342][343]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
3 0 1 0 0 0 0
2022 landspout and tornado outbreak 16–17 May 2022 Russia, United Kingdom, Germany, Czech Republic 7 0 Widespread landspouts and tornadoes struck the continent. On 16 May, two landspouts were observed in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia and a tornado was observed near Dallowgill in the UK. A weak F0 tornado damaged several roofs and uprooted a tree in Bekovo, Russia. On 17 May, another landspout was observed near Staryy Tokmak, Russia. A brief tornado was reported near Borna in Germany and brief multiple-vortex tornado near Borek in Czech Republic.[344][345][346][347]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
5 2 0 0 0 0 0
2022 Germany tornado outbreak 20 May 2022 Germany, Netherlands, Russia 10+ 46+ injured In the Netherlands, an F1 tornado struck Beek, damaging roofs. Some roofs were severely damaged. In Germany, one cyclic supercell produced at least 5 tornadoes. A large wedge tornado tracking 13.4 km struck Lippstadt, leaving severe damage to roofs and trees.[348] The second damaging tornado struck Paderborn, Germany, injuring 38 people, 13 of which are in serious conditions. Considerable damage occurred with this tornado along its 23.5 km long path. Both the Lippstadt and the Paderborn Tornado received a rating of high-end F2.[349] The third tornado from this storm struck Lütmarsen, receiving an F1 rating as it uprooted dozens of trees and damaged roofs.[350] Then, another F2 tornado that tracked for 11.2 km and mowed down a wide swath of forest, as well as causing severe roof damage, struck Merxhausen.[351] The last confirmed tornado from this storm was a brief F1 that struck Langelsheim, causing slight roof damage.[352] A different storm produced a short-lived F1 tornado which struck Herford, causing roof damage.[353] Another partly rain-wrapped F1 tornado was observed near Hillscheid, causing damage to roofs and forests.[354] The last tornado in Germany of the day was another F1 that struck Abtsgmünd, damaging roofs and cars as well as a forest.[355][356] In Russia, a brief F0 tornado caused roof damage in Ilovlya[357][358][359][360][361][362][363][364][365]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 6 3 0 0 0
June 2022 widespread tornado outbreak 1 June 2022 Turkey, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Netherlands 7+ 0 A waterspout struck Hoorn in the Netherlands, 15 minutes later, a large funnel cloud in Dziećmarów, Poland was reported to have contact with the ground. A long stretching funnel cloud was observed an hour later in Tåstrup, Denmark. Several more tornadoes and waterspouts struck Germany and Denmark including a tornado in Glauburg. And finally at 15:03, a F0 tornado damage greenhouses and farms in İmişehir, Turkey.[366]
20 June tornado outbreak 20 June 2022 Germany, Denmark, Russia 8 0 A tornado & waterspout outbreak affected north europe. A waterspout was observed near Dyngby in denmark, followed by nn F0 tornado that remained over open fields near Randlev. A large photogenic F1 tornado was observed near Borodinsk near Orenburg, russia. Seven houses were damaged, with some roofs partially or entirely blown off. Additionally a house sustained minor roof damage with a corner of it's exterior walls blown in. Trees were also uprooted & fences were downed.[367][368][369][370]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
6 1 1 0 0 0 0
2022 Zierikzee tornado 27 June 2022 Zierikzee, Netherlands 1 1 fatality, 7 injured A tornadic waterspout came ashore and caused damage to Zierikzee, including a roof being blown off. Several other roofs were damaged. The gable of a house collapsed. A woman was killed after she was hit by a roof tile, 7 people sustained injuries.[371]
2022 Baltic Sea tornado & waterspout outbreak sequence 4–19 July 2022 Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia 42 0 Outbreak from the ESWD, at least 20 waterspouts in Estonia, including a strong F1 wedge tornado in Paali.[372]
July 2022 Italy tornado outbreak 26–30 July 2022 Italy 7 1 injury At least 7 tornadoes and waterspouts spotted across all of Italy. On 26 July, 3 tornadoes one in Liguria, one in Lombardia, and one in Friuli-Venezia Giulia that injured a woman. From the 28 - 30 4 more tornadoes occurred across Italy.[373][374]
2022 British Isles tornadoes 6 September 2022 Scotland and England 3 None On the morning of 5 September, TORRO issued a rare tornado watch for portions of Ireland and the United Kingdom.[375] On 6 September, at least two tornadoes touched down across the United Kingdom and one tornado touched down in Ireland. An F1/T3 tornado between Yaverland and Bembridge blew off the roof of an outbuilding, causing high-F1 to low F2 level damage. This tornado was filmed and viewed by numerous people, but the European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) noted this event may have been two tornadoes. An unrated tornado was observed at Bonnyrigg, just outside Edinburgh.[376][377][378][379][380] An F1 tornado wa also seen at Killag, Ireland, causing damage to a roof and a chimney. Large tree branches were broken, Trees uprooted or snapped, and outbuildings sustained structural damage.[381]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 2 0 0 0 0
2022 September Outbreak 15 - 17 September 2022 Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Denmark, and Sweden 19 None At about 7:55am local time, a waterspout was reported in Kullavik, Sweden.[382] Later that day, an F0 tornado was observed picking up debris near Zlínský kraj in the Czech Republic. On 16 September, 4 waterspouts were seen at the same time off the coast of Illes Balears in Spain.[383] Then, on the 17th 12 tornadoes and waterpouts occurred acros Europe, in Fano, Italy, a F0 overturned tractors and trailers. Later, at least three tornadoes simultaneously occurred over the baltic sea off the coast of Seeheilbad Graal-Müritz.[384] 5 more tornadoes occurred in Italy including an F1 in Totora.[385][386] Three more tornadoes then occurred in Denmark.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
14 4 1 0 0 0 0
2022 Russia–Ukraine tornado outbreak 18–19 September 2022 Russia, Ukraine 7 3 fatalities, 8 injuries From 18 to 19 September, 4 tornadoes impacted Russia and 3 tornadoes impacted Ukraine. The first tornado was a waterspout that was observed at about 07:30 local time in Donskoye, Kaliningrad. Then, at 13:30 local time, an F3 tornado struck Buryn, Ukraine, One person died when a wall fell on him. At least 8 other people were injured and hospitalized. About 20 residential buildings were left without a roof, several had destroyed walls. About 10,000 customers were left without electricity. At least upper F2 damage category was assigned based on structural damage (destroyed roofs, partly collapsed walls visible on aerial footage), the rating was updated to F3 based on the attached photos of destroyed brick residential building. Less than 15 minutes later, 2 more tornadoes impacted Ukraine, one in Zinovo (rated F2), and one in Shurovo (F1). In Zinovo, Power transmission were damaged, roofs were destroyed, some walls partly collapsed, large tree branches broke, and trees were uprooted or snapped. In Ol'govka, Russia an F1 tornado struck the town, causing damage to roofs, chimneys, cars and windows. Another F2 tornado also struck L'gov, many houses had their roofs ripped off, insulation layers were damaged, cars were damaged, and windows were smashed. A tornado then passed through Volokno microdistrict of Kursk. The tornado tore off a roof in the Volokno district, killing an 18-year-old student of Automotive Technical College. Another victim was found under a downed tree near the Automotive Technical College on Yunosti street. The next day, an F2 tornado damaged a forest near Svocha, in Russia.[115]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 3 2 1 0 0
October 2022 Northern and the Baltic Sea derecho 18 October 2022 Norway 2 None During a rare October Derecho, two tornadoes were reported. The first of two tornadoes started as a waterspout which then made landfall and struck Sandve, Norway, causing damage to a commercial building and the complete destruction of a barn along a 0.7 kilometer long path. The European Severe Storms Laboratory rated this tornado F1 on the Fujita scale. The second tornado struck Brevikstranda, Norway, causing damage to several structures and numerous trees. The European Severe Storms Laboratory rated this tornado an F1 on the Fujita scale and rated some tree damage as IF1 on the International Fujita scale.[107]
IFU IF0 IF0.5 IF1 IF1.5 IF2 IF2.5 IF3 IF4 IF5
0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
October 2022 European tornado outbreak 23 October 2022 France, UK, Belgium 11+ 1 injury As severe thunderstorms and supercells moved across Northern France and Southern England, at least 11 tornadoes were produced.[24] Two tornadoes struck Hampshire in the UK, whilst nine hit Northern France. One near New Milton damaged roofs, and one in Hensting came close to Marwell Zoo, damaging the zoo's car park causing moderate damage in the area surrounding.[387] Both tornadoes were rated F1. Two unrated tornadoes struck Beuzeville and Arleux, whilst four F1 tornadoes struck Ferrières-en-Bray, Gaudechart, Beaudéduit and Warlaing. Two F2 tornadoes struck Songeons and Belleuse.[24] The one which hit Songeons injured a 9–year–old girl. The main supercell produced a very long-tracked tornado, hitting numerous towns and only barely missing the city of Amiens. According to Keraunos, the track is 206 km long, making it the longest confirmed tornado path in Europe.[388] The worst damage from this event was rated EF3 as it struck Bihucourt, where it destroyed many homes. The tornado crossed the border into southern Belgium where it dissipated shortly after.
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
2 0 6 2 1 0 0
Injuries: 1
November 2022 European tornado outbreak 17 November 2022 France, Germany 3 None Severe thunderstorms and supercells moved across parts of France and Germany, with two of them becoming tornadic. First tornado touched down near Vœuil-et-Giget, France. Minor damage was observed.[389] A short-lived F1 tornado touched down in the community of Suippes in France and damaged dozens of roofs and trees.[390] The third tornado of the day was unusually strong for this time of the year, and struck multiple towns and villages, including Urexweiler, along its 10.9 km long track through the northern Saarland in Germany. Houses and cars were damaged, and severe vegetation damage was also noted in forested areas. It received an F2 rating.[391] Path length and intensity data for the third tornado are still preliminary according to the ESSL.[181]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 1 1 0 0 0
1 February 2023 Tornado outbreak 1 February 2023 Germany 2 0 A brief F1 tornado tracked 0.2 kilometers, reaching 30 meters wide in Hinte, Germany. Roof tiles were ripped off homes. An F2 Tornado hit Lashorst in Germany, along a 5.3 Kilometers & 300 meter long path. Some roofs were damaged & considerable tree damage in a forest was observed[392][393][394][395][396]
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
Tornado Ilirska Bistrica 2023 1 August 2023 Slovenia 1 0 A tornado developed over Ilirska Bistrica, which has not yet been classified, but it was probably F0/F1 with a speed of over 100 km/h.[397]
Storm Ciarán tornado outbreak sequence 1 - 4 November 2023 United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Belgium, Italy, France, Croatia, Serbia, Germany, Turkey, Greece, Spain, 32 0 fatalities, 1 injured A long lasting tornado outbreak associated with European windstorm Ciarán. By midnight to 2 November, a significant IF3/T6 tornado struck Jersey island, UK, along a 8 kilometer-long & a 550 meter wide path. Roofs were torn off, with some homes having their exterior walls partially collapsed. Trees sustained heavy damage, including heavy debranching. Vehicles were damaged and street signs were downed. This was followed by another tornado during the morning in Sompting, UK. A waterspout was observed near Boğazkent, Turkey, and another IF1 tornado hit Castel Focognano, Italy, damaging roofs and causing heavy tree damage, with some trees debranched. On 3 November, two waterspouts were observed in Serbia and Turkey. On 4 November, three waterspouts were observed in Croatia. Two tornadoes hit Bulgaria, with one rated IF3 that caused heavy damage and one injury in the Bulgarian town of Lavino, along a 15 kilometer-long & 250 meter wide path. A second tornado remained over an open field at the Romanian/Bulgarian border near Sratsimir. An IF1.5 tornado hit Dereköy, Turkey. Powerlines were snapped, a Mosque tower collapsed, and trees were downed.[398][399][400][401][402][403]
IFU IF0 IF0.5 IF1 IF1.5 IF2 IF2.5 IF3 IF4 IF5
19 0 2 4 1 1 0 2 0 0
2023 Cologne Tornado 21 December 2023 Cologne, Germany 1 0 fatalities (2 injuries) IF2/T4 tornado confirmed to drop in the Cologne district of Poll on thursday evening as hurricane/storm "Zoltan" passed over Germany. The tornado tracked for 16.7 km and measured as wide as 370m. It were rated IF2 based on damage assessment, snapping strong powerlines, and deroofing a house. 2 people sustained injuries[404][405][406]

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 September 2023.
  2. ^ Dr. R. Hennig, Katalog bemerkenswerter Witterungsereignisse. Berlin 1904; Originalquellen: Aventinus (Turmair), Johannes (gest. 1534): Annales Boiorum. Mit Nachtrag. Leipzig 1710; Annales Fuldenses, Chronik des Klosters Fulda. Bei Marquard Freher: Germanicarum rerum scriptores etc. Frankfurt a.M. 1600–1611)
  3. ^ "Freising (Bayern), 31.12.0788". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "British & European Extremes". The Tornado & Storm Research Organisation (TORRO). Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Part 16 of Annals of the Four Masters".
  6. ^ Rowe, M. W. (1976). "Tornadoes in medieval Britain" (PDF). Journal of Meteorology. 1 (7): 219–222. ISSN 1748-2992. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2022.
  7. ^ "Tornado Country — NOVA - PBS". Archived from the original on 22 April 2022.
  8. ^ a b c Rowe, Michael (November 1999). "'Work of the devil': Tornadoes in the British Isles to 1660" (PDF). Journal of Meteorology. 24 (243): 326–338. ISSN 1748-2992. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  9. ^ Schofield, John; Vince, Alan (2003). Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8264-6002-8.
  10. ^ a b c d e Setva´ka, Martin; Milan, Salek; Munzar, Jan (28 March 2003). "Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the internet society" (PDF). Atmospheric Research. 67–68 (67–68): 589–605. Bibcode:2003AtmRe..67..589S. doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00075-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2016 – via Elsevier.
  11. ^ Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Púčik, Tomáš; Černoch, Zbyněk; Dobrovolný, Petr; Dolák, Lukáš; Kotyza, Oldřich; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Taszarek, Mateusz (29 June 2020). "The Climatology of Significant Tornadoes in the Czech Republic". Atmosphere. 11 (7): 689. Bibcode:2020Atmos..11..689B. doi:10.3390/atmos11070689. ISSN 2073-4433.
  12. ^ "Змей Горыныч – это смерч | Держава Русь". 19 May 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  13. ^ "Смерчи-убийцы". Archived from the original on 12 October 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  14. ^ Antonescu, Bogdan Adrian; Schultz, David M.; Holzer, Alois M.; Peter, Groenemeijer (December 2016). "Tornadoes in Europe: An Underestimated Threat". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 144 (98(4)): 2445–2480. Bibcode:2017BAMS...98..713A. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0171.1. Archived from the original on 24 August 2022 – via Researchgate.
  15. ^ "Rodenberg (Niedersachsen), 31.12.1453". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  16. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  17. ^ Wegener, Dr. Alfred (1916). "2". Wind- und Wasserhosen in Europa. Braunschweig. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-3-663-19830-7. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  18. ^ Gianfreda, Francesco; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Paolo, Sanso (January 2005). "Tornadoes in Southern Apulia (Italy)" (PDF). Natural Hazards. 34 (34): 74–89. Bibcode:2005NatHa..34...71G. doi:10.1007/s11069-004-1966-3. S2CID 128952356 – via Springer Link.
  19. ^ Doe, Rober K. (2016). Extreme Weather: Forty Years of the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 25 & 26, 83 & 84, 89. ISBN 978-1-118-94995-5.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Brázdil, Rudolf; Dobrovolný, Petr; Štekl, Josel; Kotyza, Oldřich; Valášek, Hubert; Jež, Jaroslav (2004). HISTORY OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE IN THE CZECH LANDS VI: Strong Winds. Brno: MASARYK UNIVERSITY. ISBN 80-210-3547-1.
  21. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  22. ^ "Rockhausen (Thüringen), 15.07.1582". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 4 September 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  23. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Tornadoes on 23-10-2022". European Severe Weather Database. Archived from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  25. ^ "Augsburg (Bayern), 02.07.1587". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Tornado in Italia (Trombe d'Aria)". (in Italian). Archived from the original on 7 November 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  27. ^ Esteban Mira Caballos, Las Armadas del Imperio: Poder y hegemonía en tiempo de los Austrias (La Esfera de los Libros, S.L.)
  28. ^ a b c "Deadly European Tornadoes (1091–2013)". B. Antonescu. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  29. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  30. ^ Hauer, Katrin; N. Pfeifer (June 2011). "Reporting on historical severe storms: Two examples of Utrecht (1674) and Abtenau (1796)". Atmos. Res. 100 (4): 580–5. Bibcode:2011AtmRe.100..580H. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.08.007.
  31. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  32. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  33. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  34. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  35. ^ "Region: Geest in Schleswig-Holstein 26.02.1718". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  36. ^ Peterson, Richard E. (6 February 2012). "A BRIEF SURVEY OF TORNADOES IN SWEDEN". svemet. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  37. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  38. ^ "Groden (Niedersachsen), 26.06.1756". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  39. ^ Sävert, Thomas. "Tornado in Groden am 26.06.1756". Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  40. ^ "clima - eventi catastrofici". 24 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  41. ^ "Tornadoes in Britain I". Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  42. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  43. ^ "Woldegk (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), 29.06.1764". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  44. ^ NDR. "Der Jahrtausendtornado von Woldegk vom 29. Juni 1764 (Seite 1)". (in German). Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  45. ^ a b "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 20 March 2023.
  46. ^ McSkimin, Samuel (1909). The history and antiquities of the county of the town of Carrickfergus, from the earliest records till 1839: also a statistical survey of said county, 1811. Mullan, J. Cleeland, Davidson & M'Cormack. pp. 91–92.
  47. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  48. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  49. ^ Sävert, Thomas. "Tornado in Hainichen am 23.04.1800". (in German). Archived from the original on 6 December 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  50. ^ "Tornado in Horb am Neckar am 15.04.1831". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  51. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  52. ^ "Tornados that carried away crops and damaged houses in bygone Ulster". heritageandcultureblog. 27 August 2017. Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  53. ^ a b "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  54. ^ "Erpfingen (Baden-Württemberg), Engstingen (Engstingen), Kohlstetten (Kohlstetten), 22.06.1845". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  55. ^ Kaschuba, Marco (2003). "Reutlinger Alb – Tornado 22.Juni 1845" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  56. ^ "Straubing (Bayern), 22.06.1845". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  57. ^ "Tornado in Straubing am 22.06.1845". (in German). Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  58. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 21 January 2023. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  59. ^ "KERAUNOS - Observatoire Français des Tornades et des Orages Violents - Prévision, suivi et étude des orages en France". Keraunos. Archived from the original on 6 December 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  60. ^ Laboratory, European Severe Storms. "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 22 January 2023. Retrieved 22 January 2023.
  61. ^ Taszarek, Mateusz; Gromadzki, Jakub (1 April 2017). "Deadly Tornadoes in Poland from 1820 to 2015". Monthly Weather Review. 145 (4): 1221–1243. Bibcode:2017MWRv..145.1221T. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-16-0146.1. ISSN 1520-0493. S2CID 126005341.
  62. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 22 January 2023. Retrieved 22 January 2023.
  63. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  64. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  65. ^ "Tornado Days". Archived from the original on 16 November 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  66. ^ "Unwetter in Wien". Neue Freie Presse. 30 June 1873. p. 2. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  67. ^ "Wiener Tagesbericht. Wolkenbruch". Neues Wiener Tagblatt. 30 June 1873. p. 3. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  68. ^ "Ueber den gestrigen Wolkenbruch". Das Vaterland. 1 July 1873. p. 2. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  69. ^ "Der Wolkenbruch in Wien". Wiener Zeitung. 1 July 1873. p. 5. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  70. ^ "Gødvad tornado". European Severe Weather Database (database query result). 22 November 2022. Archived from the original on 22 November 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  71. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  72. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  73. ^ "Salento Terra di Uragani. Università degli Studi di Lecce, CNR ISAAC Lecce, Geodataservice". (in Italian). Archived from the original on 1 November 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  74. ^ Gayà, Miquel (February 2007). "The 1886 tornado of Madrid". Atmos. Res. 83 (2–4): 201–10. Bibcode:2007AtmRe..83..201G. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.10.017.
  75. ^ "July 1, 1891 Tornado Outbreak". European Severe Weather Database. European Severe Storms Laboratory. Archived from the original on 4 December 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  76. ^ "EL CICLÓN DE BADALONA". La Vanguardia. 16 June 1892. p. 4.
  77. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  78. ^ Mahieu, Pierre; Wesolek, Emmanuel (26 August 2011). "Consequences of Tornadic Storms in Urban Areas: Case Study of the Paris Tornado (France) in September 10, 1896" (PDF). 6th European Conference on Severe Storms. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  79. ^ "Tornados in Gelsenkirchen am 18.03.1897". (in German). Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  80. ^ "Gelsenkirchen (Nordrhein-Westfalen), 18.03.1897". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  81. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  82. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  83. ^ Gianfreda, F.; Miglietta, M. M.; Sansò, P. (1 January 2005). "Tornadoes in Southern Apulia (Italy)". Natural Hazards. 34 (1): 71–89. Bibcode:2005NatHa..34...71G. doi:10.1007/s11069-004-1966-3. ISSN 1573-0840. S2CID 128952356.
  84. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  85. ^ "Tornado in Köln am 07. August 1898". (in German). Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  86. ^ "Самые сильные смерчи над Россией и СССР. 100 великих рекордов стихий [с иллюстрациями]". Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  87. ^ "Владимир Мезенцев "Энциклопедия чудес" (книга 1)". Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  88. ^ a b "Смерчи в России. Досье". ТАСС. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  89. ^ Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Stekl, J.; Kotyza, O.; Valásek, H.; Jez, J. (2004). History of Weather and Climate in the Czech Lands VI: Strong Winds. Masaryk University. pp. 373–377. ISBN 80-210-3547-1.
  90. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Retrieved 1 January 2023.[not specific enough to verify]
  91. ^ Chris Chatgield (2010). "A Tornado in Wales". The Gallery of Natural Phenomena. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  92. ^ John Mason; Terence Meaden. "The devastating South Wales tornado of October 27th, 1913". Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  93. ^ Rowe, M. (2016). R.K. Doe (ed.). "Tornado Extremes in the United Kingdom: The Earliest, Longest, Widest, Severest and Deadliest". Extreme Weather Forty Years of the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 77–90. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  94. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  95. ^ "Spejlet No 4 december 1995". Archived from the original on 16 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  96. ^ "Hostrup tornado". European Severe Weather Database (database query result). 22 November 2022. Archived from the original on 22 November 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  97. ^ "I SUPER TORNADO italiani: il più forte in Veneto nel 1930". 11 September 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  98. ^ "Tornado is 'worst for 25 years'". 29 July 2005. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  99. ^ "20 lip 1931 – trąba powietrzna pustoszy Lublin". (in Polish). 20 July 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  100. ^ a b "Editorial Manager(tm) for Monthly Weather Review Manuscript Draft" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2014.
  101. ^ a b c "ПОГОДА И КЛИМАТ В РОССИИ В XX ВЕКЕ" (PDF). 4 March 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  102. ^ "Смерчи в России. Досье". ТАСС. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  103. ^ "Borod (Rheinland-Pfalz)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 23 July 1950. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  104. ^ "Смерчи. Изучение смерчей и торнадо. Самые разрушительные и сильные смерчи в России". Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  105. ^ "16 May 1953 tornadoes". European Severe Weather Database (database query result). 22 November 2022. Archived from the original on 22 November 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  106. ^ Abbott, S. G. (May 1955). "The Thunderstorms and Tornadoes of 8 December 1954". Weather. 10 (5): 142–146. Bibcode:1955Wthr...10..142A. doi:10.1002/j.1477-8696.1955.tb00179.x. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  107. ^ a b c d "European Severe Weather Database". European Severe Storms Laboratory. 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  108. ^ "Polscy Łowcy Burz • Zobacz wątek – Tornado-Rawa Mazowiecka- 15.05.1958". Archived from the original on 16 April 2013.
  109. ^ "Polscy Łowcy Burz • Zobacz wątek – Tornado- 20.05.1960– Część woj. Po…". Archived from the original on 16 April 2013.
  110. ^ "GALLERI: Da landets værste skypumpe ramte Holstebro". (in Danish). 11 February 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  111. ^ a b "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 18 December 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  112. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  113. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  114. ^ "Tornado di Torricella".
  115. ^ a b c d "European Severe Weather Database".
  116. ^ "Violenta ondata di temporali e tornado, morti e feriti inizio luglio 1965 &#1 24; Il blog di Meteoservice". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  117. ^ "HistorIC - Intense épisode supercellulaire et tornado outbreak en juin 1967 - Infoclimat".
  118. ^ Tornado (1967). British Pathé. 13 April 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2023 – via YouTube.
  119. ^ "Verheerender Tornado in Pforzheim am 10.07.1968". Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  120. ^ "Смерч прошел вчера на Бору". (in Russian). 11 July 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  121. ^ "Интересные факты о Нижнем". Рыболовный клуб VolgaFishing. 28 July 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  122. ^ "Смерч, Горький, 1974, 1976г. Тяжелый стих (Юрий Степанович Кутырин) / Стихи.ру". Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  123. ^ "В Литве прошел сильный торнадо". Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  124. ^ "Смерчи в России". Сергиев Посад. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  125. ^ "Tornade EF4 à Levier (Doubs) le 2 juin 1982". Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  126. ^ "Wichura - 23.06.1997 - Pow. Tomaszowski i Hrubieszowski - Polscy Łowcy Burz".
  127. ^ "Biblia Сuriosa: 1997 - Huragan na wschodzie". 2012.
  128. ^ Homar, V.; M. Gayà; R. Romero; C. Ramis; S. Alonso (July–September 2003). "Tornadoes over complex terrain: an analysis of the 28th August 1999 tornadic event in eastern Spain" (PDF). Atmos. Res. 67–68: 301–17. Bibcode:2003AtmRe..67..301H. doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00064-4. hdl:10261/88267.
  129. ^ "Storm in Rakvere damages 110 houses". Baltic Times. 20 July 2000. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  130. ^ "Meteo Storia: 7 Luglio 2001 - Il FURIOSO TORNADO in Brianza - FOTO e VIDEO". 7 July 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  131. ^ "European Severe Weather Database query". Archived from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  132. ^ Matsangouras, J.T.; P.T. Nastos (2010). "The 27 July 2002 tornado event in Athens, Greece". Adv. Sci. Res. 4: 9–13. Bibcode:2010AdSR....4....9M. doi:10.5194/asr-4-9-2010.
  133. ^ Lemon, L. R.; Stan-Sion, A.; Soci, C.; Cordoneanu, E. (2003). "A strong, long-track, Romanian tornado". Atmospheric Research. 67–68: 391–416. Bibcode:2003AtmRe..67..391L. doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00063-2.
  134. ^ a b Sioutas, Michalis; R. Doe; S. Michaelides; M. Christodoulou1; R. Robins (January 2006). "Meteorological conditions contributing to the development of severe tornadoes in southern Cyprus". Weather. 61 (1): 10–6. Bibcode:2006Wthr...61...10S. doi:10.1256/wea.268.04. S2CID 119646020.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  135. ^ "European Severe Weather Database query". Archived from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  136. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  137. ^ "European Severe Weather Database query". Archived from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  138. ^ "European Severe Weather Database query". Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  139. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 27 January 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  140. ^ "HistorIC - Tornade EF1 à Plouaret (22) le 27-07-2005". Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  141. ^ "HistorIC - Tornade F1 à Sagonne (18) le 28/07/2005". Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  142. ^ "Les dépressions et les tempêtes". Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  143. ^ "Birmingham tornado 15 years on: 'A scene of total devastation'". BBC News. 28 July 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  144. ^ "Erlabrunn (Sachsen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 29 July 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  145. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 20 March 2023.
  146. ^ "Six hurt as tornado hits London". BBC. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  147. ^ a b c "European Severe Weather Database". Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  148. ^ "Tornadoliste Deutschland". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  149. ^ "Tornadoes rip roofs off in England :". 1 May 2009. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  150. ^ "La supercella tornadica di Salboro". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  151. ^ Mahieu, Pierre; E. Wesolek (October 2009). "The Deadly EF-4 Tornado of August 3, 2008, in Northern France" (PDF). 5th European Conference on Severe Storms. Landshut, Germany: European Severe Storms Laboratory.
  152. ^ Wesolek, Emmanuel; P. Mahieu (June 2011). "The F4 tornado of August 3, 2008, in Northern France: Case study of a tornadic storm in a low CAPE environment". Atmos. Res. 100 (4): 649–56. Bibcode:2011AtmRe.100..649W. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.09.003.
  153. ^ " Fundado por José Musse- Freak Tornado Wreaks Havoc in Cyprus Capital". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  154. ^ Matsangouras, I.T.; P.T. Nastos; I. Pytharoulis (2011). "Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece". Adv. Sci. Res. 6: 187–94. Bibcode:2011AdSR....6..187M. doi:10.5194/asr-6-187-2011.
  155. ^ "Trombe d'aria a Venezia, Vicenza e Padova, un morto a Verona/ Video". Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  156. ^ "Tromba d'aria sul Padovano devastazione e feriti – Corriere del Veneto". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  157. ^ "Lumda (Hessen), Reinhardshain". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 23 August 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  158. ^ "Neppermin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), Pudagla". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 23 August 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  159. ^ Belo-Pereira, Margarida; C. Andrade; P. Pinto (2017). "A long-lived tornado on 7 December 2010 in mainland Portugal". Atmos. Res. 185: 202–15. Bibcode:2017AtmRe.185..202B. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.11.002.
  160. ^ "Tornadoes leave northern Sweden reeling - the Local". Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  161. ^ "". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  162. ^ Inga Stankūnaitė (21 August 2011). Tornado of 27 July 2011 in Lithuania – A case study. CiteSeerX
  163. ^ "Tromba d'aria devasta isole e litorale Il sindaco: "I danni sono ingenti"/ Video". Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  164. ^ "Tromba d'aria a Venezia. Colpite Sant'Elena e l'isola di Sant'Erasmo – Cronaca – La Nuova di Venezia". 12 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  165. ^ "Tornado in Venice and on the Venetian Coast: report" (PDF). Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  166. ^ "KERAUNOS - Observatoire Français des Tornades et des Orages Violents - Prévision, suivi et étude des orages en France". Keraunos. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  167. ^ "Poland shocked by tornadoes, one dead". Reuters. 15 July 2012.
  168. ^ "Trąba powietrzna skosiła 400 hektarów lasu. 'Przeszła pasem o długości 9 km i szerokości 400 metrów'". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  169. ^ "35 injured as tornado knocks over Ferris wheel at fairground in Spain". independent. 30 September 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  170. ^ "Morreu mulher que ficou gravemente ferida no tornado em Silves – SIC …". Archived from the original on 16 April 2013.
  171. ^ Gui Teixeira (16 November 2012). "Tornado em Silves (directo)". Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2017 – via YouTube.
  172. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  173. ^ "Tornado hits Carvoerio/Lagoa on the Algarve, Portugal – Weather Around The World – Netweather Community Forums". 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  174. ^ "Tornado em Carvoeiro, Lagoa e Silves – 16 de Novembro de 2012 – Página 10 – – Fórum de Meteorologia". Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  175. ^ Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rotunno, Richard (1 March 2016). "An EF3 Multivortex Tornado over the Ionian Region: Is It Time for a Dedicated Warning System over Italy?". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 97 (3): 337–344. Bibcode:2016BAMS...97..337M. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00227.1. ISSN 0003-0007. S2CID 118359094.
  176. ^ Miglietta, M. M.; Mazon, J.; Rotunno, R. (2017). "Numerical simulations of a tornadic supercell over the Mediterranean". Weather and Forecasting. 32 (3): 1209–1226. Bibcode:2017WtFor..32.1209M. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-16-0223.1. hdl:2117/112680.
  177. ^ "Ураган в Башкирии: особенности, интересные факты и последствия". (in Russian). 22 August 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  178. ^ Торнадо в Башкирии ЭКСКЛЮЗИВ! 29.08.2014, 30 August 2014, archived from the original on 13 December 2021, retrieved 14 October 2019
  179. ^ "[Tornado] 05.05.2015 - Groß Laasch [LWL|MV] - Offizielles Forum von Skywarn Deutschland e.V." Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  180. ^ a b "Tornadoliste Deutschland". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  181. ^ a b "European Severe Weather Database". Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  182. ^ "Tornadoliste Deutschland". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  183. ^ "Windhose von Ohausen war ein "F1-Tornado" – Neumarkt". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  184. ^ "Hunderttausende Euro Schaden: 5-Sekunden-Sturm verwüstet Dorf in Bayern". 29 May 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  185. ^ "TEMPORALI INTENSI DI MERCOLEDI' 8 LUGLIO 2015 SUL VENETO" (PDF). Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  186. ^ "Tornado riviera: la mappa della devastazione – Infografica – Il Mattino di Padova". 9 July 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  187. ^ Caridi, Peppe (9 July 2015). "Tornado Venezia, le incredibili immagini di Villa Fini (Dolo) completamente rasa al suolo [FOTO]". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  188. ^ "Tornado in Riviera del Brenta: un morto e 72 feriti – Cronaca – Il Mattino di Padova". 9 July 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  189. ^ "Tromba d'aria sulla Riviera del Brenta". 20 October 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  190. ^ "Il tornado tra Mira e Dolo (VE) dell'8 luglio 2015". Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  191. ^ Parodi, Antonio; Lagasio, Martina; Maugeri, Maurizio; Turato, Barbara; Gallus, William (December 2019). "Observational and Modelling Study of a Major Downburst Event in Liguria: The 14 October 2016 Case". Atmosphere. 10 (12): 788. Bibcode:2019Atmos..10..788P. doi:10.3390/atmos10120788. hdl:2434/701370.
  192. ^ a b Chernokulsky, Alexander (October 2020). "Satellite-Based Study and Numerical Forecasting of Two Tornado Outbreaks in the Ural Region in June 2017". Atmosphere. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  193. ^ "European Severe Weather Database".
  194. ^ "Náchodskem se prohnalo tornádo, strhávalo střechy i stromy". iROZHLAS (in Czech). 11 August 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  195. ^ "Tempête Carmen. L'alerte orange levée en Vendée" [Storm Carmen. Orange alert lifted in Vendée]. (in French). 3 January 2018 [1 January 2018].
  196. ^ "Vendée : l'éolienne abattue par la tempête Carmen (Images GC drone vision )". YouTube. 7 January 2018. Archived from the original on 5 December 2021.
  197. ^ "Tempête Carmen : l'Élan de solidarité après la tornade en Vendée". January 2018.
  198. ^ "Macau (33) : Une "mini-tornade" pulvérise trois entreprises médocaines". 3 January 2018.
  199. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  200. ^ a b "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 February 2023.
  201. ^ "Tornado fegt durch Viersen". 2018.
  202. ^ "". Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  203. ^ "Roetgen (Nordrhein-Westfalen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 13 March 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  204. ^ "Romania tornado overturns bus and leaves 12 hurt". BBC News. 1 May 2019.
  205. ^ ""Valóban tornádó volt": szakértőt kérdeztünk arról, mi történt Debrecenben – videóval".
  206. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 February 2023.
  207. ^ "Skypumpe gav gåsehud i Kruså: Hanne var tæt på at blive ramt af garage-tag". 17 June 2019.
  208. ^ "Biler blev væltet rundt - Aabenraa var ramt af tornado - TV 2". (in Danish). 22 June 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  209. ^ "Politi: Biler væltet omkuld af skypumpe – Ekstra Bladet". 14 June 2019.
  210. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  211. ^ "Maltempo, tornado devasta Milano Marittima: Abbattuti 2.200 pini secolari, case e auto distrutte [FOTO e VIDEO]". 10 July 2019.
  212. ^ "Storm Report Pretemp - MeteoNetwork".
  213. ^ "Bari, tromba d'aria a Torre a Mare: Barche volano in piazza del Porto". 11 July 2019.
  214. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  215. ^ "Post". Tornadoarchiv (in German). Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  216. ^ "Trichterwolke bei Neuhardenberg am 12.07.2019". Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  217. ^ "Tornado in Battenberg und Bobenheim am 12.07.2019". Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  218. ^ "Tornado bei Naunheim am 12.07.2019". Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  219. ^ "Homes damaged, power lost – updated: Tornado causes damage in Pétange and Bascharage, nineteen injuries reported". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  220. ^ "Shocking video shows 93mph tornado rip through Amsterdam as it leaves trail of destruction". 10 August 2019.
  221. ^ "Post". Tornadoarchiv (in German). Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  222. ^ "Herrenkoog (Schleswig-Holstein)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 29 September 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  223. ^ "Burhafe (Niedersachsen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 28 September 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  224. ^ "Dagebüll (Schleswig-Holstein)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 28 September 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  225. ^ "Beesten (Niedersachsen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 28 September 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  226. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 5 June 2023.
  227. ^ "Kraftige byger over Danmark har givet skypumper, hagl og skybrud - TV 2". 2 May 2020.
  228. ^ "Сильный ветер наделал проблем". 6 May 2020.
  229. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 5 June 2023.
  230. ^ "Tornado w Kaniowie. Nie było szans na ostrzeżenie ludności". 8 June 2020.
  231. ^ "Šakių rajone užfiksuotas viesulas".
  232. ^ Trąba powietrzna przeszła nad Ustroniem Morskim. Porwała 8 domków, są ranni.
  233. ^ Андрей Абрамов (16 July 2020). "Продолжительный смерч засняли на видео в Московской области". Pravda (in Russian).
  234. ^ "Tornados em Beja e Palmela ocorreram devido a supercélulas. Fim de semana chega com a tempestade subtropical Alpha". Observador.
  235. ^ Brown, Daniel P. "National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report:Subtropical Storm Alpha" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  236. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  237. ^ "Tornado moves through Ukraine village". Sky News. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  238. ^ "Tornado Sweeps Through Village in Ukraine's Kherson Region". 29 September 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  239. ^ "Tornado tears through small Ukraine village". Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  240. ^ "SPEKTAKULARAN PRIZOR Pogledajte kakva se pijavica pojavila između Lastova i Korčule". Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  241. ^ "Velika pijavica kod Primoštena – Na snazi upozorenje za nautičare i pomorce | | Morski HR" (in Croatian). 26 September 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  242. ^ "Tromba d'aria a Rosignano, crolla la tensostruttura dei Canottieri: gravi maestro di tennis e un allievo - Video". Il Tirreno (in Italian). 26 September 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  243. ^ Therkildsen, Christian S. N.; Brandt, Kasper Bruun Vindum (25 September 2020). "Se billederne: Kraftig skypumpe kan have ramt skoler og huse i Albertslund, siger meteorolog". TV 2 Lorry (in Danish). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  244. ^ "Nestabilno na jugu: Na otvorenom moru kod Mljeta formirale se dvije pijavice". (in Croatian). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  245. ^ "Foto: Pijavica na otvorenom moru kod Pule! - Glas Istre". 22 September 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  246. ^ "Tornade à l'île d'Oléron et à Port-des-Barques (Charente-Maritime) le 23 septembre 2020 - Tornade EF2 en région Nouvelle-Aquitaine - Tornade F2 en France". Keraunos. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  247. ^ "En images : 50 pompiers mobilisés, d'importants dégâts après la tornade à Oléron". Lejournaldelameteo (in French). 23 September 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  248. ^ "Tornade à Marennes-Hiers-Brouage (Charente-Maritime) le 23 septembre 2020 - Tornade EF0 en région Nouvelle-Aquitaine - Tornade F0 en France". Keraunos. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  249. ^ "VIDEO Pijavice kod Rijeke, u Istri i na Mljetu". (in Croatian). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  250. ^ "HistorIC - 2 tornades sur Oléron/Port des Barques et sur Marennes le 23/09/2020". Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  251. ^ Σπυρούνης, Γιάννης (24 September 2020). "Γιαννιτσοχώρι: Αγγλίδα τουρίστρια τραυματίστηκε από πτώση δέντρου εν μέσω θύελλας σε κάμπινγκ (photos & video)". Ηλεία Live! Όλες οι ειδήσεις και τα νέα της Ηλείας και της Ελλάδας (in Greek). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  252. ^ "Tromba d'aria a Sturla: alberi sradicati, cancellate divelte e grondaie crollate - Genova 24". (in Italian). 25 September 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  253. ^ Fuller, Phoebe (25 September 2020). "Rare 'supercell' tornado brings freak hailstone storm to West Yorks". YorkshireLive. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  254. ^ "Tornade à la Croix-Valmer (Var) le 24 septembre 2020 - Tornade EF0 en région Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur (PACA) - Tornade F0 en France". Keraunos. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  255. ^ "Tornade à Fayence (Var) le 24 septembre 2020 - Tornade EF0 en région Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur (PACA) - Tornade F0 en France". Keraunos. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  256. ^ "Antalya'da denizde hortum". (in Turkish). 25 September 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  257. ^ "DIVLJE VRIJEME Velika pijavica se razvila na moru kod Omiša". DALMACIJA DANAS (in Croatian). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  258. ^ "Tornade au Havre (Seine-Maritime) le 25 septembre 2020 - Tornade EF1 en Normandie - Tornade F1 en France". Keraunos. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  259. ^ "Зірвані дахи, відсутність світла та газу: у Херсонській області пронісся смерч". ТСН.ua (in Ukrainian). 28 September 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  260. ^ "Voldsom skypumpe kastede flere trampoliner rundt i villakvarter". Tv 2 Lorry.
  261. ^ "Havetrampolin endte på taget - Kraftige byger udløste flere skypumper - TV 2". 21 May 2021.
  262. ^ "Tornados fegen durch Orte in Belgien und Frankreich". Spiegel (in German). 20 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  263. ^ "European Severe Weather Database".
  264. ^ "19/06/2021 – Tornades en Wallonie - Belgorage". 19 June 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  265. ^ ""C'était l'apocalypse": Une tornade fait des ravages à Beauraing, il y a 17 blessés! (Vidéos)". 20 June 2021.
  266. ^ "Orages : Dégâts, coupures d'électricité, trains bloqués... Le bilan des intempéries qui ont frappé de nombreux départements". 20 June 2021.
  267. ^ "Recensement des tornades en France". 23 June 2015.
  268. ^ "L'École communale de Saint-Hadelin durement touchée par les orages". RTBF. 21 June 2021.
  269. ^ "Le météorologue Michael Bleret confirme: C'est bien une tornade qui a ravagé l'école Saint-Hadelin à Olne!". 21 June 2021.
  270. ^ "Vencimont: le village de vacances défiguré par la tornade". Matélé.
  271. ^ "Le village de Laloux sous le choc et sans clocher".
  272. ^ "Arnsberg/Sundern: Unwetter verwüstet Gewerbegebiet". 20 June 2021.
  273. ^ "[F1-Tornado] Sundern (NW) 20.06.2021". 19 June 2021.
  274. ^ "Sundern (Nordrhein-Westfalen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 20 June 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  275. ^ "'Living hell': deaths reported as Czech Republic tornado devastates villages". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 25 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  276. ^ "Kinzenbach (Hessen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 24 June 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  277. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  278. ^ "Boronów. Trąba powietrzna nad gminą. Uszkodzony plac rekreacji, powalone drzewa. Wójt mówi o trąbie powietrznej". 26 June 2021.
  279. ^ "Kilkadziesiąt uszkodzonych dachów, kilka tysięcy odbiorców bez prądu. Sytuacja w regionie po burzach (Zdjęcia)".
  280. ^ "Barking severe weather: Lightning and torrential rain hit capital". BBC News. 26 June 2021.
  281. ^ "Opperhausen (Niedersachsen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 25 June 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  282. ^ "Kaspeltshub (Bayern)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 25 June 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  283. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  284. ^ "Wiederphenomen: Formatioun vun engem Tornado am Norde vum Land un der belscher Grenz".
  285. ^ "Houffalize : Une tornade détruit complètement la ferme-château de Bernistap, pas de blessés".
  286. ^ "Schmachthagen (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 28 June 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  287. ^ "[F1] Schmachthagen, MV".
  288. ^ "Wensickendorf (Brandenburg)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 29 June 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  289. ^ "Se billederne: Skypumper over Danmark fredag - TV 2". (in Danish). 3 July 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  290. ^ "A video of a tornado in the Tver region appeared on the network". Around World Journal. 2 August 2021. Archived from the original on 4 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  291. ^ "VIDEO: Pirmdien Latvijā novēroti vairāki virpuļviesuļi".
  292. ^ ""Фильм-катастрофа": жители деревни рассказали о смерче в Тверской области". 3 August 2021.
  293. ^ "FOTO+VIDEO: Východným Slovenskom sa prehnalo tornádo. Poškodilo viacero domov |". Archived from the original on 5 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  294. ^ Trąba powietrzna w Rzeszowie! Pięć interwencji straży pożarnej. Rzeszów News (in Polish). 5 August 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  295. ^ "Onet – Jesteś na bieżąco". Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  296. ^ Safor, Cope Onda Naranja. "Oliva sufre también daños por el reventón seco que ha azotado la Safor". Onda Naranja Cope (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  297. ^ "Damp (Schleswig-Holstein)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 15 August 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  298. ^ "Region: Ostsee". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 15 August 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  299. ^ Olling, Jakob. "Sjældent vejrfænomen fanget på video: - Så kan det næsten ikke blive mere vildt". TV2 ØST (in Danish). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  300. ^ "Møn blev med stor sandsynlighed ramt af en 'ægte' tornado - TV 2". (in Danish). 16 August 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  301. ^ "Endnu en mulig tornado filmet over Sjælland - TV 2". (in Danish). 18 August 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  302. ^ "[F1] Juist, NI". (in German). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  303. ^ "Juist (Niedersachsen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 16 August 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  304. ^ "[F2-Tornado] Berumerfehn (NI), 16.08.2021". 15 August 2021.
  305. ^ "Berumerfehn (Niedersachsen), Ostermoordorf". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 16 August 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  306. ^ "Violenta tromba d'aria si abbatte su Pantelleria: 2 morti e 9 feriti". 10 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  307. ^ "Bij Leerdam korte tijd tornado aan de grond". 13 September 2021.
  308. ^ "Tromba d'aria in mare, apprensione tra i bagnanti di Pietragrande". 10 September 2021.
  309. ^ "Maltempo Calabria: Una tromba marina è visibile da Siderno. FOTO e VIDEO - la Cometa Radio News". 10 September 2021.
  310. ^ "Tromba marina sullo specchio d'acqua antistante LOCRI (Immagini e Video ESCLUSIVI)". 10 September 2021.
  311. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  312. ^ "Samandağ açıklarında hortum". (in Turkish). 20 October 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  313. ^ "Kernascléden - À Kernascléden, une mini-tornade fait beaucoup de dégâts mais aucune victime". Le Telegramme (in French). 20 October 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  314. ^ Graves, Kieran (22 October 2021). "Tornado that ripped through Ferring homes 'sounded like a helicopter'". sussexlive. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  315. ^ BarendrechtNU. "Vier gewonden en enorme schade door windhoos in Ter Leede". (in Dutch). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  316. ^ "Grote schade en gewonden door harde wind in Barendrecht". RTL Nieuws (in Dutch). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  317. ^ "Elten (Nordrhein-Westfalen)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  318. ^ "Klausdorf / Kiel (Schleswig-Holstein)". Tornadoliste Deutschland (in German). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  319. ^ "Unwetter in Schleswig-Holstein: Sturmtief "Ignatz" fegt übers Land, Windhose in Klausdorf". KN - Kieler Nachrichten (in German). Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  320. ^ "Da et sjældent vejrfænomen "blæste forbi" Vordingborg". DMI (in Danish). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  321. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  322. ^ "'Kontejner nam je doletio u fasadu, popadali su crjepovi. Sretni smo što smo ostali živi'". (in Croatian). 7 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  323. ^ "Olujno nevrijeme kod Benkovca: "Katastrofalno, ja ovo nikad nisam doživjela"". Hrvatska radiotelevizija. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  324. ^ "Maltempo sulla costa, tromba marina in Adriatico". (in Italian). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  325. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  326. ^ "[F1] Casekow, BB". (in German). Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  327. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  328. ^ Balcerzak, Miłosz. "Silny wiatr zerwał kilka dachów pod Skwierzyną! Elementy wbiły się w blok! (ZDJĘCIA)". (in Polish). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  329. ^ "Pod Brodnicą wiatr powalił oborę". Telewizja Relax - Inea kanał 29 (in Polish). 17 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  330. ^ "Połamane drzewa, zablokowane drogi i brak prądu - zgłoszenia cały czas spływają". Tydzień Ziemi Śremskiej (in Polish). 30 January 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  331. ^ "Antalya'da hortum yıktı geçti".
  332. ^ "Hortum bir ilçeyi yıktı geçti". 3 March 2022.
  333. ^ "Un pequeño tornado en la playa de el Sarchal". YouTube.
  334. ^ "Espectacular tornado en el mar visto desde el Sarchal". 5 April 2022.
  335. ^ "Tornado in Wales lifted lambs into the air". MSN.
  336. ^ "Strong winds in north Wales were a tornado, experts confirm". 9 April 2022.
  337. ^ "Owner 'in shock' after tornado batters Welsh farm". RTÉ.ie. 9 April 2022.
  338. ^ "Machynlleth farmer says tornado lifted lambs into the air". BBC News. 7 April 2022.
  339. ^ "Extreme winds in Machynlleth confirmed as tornado". BBC News. 8 April 2022.
  340. ^ "Kandel (Rheinland-Pfalz), 26.04.2022".
  341. ^ "[F0] Kandel, RP".
  342. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 20 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  343. ^ "В Опочецком районе прошел ураган".
  344. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  345. ^ "Очевидцы сообщили о возникновении еще одного смерча в Прокопьевском районе". 17 May 2022.
  346. ^ "В Кузбассе сняли смерч". 16 May 2022.
  347. ^ "Borna bei Leipzig (Sachsen), 17.05.2022".
  348. ^ "[F2] Lippstadt, NW". (in German). Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  349. ^ "[F2] Paderborn, NW". (in German). Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  350. ^ "[F1] Lütmarsen, NW". (in German). Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  351. ^ "[F2] Merxhausen, NI". (in German). Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  352. ^ "[F1] Langelsheim, NI". (in German). Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  353. ^ "[F1] Herford, NW". (in German). Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  354. ^ "[F1] Hillscheid, RP". (in German). Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  355. ^ "Tornado in Abtsgmünd am 20.05.2022". Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  356. ^ "Wetter und Klima - Deutscher Wetterdienst - Thema des Tages - Der Tornadoausbruch am 20.05.2022 - Analyse und Einordnung". Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  357. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  358. ^ "Live: Stevige onweersbuien trekken over Limburg". 20 May 2022. Archived from the original on 20 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  359. ^ "Daken weggeblazen: Huis staat mogelijk op instorten". 20 May 2022. Archived from the original on 20 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  360. ^ "Tornado verwüstet Paderborn: 43 Verletzte – ein Opfer schwebt in Lebensgefahr".
  361. ^ Sävert, Thomas. "Herford (Nordrhein-Westfalen), 20.05.2022". Tornadoliste Deutschland.
  362. ^ "Feuerwehr spricht von Windhose: Unwetter trifft Herford".
  363. ^ "Merxhausen im Auge des Sturmtiefs "Emmelinde"". 20 May 2022.
  364. ^ "Hillscheid (Rheinland-Pfalz), 20.05.2022".
  365. ^ "Сорвавший крышу ураган в Иловле сняли на видео". 21 May 2022. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  366. ^ Anadolu Ajansı (1 June 2022). "Eskişehir'de kırsal alanda hortum çıktı" (in Turkish).
  367. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 15 April 2024.
  368. ^ Сальников, Николай (21 June 2022). "Остались без крыш и сотовой связи: стали известны подробности жуткого торнадо в Оренбуржье". - (in Russian). Retrieved 20 April 2024.
  369. ^ "Tornados vor Kühlungsborn am 20.06.2022".
  370. ^ "Büsum (Schleswig-Holstein), 20.06.2022".
  371. ^ "Windhoos Zierikzee".
    "Tornado treft Zierikzee, één dode en negen gewonden". 27 June 2022.
    "Een dode en negen gewonden door windhoos Zierikzee". 27 June 2022.
  372. ^ "Водяной смерч рядом с пгт Янтарный (Калининградская область, 10 июля 2022). — Video | VK".
    "FOTOD JA VIDEOD | Keeristorm hävitas Tartumaal elumaja: šokis ema helistas ja nuttis, et tal pole enam kodu".
    "FOTOD ⟩ Pere kaotas kümne minutiga keeristormile oma kodu: "Me oleme kõik šokis"". 12 July 2022.
    Hurricane in Estonia 2022 VOL2. rünno nemvalts. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2023 – via YouTube.
    "Tromber och fallvindar i Sverige 2020- | SMHI".
    "Video: Se trombens framfart utanför Rundvik". 15 July 2022.
  373. ^ "Forte vento, ingenti danni da maltempo nel Friuli Occidentale | Il Friuli". 26 July 2022.
  374. ^ "Tetti scoperchiati e colture devastate, gravi danni nel Pordenonese - TGR Friuli-Venezia Giulia". 25 July 2022.
  375. ^ TORRO [@TorroUK] (5 September 2022). "A reminder of the currently active TORRO severe weather forecasts." (Tweet). Archived from the original on 13 September 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2023 – via Twitter.
  376. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 7 September 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  377. ^ Elliott-Gibbs, Sam (6 September 2022). "Moment rare tornado forms in UK town in stormy sky". mirror. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  378. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  379. ^ "Isle of Wight tornado captured in dramatic video footage". BBC News. 16 June 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  380. ^ "Waterspout tornado swirls over Midlothian". BBC News. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  381. ^ "Freak mini-tornado hits Wexford house and farm shed – 'If there had been anyone in the yard they could have been killed'". 14 September 2022.
  382. ^ "Tromb på Västkusten: "Ovanligt i Sverige"". (in Swedish). 15 September 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  383. ^ "El tiempo en Mallorca | Así son las cuatro mangas marinas que se han creado en Santanyí". 16 September 2022.
  384. ^ "Seeheilbad Graal-Müritz (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), 17.09.2022".
  385. ^ Photo
  386. ^
  387. ^ "Tornado damages zoo, properties and trees". BBC News. 24 October 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  388. ^ "Tornade EF3 à Bihucourt (Pas-de-Calais) le 23 octobre 2022". Keraunos. Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  389. ^ "Tornade EF0 à Vœuil-et-Giget (Charente) le 17 novembre 2022 - Tornade en Charente (16), région Nouvelle-Aquitaine - Tornade F0 en France - KERAUNOS - Observatoire Français des Tornades et Orages Violents".
  390. ^ Slowik, Alexandre (17 November 2022). "Une tornade cause des dégâts à Suippes dans la Marne ce 17 novembre". Météo Express (in French). Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  391. ^ "[F2] Urexweiler, SL". (in German). Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  392. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 5 June 2023.
  393. ^ "[F2] Lashorst, NW".
  394. ^ "[F1] Hinte, NI".
  395. ^ "Getmold (Nordrhein-Westfalen), Lashorst (Lashorst), Hedem (Hedem), 01.02.2023".
  396. ^ "Hinte (Niedersachsen), 01.02.2023".
  397. ^ Stran, Uporabna (1 August 2023). "Tornado Ilirska Bistrica, Slovenija / Nad Ilirsko Bistrico se je 1.8.2023 pojavil tornado". UPORABNA STRAN (in Slovenian). Retrieved 13 June 2024.
  398. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". Archived from the original on 22 January 2024.
  399. ^ "Торнадо опустоши село Лъвино - Meteo Balkans". Meteo Balkans: Времето в България, Балканите и Света. 4 November 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  400. ^ "Пожарникарите продължават да се борят с последствията от бурите (СНИМКИ)". 4 November 2023.
  401. ^ "I danni al campo da calcio del Rassina".
  402. ^ "WATCH: Footage appearing to show tornado in Jersey – and Islanders share pictures of devastation". 2 November 2023.
  403. ^ "Tornado leaves trail of destruction in West Sussex town". 29 October 2023.
  404. ^ "[F2] Poll, NW". (in German). Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  405. ^ Bonn, General-Anzeiger (2 January 2024). "Sturmtief "Zoltan": Wetterdienst bestätigt Tornado in Köln-Poll". General-Anzeiger Bonn (in German). Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  406. ^

Further reading