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List of European rivers with alternative names

Many rivers in Europe have alternative names in different languages. Some rivers have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons. This article attempts to give all known alternative names for all major European rivers. It also includes some lesser rivers that are important because of their location or history.

This article does not offer any opinion about what the "original", "official", "real", or "correct" name of any river is or was. Rivers are listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. The English version is followed by variants in other languages, in alphabetical order by name, and then by any historical variants and former names.

Foreign names that are the same as their English equivalents may be listed, to provide an answer to the question "What is that name in...?".


AEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Aa   Aa (Dutch, French, West Flemish), Abbe (Picard), Agnio (Latin)
Aare   Aar (French, Italian), Aara (Romansh, Czech), Aare (Alemannish, German), Abrinca, Arola or Arula (Latin)
Achelous   Achelôios - Ἀχελῷος (ancient Greek), Achelóos - Αχελώος (modern Greek), Acheloos (German, alternative English), Acheloös (Dutch), Achéloos or Achéloüs (French), Achelous (Latin), Aheloos (Romanian), Aqueloo (Spanish form in mythology), Aspropotamo (Italian), Aspropotamos - Ασπροπόταμος (medieval Greek), Aspropótamos (Spanish), Axenus, Thestiu, and Thoas (possible earlier ancient Greek names)
Acheron   Acheron (Latin, German, Turkish), Acherōn - Ἀχέρων or Acherousios - Ἀχερούσιος (Ancient Greek), Achéron (French), Acherontas - Αχέροντας (modern Greek), Acheronte (Italian), Aheron (Romanian), Aheront (Croatian), Aqueront (Catalan), Aqueronte or Aquerón (Spanish), Gliqi or Frar (Albanian)
Adda   Abdua and Abadua (Latin variants), Ada (Lombard, Venetian), Adda (Italian), Addua (Latin)
Adige   Ades (Dolomitic Ladin), Àdexe (Venetian), Adige (Italian, French), Adigio (Spanish), Adis (Lombard), Adiža (Slovene), Adiže (Czech), Adyga (Polish), Athesis (Latin), Athyses - Αθυσης (Ancient Greek), Égg’ (Emiliano-Romagnolo), Etsch (German)
Adour   Ador (Occitan), Adour (French, German, Italian), Adur (Spanish), Aturri (Basque)
Ain   Addua, Danus, Idanus, Indus or Igneus (Neo-Latin), Ain (French), Hinnis (Old French)
Aire   Arus (Neo-Latin; 17th-century), Eyr and Eir (Middle English; 12th century), ðarcy and Yr (Anglo-Saxon; 10th century)
Aisne   Ainne (Picard), Aisne (French), Axona (Latin)
Akhurian     Achurjan (German), Akhourian (French), Akhurean - Ախուրեան (Classical Armenian), Akhuryan - Ախուրյան (Armenian), Akhuryan - Ахурян or Arpachay Арпачай (Russian), Arpaçay (Turkish), ارپه چاى (Ottoman Turkish)
Alatyr   Alatyr - Алатырь (Russian), Rator - Ратор (Erzya and Mocksha Mordvin), Ulatăr - Улатăр (Chuvash)
Alazani     Alaz - Алаз (Chechen), Alazan - Ալազան (Armenian), Alazan - Алазан (Avaric), Alazani - ალაზანი (Georgian), Alazani - Алаза́ни (Russian), Dur - Дур (Tsakhur), Qanıx (Azerbaijani)
Albula   Albula (German), Alvra (Romansh)
Alfeios   Alfeo (Italian, Spanish), Alfios (German), Alphée (French), Alpheiós - Ἀλφειός (ancient Greek), Alpheus (Latin), Alphiós - Αλφειός (modern Greek), Rouphiás - Ρουφιάς (alternative Greek name)
Aller   Alera, Elera and Alara (Old Saxon/Neo-Latin; 8th-11th century), Aller (German)
Allier   Aleî (Auvergnat dialect of Occitan), Alèir (Occitan), Alier (Catalan), Allier (French), Elaver (Latin)
Altaelva   Alattionjoki (Finnish, Kven), Altaälven (Swedish), Altaelv (German), Altaelva (Norwegian), Álttáeatnu (Northern Sami)
Altmühl   Alcmona and Alcmana (8th-9th century), Altmühl (German)
Alzette     Alisontia (Latin), Alzette (French), Alzig and Elze (German, old), Uelzecht (Luxembourgish)
Amblève   Ambleve (Walloon), Amblève (French), Amel (German)
Amper   Amber (Latin), Ammer (German; upstream river), Amper (German; downstream river)
Amstel   Aem or Aeme (Old Frisian), Aemstel (Middle Dutch; 12th-13th century), Amstel (Dutch)
Angrapa     Angerapp (German), Angrapa - Анграпа (Russian), Angrapė (Lithuanian), Węgorapa (Polish)
Aniene   Anien, Anio or Tibero (Latin), Aniene or Teverone (Italian)
Aoös     Aias/Aoös - Αίας/Αώος (modern Greek), Aōos - Αώος (Ancient Greek), Aous (Latin), Băiasa (Aromanian), Vjosa or Vjosë (Albanian), Vjosa (French, German), Voiussa (Italian), Vojuša - Војуша (Macedonian, Serbian), Vovousa - Βοβούσα (modern Greek alternative)
Arachthos   Arachthos (French, German, Italian, Spanish), Árakhthos - Άραχθος (Greek), Narta (Albanian)
Aragón   Aragó (Catalan), Aragoi (Basque), Aragon (French, Occitan), Aragón (Aragonese, Spanish), Aragonius (Latin)
Aras         Arakhsi - არაქსი (Georgian), Araks - Արաքս (Armenian), Araks - Аракс (Russian), Aras (Turkish, German, Italian, Spanish), Aras - ارس (Persian), Araxe (French), Araxes (Latin, English variant), Araxes - Αράξης (ancient Greek), Araz (Azerbaijani), Erez (Kurdish), Rakhsi - რახსი (Old Georgian), Yeraskh - Երասխ (Classical Armenian)
Arda     Arda - Арда (Bulgarian), Arda (Turkish), Árdas - Άρδας (Modern Greek), Arpisos - Άρπησσος (Ancient Greek), Artiscus (Latin)
Ardèche   Ardecha (Occitan), Ardèche (French), Hentica? (AD 950)
Argens   Argenç (Occitan), Argens (French), Argenteus(Latin)
Argeș   Ardzhesh - Арджеш (Bulgarian), Argeș (Romanian), Argisch (German), Argyas (Hungarian), Ordessos and Argessus (Latin)
Ariège   Arièja (Occitan), Arieja (Catalan), Ariège (French), Aurigera(Latin)
Arieş   Aranyos (Hungarian), Arieş (Romanian), Goldfluss (German, rare)
Arno   Arno (Italian), Arnu (Sicilian), Arnus (Latin)
Arroux   Arotius, Isrus, Hesrus or Adrus (Latin), Arroux (French)
Aterno   Aterno (Italian; upstream part), Aternos - Άτερνος (Ancient Greek), Aternus and Piscarius (Latin), Pescara (Italian; downstream part)
Arve     Arva (Latin), Arve (French)
Aube   Alba and Albis (Latin; 8th-9th century), Aube (French)
Aude   Atax (Latin), Aude (French, Catalan, Occitan),
Aulne   Alaunus (Latin), Aon (Breton, Welsh), Aulne (French)
Authie   Alteia (Latin), Authie (French), Eutie (Picard), Otie (Dutch)
Aveyron   Avairon (Occitan), Avario and Veronius (Latin), Aveyron (French)
Avon   Auvona (Latin), Bristol Avon(English variant)

BEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Bacchiglione   Bacajon (Venetian), Bacchiglione (Italian), Medoacus Minor (Latin)
Baïse   Baïsa (Occitan), Baïse (French), Banisia (Neo-Latin; 13th century), Vanesia (Latin; 4th century)
Bann   Bann Wattèr (Ulster-Scots), Bhanna (Irish)
Barrow   Berua or Birgus (Latin), Bhearú (Irish)
Basento   Basento (Italian), Casuentus (Latin)
Bega     Bega (Romanian, German), Béga (Hungarian), Begej - Бегеј (Serbian, Bosnian)
Belaya (Kama)   Ağídel - Агыйдел (Tatar), Ağiźel - Ағиҙел (Bashkir), Aqedil - Ақеділ (Kazakh), Asho - Ашо (Erzya), Belaïa or Aguidel (French), Belaja (Dutch, German, Italian), Belaya - Бе́лая (Russian), Bélaya or Aghidhel (Spanish), Bila - Біла (Ukrainian), Osh Viche - Ош Виче (Mari), Töd’y Kam - Тӧдьы Кам (Udmur), Šur Atăl - Шур Атăл (Chuvash)
Berezina   Berezina - Березина (Russian, Ukrainian), Berezina (Czech, Lithuanian), Berezyna (Polish), Bjaresina (German), Byarezina - Бярэ́зіна (Belarusian)
Berkel     Bekke (Achterhooks), Bercle, Bercla and Berclo (14th century), Berkel (Dutch, German, Low Saxon)
Berounka [1]   Beraun (German), Berounka (Czech), Mies (German; upstream, formerly entire river), Mže (Czech; upstream, formerly entire river), Plzenská reka, Radbuza, Watta (former Czech names)
Bîc   Bîc or Bâc (Romanian), Bik or Bic (German), Byk - Бик (Ukrainian), Byk - Бык (Russian)
Biebrza   Bebras (Lithuanian), Biebrza (Polish), Bober (German variant), Бобра - Bobra (former? Belarusian, Ukrainian), Byebzha - Бебжа (Belarusian)
Biferno   Biferno (Italian), Tifernus or Phiternus (Latin)
Birs   Birs (Alemannisch, German), Birsa (Italian, Latin), Birse (French)
Bistrica [fr; sr]   Bistrica (Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian), Clear water (English)
Bistrița   Beszterce (Hungarian), Bistrița (Romanian), Bistritz (German), Nösen (archaic German)
Blackwater (Munster)   An Abha Mhór (Irish), Auenmorus (Latin)
Blavet   Blabia, later Blavetum or Blavitta (Latin), Blavet (French), Blavezh (Breton, Welsh),
Bóbr     Bober (German), Bobr (Czech, Sorbian), Bóbr (Polish), Bobrawa (Lower Sorbian variant), Bubr - Бубр (Ukrainian)
Bodrog     Bodrog (Slovak, Hungarian), Bodrok (former Slovak variant)
Bojana     Barbana (Latin), Boiana (Italian), Bojana - Бојана (Montenegrin, Macedonian, Serbian), Boyana (Turkish), Boyna - Μπούνα (Greek), Buna (Albanian, Czech, French, German), Bunë (Albanian)
Bosna   Basana / Bathinus (Latin), Bosna (Bosnian, Croatian), Bosna - Босна (Serbian), Bośnia (Polish)
Boyne   Bhóinn or Abhainn na Bóinne (Irish), Boandus (Neo-Latin (13th-century), Bououinda - Βουουινδα (Greek, 2nd century)
Brda   Brahe (German), Brda (Polis, Czech)
Brenta   Brandau (German), Brenta (Italian, Venetian), Medeiochos - Μηδειοχος (ancient Greek), Medoacus Maior (Latin)
Bug, Southern   Aksu (Ottoman Turkish), Boh (Czech, Polish, Slovak), Boug méridional (French), Bug or Bugul de Sud (Romanian), Etelä-Bug (Finnish), Hypanis - Ύπανις (ancient Greek, Latin), Lõuna-Bug (Estonian), Pivdennyi Buh - Південний Буг (Ukrainian), Südlicher Bug (German), Yuzhnyi Bug - Южный Буг (Russian), Zuidelijke Boeg (Dutch)
Bug, Western       Boug (French), Bug (Polish, English, German, Hungarian), Bug / Länsi-Bug (Finnish), Bug / Lääne-Bug (Estonian), Bug - בוג (Yiddish), Buga (Latin, Latvian), Bugas (Lithuanian), Zakhidyi Buh - Західний Буг (Ukrainian), Zakhodni Bug - Заходні Буг (Belarusian), Zapadnyi Bug - Западный Буг (Russian)
Buzău   Bodza (Hungarian), Buzau (German), Buzău (Romanian)

CEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Canche   Canche (French, Picard), Kwinte (Old Dutch), Quantia or Cancia (Latin)
Cetina   Cetina (Croatian, Bosnian), Cetina - Цетина (Serbian), Cettina (Italian), Zetina (German (archaic))
Cehotina   Ćehotina (Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Charente   Carantonus (Latin; 4th century),[2] Charanta (Occitan), Charente (French), Kanentelos - Κανεντελος (Ancient Greek; 140 AD).[3]
Cheptsa   Čepca (Italian), Cheptsa - Чепца (Russian), Chupchi - Чупчи (Udmurt), Çüpçe - Чүпче (Tatar), Tcheptsa (French), Tschepza (German)
Cher   Caris, Carus, Chares, Charus (Latin),[2] Char (Occitan), Cher (French)
Chiers       Chiers (French), Korn (German), Kuer (or Kar,Kor or Korn) (Luxembourgish)
Chusovaya   Chusovaya - Чусовая (Russian, Chuvash), Čusovaja (Italian), Tchoussovaïa (French), Tschussowaja (German), Tsjoesovaja (Dutch)
Cinca   Cinca (Aragonese, Catalan, Spanish), Cinga (Latin, 1st century BC),[4] Nahr al-Zaytun (Arabic, 9th-century),[5] Zinca (Aragonese; old spelling?)
Clyde   Chluaidh (Scottish Gaelic, Breton, Irish), Cluda or Glota (Latin),[2] Clud (Welsh), Clud or Clut (medieval Cumbric), Clyde (Scots)
Cogîlnic     Cogâlnic, Cunduc or Kogîlnic (Romanian), Kogelnik (German), Kogylnik - Когильник (Russian), Kohylnyk - Когильник or Kunduk - Кундук (Ukrainian)
Corrib   Abhainn na Coiribe (English name translated in Irish), Galway River (Irish name translated into English), Ghaillimh (Irish)
Çoruh     Acampsis, Acampseon, Acapsis (Latin),[6] Akampsis - Άκαμψις (Greek), Boas - Βωας (6th-century Greek),[7] Boas, Chorokh and Churuk (former English),[8][9] Ch'orokhi - ჭოროხი (Georgian, Mingrelian), Čorox - Ճորոխ (Armenian), Çorox (Azerbaijani), Çoroxi (Zazaki), Çoruh (Turkish), Tchorokhi (French)
Couesnon   Coetnum or Cossonis (Latin),[2] Couesnon (French), Kouenon or C'houenon (Breton)
Crasna     Crasna (Romanian), Kraszna (Hungarian)
Creuse   Creuse (French), Crosa, Chrosa and Croza (8th-13th century neo-Latin)[10] Cruesa (Occitan)
Crişul Alb     Bílý Kriš (Czech, Slovak), Crişul Alb (Romanian), Fehér-Körös (Hungarian), Weiße Kreisch (German)
Crişul Negru     Černý Kriš (Czech), Čierny Kriš (Slovak), Crişul Negru (Romanian), Fekete-Körös (Hungarian), Schwarze Kreisch (German)
Crişul Repede     Bystrý Kriš (Slovak, Czech), Crişul Repede (Romanian), Schnelle Kreisch (German), Sebes-Körös (Hungarian)
Crna   Cherna - Черна (Bulgarian), Cerna (Romanian, former English), Crna - Црна (Macedonian, Serbian), Erigon (Thracian),[11] Erigonas - Εριγώνας (Greek), Erigonus (Latin)

DEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Dahme   Dahme (German), Dubja or Damna (Upper Sorbian)
Dalälven   Dal River or Dalecarlia River (English), Dalälven (Swedish)
Dâmbovița   Dâmbovița or Dîmbovița (Romanian), Dymbowica (Polish), Izvoru Oticului and Oticu (Romanian; alternative for upper reaches)
Danube                     Danav (Breton), Danóib (Irish), Danube (French), Danubi (Albanian, Catalan, Lombard, Occitan), Danubio (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Danuvius / Danubius (Latin; upper river),[12] Doana (Bavarian), Dóná (Icelandic), Donaris (Dacian, upper river),[13] Donau (Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, German, Indonesian, Norwegian, Swedish), Donava (Latvian, Slovene), Donaw/Donwy (Welsh), Donnä (Alemannic), Donua (Old English), Dounavis - Δούναβης (Greek), Duna (Aromanian, Hungarian), Dunaj (Czech, Polish, Slovak), Dunaja (Romani), Dunărea (Romanian), Dunav - Дунав (Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian), Dunay - Дунай (Russian, Ukrainian), Dunojus (Lithuanian), Hister or Ister (Latin; lower river),[12] Istros - Ιστρος (Ancient Greek; lower river), Matoas (Thracian),[14] Tonava (Finnish), Tuna (Turkish)
Daugava or Western Dvina       Daugava (Latvian, Estonian, French, Italian), Daugava or Västra Dvina (Swedish), Daugava or Westelijke Dwina (Dutch), Daugova (Latgalian, Samogitian), Dauguva (Lithuanian), Duina (Spanish), Duina Occidentalis (Latin), Düna (German), Dvina Thiar (Irish), Dz'vina - Дзьвіна (Belarusian), Dźwina (Polish), Ntaounkava - Νταουγκάβα or Dytikos Ntbina - Δυτικός Ντβίνα (Greek), Väina (Estonian), Väinäjoki (Finnish), Vēna (Livonian), Western Dvina (alternative English name), Zakhidna Dvina - Західна Двіна (Ukrainian), Zapadnaya Dvina - Западная Двина (Russian), Západní Dvina (Czech, Slovak)
Dee, Aberdeenshire   Abredea and Diona (Latin), Dee (Scots, Welsh), Dhè (Scottish Gaelic), Dhé (Irish)
Dee, Wales     Dea/Deia/Deva/Deya (Latin), Dyfrdwy (Welsh, Breton, Scottish Gaelic)
Dender   Dender (Dutch, West Flemish), Dendre (French), Tinre (Walloon)
Desna     Desna - Десна (Russian, Ukrainian), Deyasna - Дзясна (Belarusian), Gyeszna (Hungarian)
Dinkel     Deenkel (Low Saxon), Dinkel (Dutch, German)
Dnieper       Borysthenes (early Latin), Borysthenes - Βορυσθενης (early Ancient Greek), Dānu apara or Dānu apr (Sarmatian), Danaper (late Latin), Danapres - Δαναπρης (late Ancient Greek), Dinyeper (Turkish), Dneiperos - Δνείπερος (modern Greek), Dneper (Slovene), Dnepr (Danish, Estonian, Finnish, German, Norwegian, Swedish), Dnepr - Днепр (Russian), Dněpr (Czech), Dnieper (Italian, Portuguese), Dniéper (Spanish), Dnièper (Catalan), Dniepr (Polish), an Dnípir (Irish), Dnipro - Дніпро or Dniper - Дніпер (Ukrainian), Dnjepar (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian), Dnjepr (Dutch), Dnyapro - Дняпро or Dnyepr - Днепр (Belarusian), Dnyeper (Hungarian), Exi (Tatar), Nipru (Romanian), Özü (Crimean Tatar), Slavuta or Slavutych (Old East Slavic), Var (Hunnic), *Varu-stāna (Scythian)
Dniester     Dānu nazdya (Sarmatian), Dinyester (Turkish), Dnesteros - Δνειστερος (modern Greek), Dnester (Slovene), Dnestr - Днестр (Russian), Dnestr (Estonian, Finnish, Swedish), Dněstr (Czech), Dniester (Italian, Portuguese), Dnièster (Catalan), Dniestr (Polish), Dnister (English variant), Dnister - Дністер (Ukrainian), an Dnístir (Irish), Dnjestar (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian), Dnjestr (Dutch, Swedish), Dnjeszter (Hungarian), Ister (Thracian), Nester (Yiddish), Nistro (Italian), Nistru (Romanian), Thyras - Θυρας (Ancient Greek), tūra (Scythian), Turla (Turkish), Tyras (Latin)
Dollart     Doalert (Western Frisian), Dollard (Dutch, French), Dollart (German), Dollert (Low Saxon), Dullert (Low German, Saterland Frisian)
Dommel     Dommel (Dutch; Limburgish), Duthmala (Latin; 8th century)
Don   Don - Дон (Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian), Don (French, German, Spanish, etc.), Silys (Scythian),[15] Tăn - Тэн (Kabardian), Tanais (Latin),[16] Tanaïs - Τάναϊς (Ancient Greek), Tyn - Тын (Tatar)
Don, Aberdeenshire   Deathan (Irish), Devona (Latin), Dheathain (Scottish Gaelic), Don (Scots)
Donets     Danets Данец (Belarusian), Donec (Italian), Donets (Dutch, French, Spanish), (Sívers'kyj) Donets Донець (Ukrainian), (Séverskij) Donets - Донец (Russian), Donez (German), Doniec (Polish), Donyec (Hungarian), Tanais Minor or Severiensis (Latin)
Dora Baltea   Deura Bàotia (Piedmontese), Djouiye (Valdôtain),[17] Doire baltée (French), Dora Baltea (Italian, Lombard), Duère Baltèa or Duère (Arpitan), Duria Bautica or Duria Maior (Latin),[2] Dzouëre (Valdôtain),[18] Jouère Baltèa or Jouère (Arpitan)
Dora Riparia   Dòira Rivaria (Piedmontese), Doire Ripaire (French), Dora Riparia (Italian), Duria minor or Duria Ripuaria (Latin)
Dordogne   Dordogna (Breton, Italian), Dordogne (French), Dordoina (Basque), Dordoña (Spanish), Dordonha (Occitan, Portuguese), Dordonya (Catalan), Ḏornton - Ντορντόν (modern Greek), Duranius (Latin)[19]
Dospat     Despatis/Despotis - Δεσπάτης/Δεσπότης (Greek), Dospat/Dospat dere - Доспат/Доспат дере (Bulgarian), Rata - Рата (alternative Bulgarian), Sura (Thracian)
Doubs     Doubes - Δουβης (Ancient Greek), Doubs (Alemannisch, French), Dub (German), Dubis (Latin),[20] Dubs (Franco-Provençal)
Douro     Douro (Galician, Mirandese, Portuguese, French), Duero (Aragonese, Asturian, Spanish, German, Italian), Durius (Latin)[21]
Drac   Drac (French, Occitan), Dracum and Dravus (Neo-Latin, 11th-13th century), Drau (Occitan, 16th-18th century)
Drammenselva   Drammen River (English variant), Drammenselva (Norwegian), Drammenselven (Danish
Drava or Drave         Drau (German), Draus (Latin),[22] Drava (Bosnian, Croatian, Italian, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene), Dráva (Czech, Hungarian), Drave (German; rarely), Dravus (Latin),[23] Drawa (Polish)
Drin       Drilon (Latin),[24] Drim - Дрим (Macedonian, Serbian), Drin (French, German, Italian, Turkish), Drini (Albanian)
Drina       Dreinos - Δρεινος (Ancient Greek), Drina (Bosnian, Albanian, Hungarian, Italian, etc.), Drina - Дрина (Serbian, Macedonian), Drinos - Δρινος (Greek), Drinus (Latin),
Drôme   Droma (Occitan, Breton, Catalan, Early Modern Spanish), Drôme (French)
Drut   Drout (French), Druc (Czech), Drut’ - Друть (Russian, Ukrainian), Druts or Druć - Друць (Belarusian)
Drwęca   Drewenz (German), Druvinčia (Lithuanian), Drvenca (Latvian), Drventsa - Дрвенца (Ukrainian), Drwęca (Polish)
Dunajec     Dohnst (German; archaic), Dunajec (Polish, Slovak), Dunajez or Dunajetz (German)
Durance   Drouentia - Δrουεντια (Ancient Greek),[25] Druentia (Latin),[26] Druenza (Italian, former), Durance (French, Piedmontese), Duranza (Spanish variant), Durença (Occitan)
Dvina, Northern   (Northern) Dvina (French, Norwegian, etc.), (Northern) Dwina (German, Polish), Paŭnočnaia Dzvina - Паўночная Дзвіна (Belarusian), Pivnichna Dvina - Північна Двіна (Ukrainian), Severnaya Dvina - Северная Двина (Russian), Vienanjoki (Finnish), Výnva - Вынва (Komi)
Dyle   Dijle (Dutch, German, Luxembourgish), Dyle (French), Tîle (Walloon)
Dyoma   Dim - Дим (Bashkir, Tatar), Dioma (French, Italian), Djoma (German), Dyoma - Дёма (Russian), Kugiz̦el - Күгиҙел (Baskir alternative)
Dysna     Disna - Дисна (Russian), Dysna (Lithuanian), Dzisna - Дзісна (Belarusian)

EEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Ebro   Eabró (Irish), Ebre (Catalan), Èbre (French), Ebro (Spanish, Basque, Finnish, Galician, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Swedish), Ebru (Romanian), Evros - Έβρος (modern Greek), Hiber - Ἴβηρ (Ancient Greek), Hiberus, Iberus or Oleum Flumen (Latin)
Eder   Adarna, Aderna or Adrina (Neo-Latin), Adrana (Latin), Edder (Hessian), Eder (German)
Eider   Aider (Low Saxon), Egdor or Egdore (Latin), Egða (Icelandic), Eider (German, Dutch, Northern Frisian), Ejderen (Danish)
Eisack   Eisack (German), Eisock (Tyrolean/Bavarian), Isarcho (Ladin), Isarchos - Ισαρχος (Ancient Greek), Isarci (Rhaetian), Isarco (Italian), Isarcus, Hisarcus or Isarus (Latin)
Elbe     Albis (Latin), Ælf (Old English), an Eilbe (Irish), Elba (Catalan, Croatian, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish), El'ba - Эльба (Russian), Elbas - Έλβας (Greek), Elbe (German, Dutch, Finnish, Swedish, Turkish), Elben (Danish, Norwegian), Elv (Low German), Elve (Low Saxon), Ialew (Northern Frisian), Laba (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Łaba (Polish, Silesian), Labe (Czech, Slovak), Łobjo (Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian)
Elde   Elde (German), Łada (historic Polish), Reecke (German; middle region)
Emajõgi   Emajegi (Latvian), Emajegis (Lithuanian), Emajõgi (English, Estonian, Swedish), Emajõgi - Эмайыги (Russian), Emajoki (Finnish), Embach (German), Imäjõgi (Võro), Mētra (Latvian), Omovzha - Омовжа (Russian), Suur Emajõgi (Estonian)
Ems     Amisia or Amisus (Latin), Amisos - Αμισος (Greek and Ancient Greek), Eems (Dutch, Low German, Low Saxon), Ems (German), Emže (Czech), Iems (Western Frisian), Oamse (Saterland Frisian)
Emscher   Amsara (Latin), Emscher (German), Iämscher (Low German)
Enguri   Egry - Егры (Abkhaz), Enguri - ენგური (Georgian), Ēnguri - Էնգուրի (Armenian), Ingirc̣q̇ari - ინგირწყარი or Ingiri - ინგირი (Mingrelian), Ingouri (French), Inguri - Ингури (Russian), İnquri (Azerbaijani)
Enns   Anisus (Greek and Latin), Aniža (Slovene), Enns (Austro-Bavarian, German, Hungarian), Enža (Slovak), Enže (Czech)
Erne     Éirne (Irish, Manx), Erne (English, Welsh)
Esla   Aisela or Astura (Latin), Esla (Asturian, Galician, Spanish)
Eure   Autura or Ebura (Latin), Eure (French)
Eurotas   Basilipotamόs - Βασιλιποταμός (medieval name), Bomycas (earlier ancient Greek), Eurota (Italian), Eurotas (French, Latin, Spanish), Eurṓtas - Εὐρώτας (Greek), Evrotas (alternative English, German), Ewrotas (Polish), Himeras (earlier ancient Greek), Iri or Iris - Ίρις (medieval name for lower course),

FEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Fella [de; it]   Bela (Slovene), Bělá (Czech), Fela (Venetian), Fele (Friulian), Fella (German, Hungarian, Italian)
Fiora   Armenta, Armine or Armino (Latin, old Italian until 13th century), Fiora (Italian)
Foglia   Foglia (Italian), Isaurus or Pisaurus (Latin)
Forth   Abhainn Dubh, Abhainn Foirthe (Scottish Gaelic), Bodotria (Latin; Firth of Forth), Afon Gweryd (Welsh), Uisge For (lower part; Irish, Scottish Gaelic)
Foyle     Feabhal (Irish), Foyle (English)
Fulda   Fulda (German), Fuldaha (Latin), Gersfelder Wasser (German; upper regions)

GEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Gail   Cellia (medieval Latin (800 AD)) Gail (German, French, Italian), Geile (alternative German), Gila (medieval Latin (1090 AD)), Lica(s) or Licus (ancient Latin), Zeglia (former Italian), Zeie (Friulian), Zilja (Slovene)
Gardon   Gard or Gardon (French, Occitan), Vardo (Latin)
Garigliano   Gari-Lirano (historic Italian), Garigliano (Italian), Gariglianu (Sicilian), Liris, Caris lirianus and Clanis (Latin)
Garonne   Garona (Aranese, Basque, Occitan, Breton, Catalan, Croatian, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Spanish), Garonna (Italian, Polish), Garonne (French, Dutch, Finnish, German), Garounas - Γαρούνας (Greek), Garumna or Garunna (Latin)
Gauja     Gauja (Latvian, Finnish, French, Lithuanian), Gauya - Гауя (Russian), Koiva (Estonian, Võro), Livländische Aa (German)
Gave de Pau   Gave de Pau (French, Occitan), Paueko uhaitza (Basque)
Genil   Genil (Spanish), Guad al-Xenil (later Arabic), Singilis (Latin), Sinyil / Sannil (early Arabic)
Gers   Ægirtius, Egircius, Gircius (Latin, 6th century), Gers (French, Occitan), Gersio (Latin; 817), Iercius (Latin, 13th century)
Geul     Geul (Dutch, Limburgish), Göhl (German), Gueule (French)
Gironde   Gironda (Catalan, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Gironde (French, Finnish), Zhironda - Жиронда (Russian), Zhyronda - Жыронда, Жиронда (Belarusian, Ukrainian), Žironda (Serbian), Żyronda (Polish)
Glâne   Glâne (French), Glane (German)
Glomma   Glåma (Norwegian local), Glaumr (Old Norse), Glomma (Norwegian, Swedish)
Göta älv   Gautelfr (Old Norse), Gautelfur (Icelandic), Gøtelv (Norwegian variant), Göta älv (Swedish, Norwegian)
Guadalete   Kriso - Κρισω and subsequently Lethe - Λήθη (Ancient Greek), Guadalete (Spanish), Guadaletho (Andalusian), Wādi Lakkah - وادي لكة (Arabic)
Guadalquivir   Baetis (Latin), Guadalquivir (Spanish, Catalan, Extremaduran, Finnish, Italian), Gwadalkiwir (Polish), Wādi l-Kabīr (Arabic)
Guadiana     Flumen Anas (Latin), Guadiana (Catalan, French, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Gwadiana (Polish), Oudiana or Odiana (Medieval Spanish), Wadi Ana (Arabic)
Gudenå   River Guden (alternative English), Gudenå or Gudenåen (Danish)
Gurk   Gurk (German, French, Hungarian, Italian, Serbo-Croatian), Krka (Slovenian)

HEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Haine     Haine (French), Hene (Dutch), Henne (German)
Haliacmon   Aliacmone (Italian), Aliakmon (French), Aliakmonas (German), Aliákmonas - Αλιάκμονας (modern Greek), Astraeus (possible Latin for upper river), Bistrica - Бистрица (Bulgarian, Macedonian), Haliacmon (Latin), Haliacmón (Spanish), Haliákmōn - Ἁλιάκμων (ancient Greek), Ince-Karasu or Inje-Kara (Ottoman Turkish), Vistritsa, Vistritza or Vistriza (former English, German)
Hase   Chasu (Latin), Haase (former German spelling), Hase (German, Low Saxon)
Havel   Habala / Habola / Havila (Latin), Habola (Sorbian), Hafelis (Lithuanian), Havel (German, French, Italian, Spanish), Havola (Czech), Hawela (Polish)
Hérault   Arauris or Araura (Latin), Erau or Eraur (Occitan, Catalan), Erauus (Neo-Latin), Ero - Эро (Cyrillic transliteration), Hérault (French)
Hornád     Gornad - Горнад (Russian, Ukrainian), Hernach (German), Hernád (Hungarian), Hornad (Polish), Hornád (Slovak, Czech,Romanian), Kundert (rare German variant)
Horyn     Goryn’ - Горынь (Russian), Haryn’ - Гарынь (Belarusian), Horin (Yiddish), Horyn’ - Горинь (Ukrainian), Horyń (Polish), Horyň (Czech)
Hron   Garam (Hungarian), Gran (German), Gron - Грон (Belarusian, Russian, Ukrainian), Hron (Slovak, Czech)

IEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Ialomița   Helibacia (Latin), Ialomița (Romanian), Jalomica or Ilonca (Hungarian), Jałomica (Polish), Naparis (Latin)
Ibar       Ibar - Ибар (Serbian), Angrus (Latin), Ibar (Croatian), Ibër or Ibri (Albanian), İbre (Turkish)
Idrijca   Fetschenbach (German), Idria (Italian), Idrijca (Slovenian, Croatian)
Iijoki   Iijoki (Finnish), Ijo älv (Swedish)
IJssel   Iessel (Low Saxon), IJssel (Dutch), Isala (Latin), Isel (West Frisian), Issel or Ijssel (German), Yssel (French)
Ik   Ik - Ик (Russian), Iq - Ык (Tatar), Yq - Ыҡ (Bashkir)
Ilek     Elek/Елік - Елек/Елік (Kazakh), Ilek - Илек (Russian)
Ill   Helella (Latin), Ill (Alemannic, French, German)
Iller   Hilara, Hilaria, and Ilargus (Latin), Iller (German)
Indalsälven   Indalinjoki (Finnish), Indalsälven, Jämtlandsälven, Litsälven, and Storsjöälven (alternative Swedish names)
Indre   Andra, Anger, Endria or Inger (Latin), Endre (Occitan), Indre (French)
Inhul   Ingul - Ингул (Russian), Inhul - Інгул (Ukrainian), Panticapes - Παντικάπης (Ancient Greek)?
Inhulets   Ingulec (Polish), Ingulets - Ингуле́ц (Russian), Inhulets’ - Інгулець (Ukrainian), Inhulez (German), Hypakyris (Ancient Greek)?
Inn       Aenus (Latin), Ainos - Αινος (Ancient Greek), En (Romansh), Eno (Italian), Enus or Oenus (Medieval Latin), Inn (Austro-Bavarian, German)
Iori     Ioræ - Иорæ (Ossetic), Iori - იორი (Georgian), Iori - Иори (Russian), Kamyech - Կամբեճ(Armenian), Qabırlı (Azerbaijani), Qarbi - Къарби (Tsakhur)
Ipel/Ipoly     Eipel (German), Ipeľ (Slovak, Czech), Ipola (Polish), Ipoly (Hungarian), Jupol (archaic Slovak)
Isar     Isar (German), Isara (Latin), Izar - Изар (Russian), Izara (Polish)
Isère   Isara (Latin), Isèra (Occitan, Catalan), Isère (French), Izera (Polish)
Iskar   Iskar - Искър (Bulgarian), Iskăr (Romanian), İskar (Turkish), Oescus/Escus (Latin), Oiskos - Οἶσκος or Skios - Σκίος(Ancient Greek)
Isle   Eila (Occitan), Ella (Latin), Isle (French)
Isonzo     Aesontius / Sontius (Latin), Aipsōntios - Αιψωντιος (Ancient Greek), Isonz (Lombard), Isonzo (Italian, French, German, Spanish), Isonzó (Hungarian), Lisonz (Venetian), Lusinç or Lisunç (Friulian), Soča (Slovene, Croatian, Czech), Sontig (historic German)
Izhma   Ijma (French), Ischma(German), Izhma - И́жма (Russian), Ižma (alternative transliteration), Iźva - Изьва (Komi, Komi-Permyak)

JEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Jalón   Jalón (Spanish), Salo (Latin), Xalón or Exalón (Aragonese)
Jarama   Jarama (Spanish), Xarama (Latin)
Jeker     Geer (French), Jeker (Dutch, German, Limburgish), Neker or Eker (Maastricht dialect of Limburgish)
Jiu   Jiu (Romanian), Rabon (Latin), Schil or Schiel (German), Zsil (Hungarian)
Jizera   Iser (German), Izera (Polish, Jizera (Czech, Slovak, Upper Sorbian)
Júcar   Júcar (Spanish), Sucro (Latin), Xúcar (Aragonese, Galician), Xúquer (Catalan, Valencian)

KEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Kalix   Gáláseatnu (Northern Sami), Kaalasväylä and Kaihnuunväylä (Meänkieli), Kalix älv or Kalixälven (Swedish, Norwegian), Kalixjoki (Finnish), Kölisälva (Kalix dialect)
Kama   Cama or Kama (Latin), Čolman - Чолман (Mari), Çulman - Чулман (Chuvash, Tatar), Kam - Кам (Udmurt), Kama - Кама (Komi, Russian), Şolman - Шолман (Kazakh)
Kamchiya   Kamchiya or Kamčija - Камчия (Bulgarian), Kamcia or Camcia (Romanian), Panisos - Πανισος (Ancient Greek), Ticha (Old Slavic)
Kem   Kem - Кемь (Russian), Kemijogi (Karelian), Kemijoki (Finnish)
Kemijoki   Giemajohka (Northern Sami), Kemi älv (Swedish), Kemijoki (Finnish)
Khopyor   Chopër (Italian), Chopjor (German), Jopior (Spanish), Khoper / Khopior (French), Khopra - Хопра (Mocksha), Khopyor / Khoper - Хопёр (Russian)
Klarälven     Clarus (Latin), Klara/Klaraelva (former Norwegian), Klarälven (Swedish), Trysilelva (Norwegian)
Klyazma   Clesma (Latin), Klaźma (Polish), Kliazma (French, Spanish), Kljasma (German), Kljazma (Czech, Dutch, Finnish, Italian), Klyaz'ma - Клязьма (Russian), Kľazma (Slovak), Malye Podbortsy - Малые Подборцы (Bashkir)
Kodori   Kodor - Кодор (Russian), Kodori - კოდორი (Georgian), Kwydry - Кәыдры (Abkhaz)
Kokemäenjoki   Kokemäenjoki (Finnish), Kumo älv (Swedish)
Körös     Criş (Romanian), Crisius (or Grisia, Gerasus) (Latin), Keresz (Polish), Körös (Hungarian), Kreisch (German), Kriš (Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Serbian, Slovak),
Kostroma   Kastrama - Кастрама (Belarusian), Kostrom (Veps), Kostroma - Кострома́ (Russian),
Kovda   Koundaälven (Swedish), Koutajoki (Finnish, Karelian), Kovda - Ковда (Russian)
Krka   Corcoras (Latin), Korka - Κόρκα (modern Greek), Korkoras - Κορκόρας (ancient Greek), Krainer Gurk (German), Krka (Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, French, Serbian, Slovene)
Krka   Cherca (Italian), Corcoras or Titius (Latin), Katarbates - Καταρβάτης (ancient Greek; perhaps), Kerka (Hungarian), Krka (Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Serbian, Slovene), Korkoras - Κορκορας (Ancient Greek),
Kuban   Hypanis (Latin), Hypanis - Ύπανις (ancient Greek), Kouban or Koubane (French), Kuban - Куба́нь (Russian), Psyzh" - Псыжъ (Circassian), Qoban - Кобан (Karachay–Balkar, Nogai), Q̇vbina - Къвбина (Abaza),
Kupa     Colapis or Calapius (Latin), Kolpa (Slovene), Kulpa (German, Hungarian), Kupa (Croatian, Bosnian), Kupa - Купа (Serbian)
Kura     Cyrus, Cyrrhus or Corius (ancient Latin), Gur - Կուր (Armenian), Khuar - Къуар (Ossetic), Koera (Dutch), Kor - Кор (Avar), Koura (French), Kür (Azerbaijani), Kura (Turkish, Italian, Spanish), Kura - Кура (Russian), Kyros - Κῦρος (ancient Greek), Mt'k'vari - მტკვარი (Georgian, Mingrelian), Mtkvari (alternative name in Western European languages))
Kymi   Kymi or Kymijoki (Finnish), Kymmene (Swedish)

LEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Laba   Laba - Лаба (Russian), Labæ - Лабæ (Ossetian), Labez̄ - Лабэжъ (Adyghe, Kabardian)
Laborec   Laborc (Hungarian), Laborec (Slovak), Laborets - Лаборець (Ukrainian), Labortz or Laborz (German; less common variants)
Laga   Lafuan (17th-century Neo-Latin),[27] Lagan (Swedish)
Lahn   Lahn (German), Laugana or Loganus (Latin)
Lambro   Lamber or Lambar (Lombard), Lambro (Italian), Lambrus or Labarus (Latin)[2]
Latorica     Latorca (Hungarian), Latorica (Slovak), Latorytsia - Латориця (Ukrainian)
Lech     Lech (German, Bavarian), Lica, Licca, or Licus (Latin; between 500 and 1100),[2] Likios or Likias - Λικιας (Greek; 2nd century)[28]
Lee   An Laoi (Irish)
Leine   Laginga, Lainegha and Lagina (Old Saxon or Neo-Latin; 10th-11th century),[29] Leine (German)
Leitha     Lajta (Hungarian), Leita (Italian, Spanish), Leitha (German, French, Slovenian), Lîtaha (Old High German),[30] Litava (Croatian, Czech, Slovak), Litawa (Polish), Sárviz or Sár (former Hungarian)
Lek   Lek (Dutch), Lokkia, Lokkiam and Loccham (Old Dutch and/or Neo-Latin; 8th-10th century)[31]
Lielupe   Kurländische Aa (German), Lėilopė (Samogitian), Lelupa (Polish), Lielupe (Latvian, French, Russian, Swedish), Lielupė (Lithuanian)
Liffey   Anna Liffey (anglicisation of Irish Abhainn na Life), Libnius or Modanus (Latin),[32] Life (Irish, Breton, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh), Ruirthech (Irish; pre-19th century)[33]
Lim   Limnos (Greek), Limus (Latin), Lim (Montenegrin, Serbian)
Limmat   Limet (Alemannic), Limig (German; archaic), Limmat (German, Romansh), Limmig (Aargau dialect), Lindimacus and Lindimagus (Latin; 8th-9th century), Lindmagt/Lindmat (German; 15th-16th century).,[34] Linth (German; upper course)
Lippe   Lippe (German), Lupia, Lippa, Libia (Latin)[2]
Livenza   Lighintha (local Friulian),[35] Liquentia, Liguencia or Liquetia (Latin),[2] Livence (Friulian), Łivensa (Venetian), Livenza (Italian)
Ljubljanica   Laibach (German), Ljubljanica (Slovene, Croatian), Ľubľanica (Slovak), Lublaňka or Lublanice (Czech), Lunghezza or Lubianizza (Italian), Nauportus - Ναύπορτος (Latin/Ancient Greek; 1st-century)
Ljungan   Jångna or Aoa (Jamtlandic),[36] Ljungan (Swedish), Ognar (Old Swedish; 15th century)[37]
Ljusnan   Ljusnan (Swedish), Lusn (Old Swedish; 14th century)[37]
Loir   Ledus (Latin; 616 AD),[38] Lez (Breton), Lidericus or Lœdus (Neo-Latin), Loir (French)
Loire   Léger, Leir or Leire (Occitan), Leira (Icelandic), Lêre (Arpitan), Liger (Breton, German (archaic)), Liger (Latin), Ligiras - Λίγηρας (Greek), Ligore (Old English), Loara (Bosnian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene), Loira (Basque, Catalan, Czech, Italian, Slovak, Spanish), Lòira (Piedmontese), Loire (French, Danish, Dutch, Hungarian, Spanish), Luara (Lithuanian), Luara - Луара (Russian, Ukrainian)
Lot   Lot (French), Olt (former French), Òlt (Occitan, Catalan), Oltis (Latin; Roman time),[39] Out (Occitan; variant and 13th century), Ulda and Ulta (Latin; 6th-7th century)[39]
Lovat     Lovać - Ловаць (Belarusian), Lovat' - Ловать (Russian), Lovot - Ловоть (Old East Slavic)[40]
Luga   Lauga jõgi (Estonian), Laugaz or Laukaa (Votic), Laukaa or Laukaanjoki (Finnish), Loukka (Ingrian), Luga - Луга (Russian)
Lule   Julevädno or Lulejuädno (Lule Sami),[41][40] Lule älv or Luleälven (Swedish, Norwegian), Luulajanjoki (Finnish)
Luza   Luz - Луз (Komi), Luza - Луза (Russian)
Lužnice     Lainsitz (German), Luschnitz (German, pre-1918 for Bohemian part), Lužnice (Czech)
Łyna     Alle (German, French), Alna (Lithuanian, Old Prussian (13th century)), Lava - Лава (Russian), Lina (Latvian), Łyna (Polish)
Lys     Legia (Latin; 7th-century),[42] Leie (Dutch, West Flemish, German), Lys (French)

MEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Main   Main (German, Bavarian, Dutch, French), Maina (Latvian),[43] Mainas (Lithuanian),[43] Majna (Hungarian, Serbian), Mayn - Майн (Russian, Ukrainian), Mein (alternative spelling in French), Men (Polish, Piedmontese), Mèn (Lombard), Meno (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Moa (Bavarian variant), Moenis[44] or Moenus (Latin, 1st century), Mohan (Czech, Slovak, Sorbian)
Malka   Bałqyps - Балъкъыпс (Kabardian), Balyksu - Балыксу (Russian, from Karachay-Balkar), Balyq - Балыкъ (Karachay-Balkar), Malka - მალკა (Georgian), Malka - Малка (Russian), Malq - (Ossetian)
Maritsa       Ebros (Thracian),[45] Euros - Εύρος (Ancient Greek, used by Alcman c. 600 BC),[45] Hebros or Evros - Έβρος (Ancient and Modern Greek), Hebrus (Latin), Marica or Evros (Italian), Marica (Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish), Marița (Romanian), Maritsa - Марица (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian), Mariza (German), Meriç (Turkish)
Marne   Marna (Czech, Italian, Occitan, Polish, Romanian), Marne (Dutch, French, German, Spanish), Matrona (Latin)
Medveditsa (Don)   Medveditsa - Медведица (Russian), Medwediza (German), Miadzviedzitsa - Мядзведзіца (Belarusian), Miedwiedica (Polish), Vedmeditsa - Ведмедиця (Ukrainian)
Mersey   Mærse (Old English; 1002 AD),[46] Mersey (Irish), Merswy or Mersi (Welsh)
Mezha   Meja (French), Mescha (German), Meža (Estonian, Lithuanian), Mezha - Межа (Russian), Mieża (Polish)
Meuse       Helinius or Helinium (Latin; delta),[47] Maas (Dutch, Danish, Frisian, German, Hungarian, Low Saxon, Swedish), Maas - Маас (Russian), Maes (Zeelandic), Maos (Limburgish), Mása (Slovak), Máza (Czech), Mesa - Меза (Macedonian), Meuse (French, Picard, Romanian), Moas (West Flemish), Mosa (Latin, Italian, Occitan, Portuguese, Spanish), Mouze (Walloon), Moza (Polish)
Mezen   Mesen (German), Mezen (French), Mezen' - Мезень (Russian), Mozyn - Мозын (Komi)
Midouze   Midosa (Catalan, Occitan), Midouze (Basque, French)
Mincio   Mens (Lombard), Menzo (Venetian), Minchios - Μίγχιος (Ancient Greek), Mincio (Italian), Mincius (Latin)
Minho     Minho (Portuguese, French, Mirandese), Minius (Latin),[48] Miño (Galician, Spanish, Catalan, German, Italian)
Moksha   Ĭov - Йов (locally in Moksha), Măkshǎ - Мăкшă (Chuvash), Moksha - Мокша (Moksha, Russian), Moksho - Мокшо (Mari), Mükşı - Мукшы (Tatar)
Moldova   Moldau (German), Moldavia (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Mołdawa (Polish), Moldova (Romanian, French), Mulduha and Mulduva (16th-century Romanian)[49]
Molochna   Gerros - Γέρρος (Ancient Greek),[50] Gerrus (Latin), Molochna - Молочна (Ukrainian), Molochnaya - Молочная (Russian), Molotchna (French), Molotschna (German), Tokmachka - Токмачка (Ukrainian; upper part)
Mondego   Mondego (Portuguese, Asturian, Galician, Spanish), Mundas (Latin),[48] Mundego (Mirandese)
Morača   Morača - Морача (Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian), Moraça (Albanian), Oriundus? (Latin)[51]
Morava (Moravia)       Maraha (Latin, 9th-11th century),[52][53] March (German), Marus (Latin), Morava (Czech, Slovak, French, Italian, Latin, Romanian, Slovene), Morawa (Polish), Morva (Hungarian)
(Great) Morava (Serbia)   Brongos - Βρόγγος (Ancient Greek),[54] Margus (Latin),[54] (Velika) Morava - (Велика) Морава (Serbian, Bulgarian), (Golema) Morava - (Голема) Морава (Macedonian), Morava (Albanian, Bosnian, Croatian, Hungarian, Romanian, Slovene), Morawa (Polish)
South Morava     Brongos - Βρόγγος (Ancient Greek),[55] Balgarska Morava - Българска Морава (former Bulgarian), Bulgarian Morava (former English), Južna Morava - Јужна Морава (Macedonian, Serbian)
West Morava   Angros - Ανγρος (Ancient Greek),[55] Zapadna Morava - Западна Морава (Serbian, Bosnian)
Moselle       Moezel (Dutch), Mosel (Alsatian, German, Hungarian, Ripuarian, Romanian, Swedish), Mosela (Czech, Portuguese, Spanish), Mosella (Italian, Latin), Mosel·la (Catalan), Moselle (French), Mosl (Bavarian), Mozel’ - Мозель (Russian), Mozela (Polish), Musalla (Latin),[56] Musel (Luxembourgish)
Moskva   Mäskäü - Мәскәү (Tatar), Maskva - Масква (Belarusian), Moscou (Portuguese), Moscova (Spanish), Moscus or Moscua (Neo-Latin), Moskau (German alternate), Mosko - Моско (Mari), Moskova (French, Turkish), Moskuba - Москуба (Yakut), Moskva - Москва (Russian, Ukrainian), Moskva (Dutch, Finnish), Moskwa (German, Polish), Muskav - Мускав (Chuvash)
Msta   Msta - Мста (Russian), Mstanjogi (Veps), Mustajoki (historically Finnish & Estonian)
Mulde   Milda (Latin, 10th century),[57][58] Módła (Lower Sorbian), Modłej (Upper Sorbian), Mulda (Czech, Polish)
Mur         Muora (Latin, 10th century),[57] Mur (German, Dutch, French, Romanian), Mura (Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Serbian, Slovene), Müra or Möra (Prekmurje Slovene)[59]
Mureş     Marisos - Μαρισος (Ancient Greek),[60] Marisus (Latin), Maros (Hungarian), Marosh - Марош (Russian), Maroš or Maruše (Czech), Marusza (Polish), Mieresch or Marosch (German), Moriš (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian), Mureş (Romanian), Mureš (Slovak)

NEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Naab   Naab (German, French, Polish), Nába (Czech)
Namsen   Nååmesje (Southern Sami), Namsen (Norwegian, Swedish)
Narew     Narau - Нараў (Belarusian), Nare (former German), Narev (Czech), Narevas (Lithuanian), Narew (German, Polish)
Narva     Narv (Veps), Narva (Estonian, Latvian), Narva - Нарва (Russian, Belarusian), Narvajoki (Finnish), Narwa (Polish)
Neckar   Neccarus (Latin variant), Neckar (German), Nicer (Latin)
(Lusatian) Neisse       Lausitzer Neiße (German), Lužická Nisa (Czech), Łužiska Nysa (Sorbian), Neisse (Dutch, French, Italian, Spanish), Nissa Lusatianus (Latin), Nysa Łużycka (Polish)
Eastern Neisse   Glatzer Neiße (German), Kladská Nisa (Czech), Nysa Kłodzka (Polish)
Raging Neisse   Nysa Szalona (Polish), Šílená Nisa (Czech), Wütende Neiße or Jauersche Neiße (German)
Neman       Memel (German, Dutch), Mīmeli (Old Prussian), Neman - Неман (Russian), Němen (Czech), Nemons (Samogitian), Nemuna (Latvian), Nemunas (Lithuanian, Estonian, Norwegian), Niemen (Finnish, Polish, Spanish), Niémen (French), Njemen (Swedish), Nyoman - Нёман (Belarusian)
Nemunėlis     Memele - Мемеле (Russian), Mēmele (Latvian, Estonian), Nemunėlis (Lithuanian), Nemonielis (Samogitian), Niemenek (Polish)
Neretva     Narenta (Italian), Naro (Latin), Narōn - Νάρων (ancient Greek), Neretva (Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Slovene), Neretva - Неретва (Serbian), Neretwa (Polish)
Neris     Nere (Latvian), Neris (Lithuanian, Estonian, German), Néris (French), Viliya - Ві́лія (Belarusian), Viliya - Ви́лия (Russian), Wilia (Polish)
Nestos     Mesta - Места (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian), Mesta (French, Italian), Mesta Karasu (Ottoman Turkish), Nessus or Nestus (Latin), Nestos- Νέστος (Greek)
Neva   Neeva (Estonian), Neva (Croatian, Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Swedish, Veps), Neva - Нева (Russian), Něva (Czech), Néva (Hungarian), Nevan (Swedish variant), Newa (German, Polish), Nieva (Latin variant), Njewa (Upper Sorbian), Nyava - Нява (Belarusian)
Nitra   Neutra (German), Nitra (Czech, Slovak), Nyitra (Hungarian)
Nore   Eoyrus (Latin), An Fheoir (Irish)
Noteć   Natissis (Latin), Netze (German), Notec or Niéc (Kashubian), Noteć (Polish, Czech)

OEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Oder       Biadros - Βιαδρος (Ancient Greek), Oder (German, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Òder (Catalan), Odera (Hungarian), Odera or Oddera (medieval Latin), Odra (Lower Sorbian, Polish, Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene), Òdra (Kashubian), Onter - Όντερ (modern Greek), Suebus (Latin), Syebos- Συήβος (ancient Greek), Uder (Silesian German), Uodra (Silesian), Viadrus (Renaissance Latin), Vjodr (Old Church Slavonic), Wódra (Upper Sorbian)
Odet   Oded (Breton, Manx, Welsh), Odera (Latin), Odet (French)
Oglio   Oglio (Italian), Òi (Lombard), Ollius (Latin)
Ohře/Eger     Agara / Agira (9th-century),[61] Eger (German), Ohře, Ohara, and Oharka (Czech), Ohrza (Polish)
Oise   Esia (Neo-Latin), Isara (Latin), Oése (Picard), Oise (French)
Oka   Aka - Ака (Belarusian), Hura - Хура (Chuvash), Joka - Йока (Erzya), Occa or Aucensis (Latin), Oka - Ока (Russian, Mari, Mocksha)
Olt   Alt (German), Aluta (Latin, Polish), Alytos - Αλυτος (Greek), Olt (Hungarian, Romanian), Olt - Олт (Bulgarian), Oltu (Turkish)
Olza     Olsa (German), Olša (Slovak), Olše (Czech), Olza (Polish)
Onega   Äänisjoki (Finnish), Änine or Änižjogi (Veps), Onega - Оне́га (Russian)
Orava   Arva (Latin), Árva (Hungarian), Arwa (German), Orava (Czech, Slovak), Orawa (Polish)
Osam   Assamus/Asamus (Latin), Osam - Осъм (Bulgarian), Ossam (German), Oszam (Hungarian),
Oskol    Askol - Аскол (Belarusian), Oskil - Оскіл (Ukrainian), Oskol - Оскол (Russian)
Oulujoki   Oulujoki (Finnish), Ule älv (Norwegian, Swedish)
Ounasjoki   Ounasjoki (Finnish), Ovnnesjohka (Northern Sami)
Ourthe   Ourthe (French, Luxembourgish), Oûte (Walloon), Urt (German), Urta (Latin, 870 AD)[62]
Ouse-Ure   Ear (English; 1025 AD, upper river),[63] *Isura (Britonic, Latin), Jor, Yore (English; 12th-century, upper river), Ouse (lower river), Ure (upper river), Usa (Old English; 780 AD, lower river)
Oust   Austa, Hulda, Ousta or Ultum (Latin), Oud (Breton), Oust (French), Out (Gallo)

PEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Paatsjoki       Báhčaveaijohka (Northern Sami), Paaččjokk (Skolt Sami), Paatsjoki (Finnish), Pasvik älv (Swedish), Pasvikelva (Norwegian), Paz - Паз or Patsojoki - Патсойоки (Russian)
Pechora   Pechora - Печо́ра (Russian), Pechora -Печӧра (Komi), Petchora (French), Petschora (German), Sanjero Jaha - Санэроˮ яха (Nenets)
Peene   Peene (German), Pěna (Czech), Piana (Polish)
Piave   Piav (Lombard), Piava (Slovenian), Piave (Italian, Croatian, French, Hungarian, Venetian), Piawa (Polish), Plavá (Czech), Plavis (Latin), Ploden (German)
Pineios   Pénée (French), Peneiós - Πηνειός (ancient Greek), Penej - Пеней, (Bulgarian, Croatian), Peneo (Spanish), Peneu (Catalan), Peneus (Latin), Pinios (Dutch, alternative English, German), Piniós - Πηνειός (modern Greek), Salabrias or Salambrias (medieval Latin)
Pisuerga   Pisorga or Pisorica (Latin), Pisuerga (Spanish, Aragonese, Basque, Catalan, Galician, Portuguese)
Pite   Bihtámädno (Lule Sami), Piitimenjoki (Finnish), Pite älv or Piteälven (Swedish, Norwegian),
Piva   Simacus (Latin, Greek), Piva (Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Po   Bodincus or Bodencus (Ligurian), Eridano (old Italian), Eridanos - Ηριδανος (Ancient Greek), Pad (Polish, Slovene), Pád (Czech), Pàdos - Παδος (modern Greek), Padus or Eridanus (Latin), Pfad (German), Phó (Irish), Po (Catalan, Dutch, Italian, Maltese, Romanian, Spanish, Turkish, Venetian), (Lombard, Piedmontese), (Hungarian, Portuguese), (Arpitan)
Pregolya   Pregel (German, Hungarian), Pregoła (Polish), Pregola (Czech, variant in English), Pregolja (Finnish), Pregolya - Преголя (Russian), Prieglius (Lithuanian), Vatrulia (Latin)
Prut       Proet (Dutch), Prout (French), Prut (Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Turkish), Prut - פּרוט (Yiddish), Pruth (German, English variant), Pyretòs - Πυρετος (Greek and Ancient Greek), Pyretus (Latin)
Prypiat     Pripeat (Romanian), Pripet (Finnish), Pripete (Latvian, Lithuanian), Pripetius (Latin), Pripiat (French, Spanish), Pripiať (Slovak), Pripjat (Dutch), Pripjať, Prypjať or Pripěť (Czech), Pripyat (English variant), Pripyat' - Припять (Russian), Pripjaty (Hungarian), Prõpjats (Estonian), Prypeć (Polish), Prypjat (German), Pryp'yat' - Прип'ять (Ukrainian), Prypyats' - Прыпяць (Belarusian)

REdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Rába     Arabo or Raba (Latin), Arabos - Αραβος (Ancient Greek), Raab (German), Rába (Hungarian, Czech), Raba (Romanian, Slovene)
Rance   Rance (French), Rancz (Gallo), Renk (Breton, Welsh), Rinctius (Latin)
Råne   Radnejokk (Northern Sami), Råneälven (Swedish, Norwegian), Rávnaädno (Lule Sami, Northern Sami), Raunajoki (Finnish)
Rhine             Rain (Romansh), Rajna (Bosnian, Croatian, Hungarian, Serbian), Rayn - רײַן (Yiddish), Rein (Estonian, Finnish), an Réin (Irish), Reina (Latvian), Reinas (Lithuanian), Ren (Occitan, Polish, Slovene, Turkish), Reno (Italian, Portuguese), Renu (Corsican, Maltese), Reyn - Рейн (Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian), Reyn - Рэйн (Belarusian), Rhäin (Luxembourgish), Rhein (German, Bavarian, Welsh), Rhen (Swedish), Rhenos - Ρηνος (ancient Greek), Rhenus (Latin), Rhien (Low Saxon), Rhin (French, Basque), Rhinen (Danish, Norwegian), Rhing (Colognian), Rhoi (Palatine German), Rhy (Alemannic German), Rien (Limburgish, Low Saxon), Rijn (Dutch), Rin (Catalan, Romanian, Spanish, Walloon), Roen (Breton), Ryn (Afrikaans, Western Frisian), Rýn (Czech, Slovak)
Rhône     Rhodanòs - Ροδανος (Greek and Ancient Greek), Rhodanus (Latin), Rhôna (Czech, Slovak), Rhône (French, Dutch, Estonian), Rhone (German, Hungarian), Rodan (Romansh, Polish), Rodano (Basque, Italian), Ródano (Portuguese, Spanish), Ròden (Lombard), *Rodonos (Gaulic), Róin (Irish), Roine (Catalan), Ron (Breton, Romanian), Rón (Icelandic), Rona - Рона (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian), Rona (Croatian, Slovene), Róna (Czech), Rône (Western Frisian), Rôno (Arpitan), Ròno (Piedmontese), Ròse (Occitan), Rotten (Walliser German, former German), Rottu (Alemannisch), Roûno (Franco-Provençal)
Rienz   Byrrha (Latin), Rienz (German), Rienza (Italian)
Rioni   Phasis - Φᾶσις (ancient and modern Greek), Rion (English variant), Rion - Ռիոն (Armenian), Rioni - რიონი (Georgian), Rioni - Риони (Russian)
Rubicon   Rubicão (Portuguese), Rubico or Rubicon (Latin), Rubicó (Catalan), Rubicon (Danish, Dutch, French, Hungarian, Norwegian, Romanian, Swedish), Rubicón (Spanish), Rubicone (Italian), Rubikon (Czech, Finnish, German, Polish, Slovene), Rubikon - Рубикон (Bulgarian, Russian)
Ruhr   Ruhr (German, Dutch, French, Low German), Ruhra (Polish), Rúr (Czech), Rura or Rurinna (Latin)
Rur       Roer (Dutch, French, Italian, Limburgish), Roër (Italian variant), Roûle (Walloon), Rur (German, Colognian, Romanian, Spanish)

SEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Saale   Saale (German), Sala (Latin), Sála (Czech, Slovak), Solawa (Sorbian), Soława (Polish)
Saane/Sarine   Charnà (Fribourg patois), Saane (German), Sanona (Latin), Sarina (Italian), Sarine (French)
Saar     Saar (Danish, German, Hungarian, Italian, Romanian), Saar - Саар (Russian), Saara (Polish), Saravus (Latin), Sarre (French, Portuguese, Spanish), an tSáir (Irish)
Sado   Calipus (Latin), Sádão (archaic Portuguese), Sado (Portuguese)
Sajó     Sajo (Romanian), Sajó (Hungarian), Šajo (Croatian), Salz, Salza or Salzbach, (German), Slaná (Slovak, Czech)
Sakmara   Haqmar - Һаҡмар (Bashkir), Sakmar - Сакмар (Tatar), Sakmara - Сакмара (Russian)
Salzach     Isonta (Latin, upper part), Iuvarus / Ivarus (Latin), Salzach (German), Salzaha (Neo-Latin), Soizach (Austro-Bavarian)
Samara   Samar - Самар (Chuvash, Tatar), Samara - Самара (Russian)
Sambre     Sabes - Σαβης (Ancient Greek), Sabis (Latin), Sambe (Walloon), Samber (Dutch), Sambra (Polish), Sambre (French, German, Luxembourgish)
Samur     Kʼulan - Кьулан or Chhvegʼan - ЧӀвегьер (Lezgian), Samur - Самур (Russian), Samurçay (Azerbaijani, Turkish), Samyr - Самыр (Rutul)
San     Saan (German), San (Polish, Slovak), Sian - Сян (Ukrainian)
Sangro   Isagros - Ισαγρος or Sagros - Σαγρος (Ancient Greek), Sagrus (Latin), Sangro (Latin)
Saône   Arar (pre-Roman), Brigoulus, Sagonna or Souconna (Latin), Saona (Catalan, Czech, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish), Saône (Estonian, Dutch, French, German, Hungarian), Sona (Arpitan), Sòna (Occitan)
Sauer       Sauer (German, Luxembourgish), Seure (Walloon), Sura (Latin), Sûre (French)
Sava         Sabos - Σαβος (Ancient Greek), Sau (German), Sava (Bosnian, Croatian, Italian, Romanian, Slovene, Turkish), Sava - Сава (Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian), Sáva (Czech, Slovak), Save (French, German, variant in English), Savus (Latin), Sawa (Polish), Sawe (German variant), Száva (Hungarian)
Scheldt       Escalda (Spanish), Escaut (French, Picard), Escô (Walloon), Scaldis (Latin), Schelda (Italian), Schelde (Dutch, German, Hungarian, Swedish, West Flemish, Zeelandic), Šelda (Czech), Sjelde (Limburgish), Skalda (Polish), Skelde (West Frisian)
Segre     Segre (Catalan, Occitan, Spanish), Sègre (French), Sicoris (Latin), Nahr az-Zaytūn - (نهر الزيتون, (Arabic)
Segura   Segura (Spanish), Tader or Thader (Latin), Wadi al-Abyad or War-Alabiat - وادي الأبيض or شقورة, (Arabic)
Seine   Saena (Breton), Seina (Czech), Sèina (Occitan), Seine (Dutch, French, German, Swedish variant, Welsh), Seinen (Danish, Swedish), Sekwana (Polish), Sen (Turkish), Sena (Catalan, Croatian, Galician, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Slovene), Sena - Сена (Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian), Senna (Italian), Sequana or Sequanna (Celtic), Sequana or Sequanus (Latin), Sigen (Old English), Signa (Icelandic), Sikouànas - Σηκουάνας (Greek), Sinne (Walloon), Szajna (Hungarian), an tSéin (Irish)
Sele   Sele (Italian), Sélé (French), Silarus, Siler, Silerus or Sylar (Latin)
Semois     Semois (French [Belgium]), Semoy (French [France]), Sesbach (German), Sesomires or Sesmara (Latin), Setzbaach (Arlon Luxembourgish), Simwès or Smwès (Walloon)
Sense   Chindzena (Fribourg patois), Sense (German), Singine (French)
Sesia   Sesia (Italian, Piedmontese), Sesites, Sessites or Sicia (Latin), Tseschra (Walser German)
Šešupė       Ostfluss (briefly former German), Scheschup(p)e (German), Šešopė (Samogitian), Šešupė (Lithuanian), Sheshupe - Шешупе (Russian), Szeszupa (Polish)
Severn     (Afon) Hafren (Welsh), Sabhrainn (Irish), Sabrina (Latin), Sæfern (Old English)
Seym     Seim, Sejm or Seym - Сейм (Russian, Ukrainian), Sejm (Czech, Polish)
Shannon   Abhainn na Sionainne (variant in Irish), y Çhannon (Manx), Scene (Old English), Senus (Latin), Shanon - Շանոն (Armenian), Shanon - Шанон (Macedonian), Shannon - Шаннон (Russian), Shanǎn - Шанън (Bulgarian), an tSionainn (Irish), an tSionna (variant in Irish)
Shkumbin   Genessus or Genusus (Latin), Genoúsos - Γενούσος (Ancient Greek), Shkumbin or Shkëmbi (Albanian), Shkumba - Шкумба or Shkumbin - Шкумбин (Macedonian, Serbian), Skoumpin - Σκούμπιν (Modern Greek)
Sieg   Segaha (Latin), Sie (Colognian dialect), Sieg (German)
Siret     Ararus or Hierasus (Latin), Hierasòs - Ιερασος (Ancient Greek), Seret (Polish), Seret / Siret - Серет / Сірет (Ukrainian), Sereth (German), Siret (Romanian), Siret - Сирет (Russian), Sireth (traditional English), Szeret (Hungarian)
Skellefte   Skellefteälven (Swedish, Norwegian), Syöldateiednuo (Ume Sami)
Soča     Aesontius / Sontius (Latin), Aipsōntios - Αιψωντιος (Ancient Greek), Isonz (Lombard), Isonzo (Italian, French, German, Spanish), Isonzó (Hungarian), Lisonz (Venetian), Lusinç or Lisunç (Friulian), Soča (Slovene, Croatian, Czech), Sontig (historic German)
Someş     Samosch (German), Samosius / Samus (Latin), Samosz (Polish), Someş (Romanian), Somesch (German), Somesh - Сомеш (Ukrainian), Szamos (Hungarian)
Someşul Mare   Großer Somesch (German), Nagy-Szamos (Hungarian), Someşul Mare (Romanian)
Someşul Mic   Kis-Szamos (Hungarian), Kleiner Somesch (German), Someşul Mic (Romanian)
Somme   Samara (Gaulish, Latin), Somena/Somona (Latin variants), Somma (Polish), Somme (French, German, Hungarian, Romanian, Swedish), Sonme (Picard), Zomme (Middle Dutch), Zoom (West Flemish)
Sozh       Soj (French), Sosch (German), Soż (Polish), Sožas (Lithuanian), Sozh - Сож (Belarusian, Russian, Ukrainian)
Spey   Spè (Scottish Gaelic), Uisge Spé (Irish), Spea (Latin)
Spree     Spree (German, Swedish), Spréva (Czech), Spreva (Latin), Sprewa / Szprewa (Polish), Sprjewja (Lower Sorbian), Sprowja / Sprewja / Šprewa (Sorbian)
Struma     Estrimón (Spanish), Karasu (Turkish), Strimónas - Στρυμώνας (Greek), Strouma (French, variant in English), Struma - Струма (Bulgarian, Serbian), Struma (Czech), Strymon (ancient Greek, Latin, variant in English), Sztruma (Hungarian)
Suir   Siúr or Abhainn na Siúire (Irish), Suirus (Latin)
Sukhona   Soukhona (French), Suchona (Latin, German, Italian), Suhona (Finnish), Sújona (Spanish), Sukhona - Су́хона (Russian)
Sulak   Ġoy-su - ГIой-хи (Chechen), Kʼas - Кьас (Dargin), Qoj su - Къой су (Kumyk), Sulak - Сулак (Lezgian, Russian), Sulak (Azerbaijani), Sulapi - სულაკი (Georgian), Sulaq - Сула́хъ (Avaric)
Sunzha   Sholʒə - Шолжа (Ingush), Sölƶa - Соьлжа (Chechen), Sunja - სუნჯა (Georgian), Sunžæ - Сунжæ (Ossetian), Sunzha - Су́нжа (Russian), Səndž - Сындж (Kabardian)
Sura   Săr - Сăр (Chuvash), Sırı - Сыры (Tatar), Soera (Dutch), Soura (French), Šur - Шур (Mari), Sura - Сура́ (Moksha, Russian), Sura Lej - Сура лей (Erzya)
Svir   Süvär (Veps), Svir - Свирь (Russian), Syväri (Finnish, Karelian)
Świna   Svina (Czech), Swina (Pomeranian), Świna (Polish), Swine (German)

TEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Tagliamento   Dülmende (medieval German), Tagliamento (Italian), Tajamento (Venetian), Tiliaventum (Latin), Tiliment or Taiament (Friulian), Tilment (Croatian)
Tagus     Taach (Frisian), Taag (Dutch), Tachas (Lituanian), Tacho (Aragonese), Tag (Polish), Tage (Old Catalan, French, Occitan), Tago (Italian), Tagos - Ταγος (Ancient Greek), Tagus (Latin), Taho - Тахо (Russian), Tajo (Spanish, Basque, Catalan, German), Teijo (Mirandese), Tejo (Portuguese), Teju (Extremaduran), Texo (Galician),
Tana     Deatnu (Northern Sami), Tana or Tanaelva (Norwegian), Tana älv (Swedish), Tana - Тана (Russian), Teno or Tenojoki (Finnish)
Tara   Autarius, Tarus (Greek, Latin), Tara (Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Tarn   Tarn (French, Occitan), Tarnis (Latin)
Tay   Tatha (Scottish Gaelic, Breton, Irish), Tava or Taus (Latin), Tay (Scots, Welsh)
Terek     Tergi - თერგი (Georgian), Terek - Терек (Avar, Azerbaijani, Lezgian, Russian), Terk - Терк (Karachay-Balkar, Ossetian), Terka - Теркa (Chechen)
Thames   Riviéthe dé Londres (Norman), Tafwys (Welsh), Tamais (Irish), Tamesa (Latin variant), Tàmesi (Catalan), Tamesis (Latin), Tàmesis - Ταμεσης (Greek), Támesis (Spanish), Tamigi (Italian), Tamisa (Portuguese, Romanian), Tamise (French), Tamiza (Polish), Tavoez (Breton), Teems (Afrikaans, Western Frisian), Temes (Old English), Temese (middle English), Temza (Croatian, Latvian, Slovene), Temza - Темза (Bulgarian, Serbian, Russian), Temze (Hungarian), Temže (Czech), Thaimish (Manx), Theems (Dutch), Thems (Low German, West Flemish), Themse (German), Themsen (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish)
Thaya     Dyja (Polish), Dyje (Czech, Slovak), Thaya (German, French, Hungarian, Italian)
Thielle   Thièle or Thielle (French), Zihl (German)
Thyamis   Glykys - Γλυκύς (alternative Greek name), Kalamai (Albanian), Kalamas - Καλαμάς (alternative Greek, German), Thiamis (French), Thyamis - Θύαμις (Greek), Tíamis (Spanish), Tijamis (Serbian)
Tiber   Albula and Rumon (former Latin names), Téivie (Ligurian), Tever (Lombard), Tevere (Italian, Corsican, Hungarian, Maltese), Tèviri (Sicilian), Tibar (Friulian, Serbian), Tiber (Latin, Afrikaans, Dutch, German, Spanish, Turkish), Tíber (Catalan), Tibera (Czech, Slovene), Tiberen (Danish), Tiberis - Τιβερης (Greek), Tibern (Swedish), Tibir (Irish), Tibr - Тибр (Russian), Tibr - Тібр (Ukrainian), Tibra (Latvian), Tibre (French, Portuguese), Tibru (Romanian), Tyber (Polish), Tyberis (Latin variant)
Ticino     Tesin (Piedmontese, alternative Lombard), Tesino (Spanish), Tessin (Alemannish, French, German), Ticino (Italian, Romansh), Ticinus (Latin), Tisin (Lombard, Venetian), Tzich or Tisen (Ticino dialect of Lombard)
Timiș     Tamiš - Тамиш (Serbian), Temes (Hungarian), Temeš (Czech), Temesch (German), Temesz (Polish), Teyss (archaic English) Thibisis / Thympiscos - Θίβισις / Θυμπισκος (Ancient Greek), Tibiscus / Tibisis (Latin), Timiș (Romanian),
Tisza          Cisa (Polish), Pathissos - Πάθισσος (ancient Greek), Theiß (German), Theiss (older English texts), Tibisco (Italian), Tibisque (older French texts), Tisa (Croatian, Czech, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish), Tisa - Тиса (Serbian, Russian), Tisia, Tissus or Pathissus (Latin), Tisza (Hungarian, Dutch, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish), Tysa - Тиса (Ukrainian)
Torne     Duortneseatnu (Northern Sami), Torne älv (Swedish), Tornionjoki (Finnish), Tornionväylä (Meänkieli)
Trent   Trisantona (Latin), Terentus or Trehenta (Neolatin)
Trieux   Titus or Tetus (Latin), Trev or Treñv (Breton, Gallo), Trieux (French)
Tuloma     Doallánjohka (Northern Sami), Tuållâmjokk (Skolt Sami), Tuloma (Norwegian), Tuloma - Тулома (Russian), Tuulomajoki (Finnish)
Tundzha     Taenarus / Tonzus (Latin), Tonzos - Τόνζος (Greek), Toundja (French), Tunca (Turkish), Tundja (Romanian), Tundscha (German), Tundzha / Tundža - Тунджа (Bulgarian)
Tweed     Thuaid (Irish), Tuaidh (Scottish Gaelic), Tueda (Latin), Tweed (Welsh), Tweid (Scots)

UEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Ufa   Ӗphü - Ĕпхӳ (Chuvash), Oefa (Dutch), Oufa (French), Karaidel - Караидел (Tatar), Karaizel (Turkish), Qaridhel - Ҡариҙел (Bashkir), Šem Viče - Шем Виче (Mari), Ufa (German, Italian, Spanish), Ufa - Уфа (Russian)
Ume   Ubmejeiednuo (Ume Sami), Ume älv or Umeälven (Swedish, Norwegian), Uumajanjoki (Finnish)
Ural   Âjyǩ - Яйыҡ (Bashkir), Daïkos - Δάϊκος (Ancient Greek), Ğaek - Җаек (Tatar), Jayıq - Жайық (Kazakh), Jayıq (Kara-Kalpak), Oeral (Dutch), Oural (French), Ouralis - Ουράλης (modern Greek), Rhymnus or Iaick (Latin), an Úrail (Irish), Ural (Czech, German, Italian, Spanish), Ural - Урал (Russian), Wral (Welsh), Yaik - Яик (former Russian),
Usa   Oussa (French), Usa - Уса́ (Russian), Ussa (German), Usva - Усва (Komi)

VEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Váh   Cusus (Latin variant), Vág (Hungarian), Vaghus (Latin), Vah - Ваг (Ukrainian), Váh (Slovak, Czech, Romanian), Waag (German), Wag (Polish)
Vardar     Axiós - Αξιος (Greek), Axius (Latin), Vardar (Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian, Romanian, Turkish), Vardar or Wardar (German), Vardari (Albanian), Wardar (Polish)
Vechte     (Oeriselske) Fecht (Western Frisian), (Overijsselse) Vecht (Dutch), Vechte (German, Low Saxon)
Vefsna   Vaapstenjeanoe (Southern Sami), Vapstälven (Swedish), Vefsna (Norwegian),
Venta     Vǟnta (Livonian), Venta (Latvian, Lithuanian), Venta - Вента (Russian), Vėnta (Samogitian), Windau (German), Windawa (Polish)
Vetluga   Vetlouga (French), Vetluga - Ветлу́га (Russian), Vütla - Вӱтла (Eastern Mari), Və̈tlä - Вӹтлӓ (Western Mari), Wetluga (German), Wietługa (Polish)
Vienne   Viena (Catalan), Vienne (French), Vigenna or Vingenna (Latin), Vinhana or Viena (Occitan)
Vilaine   Gwilen or Gwilun (Breton, Welsh), Vicinonia, Vicenonia or Visnonia (Latin), Vilaèyn (Gallo), Vilaine (French)
Vindel   Vidduolienuo (Ume Sami), Vindelälven (Swedish, Norwegian),
Vistula   Vaysl - װײַסל (Yiddish), Veiksel (Finnish), an Viostúile (Irish), Visla (Czech, Latvian, Slovak, Slovene), Visla - Вісла (Belarusian, Ukrainian), Visla - Висла (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian), Vistola (Italian), Vistül (Turkish), Vistula (Latin, Romanian, Swedish variant), Vístula (Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish), Vistule (French), Visztula (Hungarian), Vysla (Lithuanian), Weichsel (German, Swedish variant), Wießel (Low German), Wijsel or Wijssel (Dutch), Wisła (Polish, Swedish variant), Wisła or Visla (Estonian)
Vltava   Fuldaha (medieval Latin (872 AD)), Moldau (Dutch, German, Swedish), Moldva (Hungarian), Moldava (Italian, Spanish), Moldawa (Silesian), Multavia, Moldava or Multa (Latin), Vltava (Czech, Finnish, French, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish), Vltava - Влтава (Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian), Wełtawa (Polish), Wlitaua (Old Czech), Wołtawa (Sorbian), Wultha (medieval Latin (1125 AD))
Volga   Atăl - Атăл (Chuvash), Edil (Kazakh), İdel - Идел (Tatar), Idhel (Bashkir), İdil (Turkish), Indɨl (Adyghe), Ijil mörön (Oirat), İtil (Karachay-Balkar), Izhil - Ижил (Mongolian), Jezhel Muren - Эжэл мүрэн (Buryat), Jul - Юл (Mari), (Scythian), Rav - Рав (Erzya, Mordvin), Rava - Рава (Mocksha), Rha (Latin), Vl'ga (Church Slavic), Volg (Veps), Volga (Croatian, Finnish, French, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Volga - Волга (Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian), Volgan (Swedish variant), Vòlgas - Βολγας (Greek), Volha (Czech), Vollga (Albanian), Wolga (Afrikaans, Dutch, Frisian, German, Turkmen), Wołga (Polish, Silesian)
Volkhov   Olhav (Veps), Olhava (Ingrian), Olhavanjoki (Finnish), Volhova (Latvian), Volhovi jõgi (Estonian), Vóljov (Spanish), Volkhov - Во́лхов (Russian), Wolchow (German), Wołchow (Polish)
Vuoksi     Vuoksa (Norwegian), Vuoksa - Вуокса (Russian), Vuoksen (Swedish), Vuoksi (Finnish, French, German)
Vyatka   Noqrat - Нократ (Tatar), Nuhrat Atăl - Нухрат Атăл (Chuvash), Vatka - Ватка (Mari, Udmurt), Viatca (Latin), Viatka (French, Spanish), Viče - Виче (Mari), Vjatka (Dutch, Italian), Vyatka - Вя́тка (Russian), Wiatka (Polish), Wjatka (German)
Vychegda   Ežva - Эжва (Komi), Vychegda - Вычегда (Russian), Vytchegda (French), Wytschegda (German)

WEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Waal   Vacalis / Vahalis / Valis (Latin), Valas (Lithuanian), Waal (Dutch, German, Low Saxon, West Frisian), Wahal or Vahal (alternative French), Wål (Walloon), Woal (West Flemish)
Warnow   Chalousos - Χαλοῦσος (Ancient Greek)?, Chalusus (Latin)?, Varnava (Czech), Warnow (German, Polish)
Warta   Varta (Czech, Latin), Warta (Polish), Warthe (German, Swedish)
Werra   Weraha (Neo-Latin), Werra (German)
Weser   Vesdre (French), Vezera (Czech), Vēzere (Latvian), Vėzeris (Lithuanian), Visurgis (Latin), Weeser (Northern Frisian), Werser (Low German), Weser (German, Danish, Western Frisian), Wezer (Dutch), Wezera (Polish)
Wieprz   Vepr - Вепр (Ukrainian, Taraškievica Belarusian), Vepsh (Belarusian, Russian), Vepšas (Lithuanian), Wieprz (Polish)
Wisłok   Vislok - Віслок (Ukrainian), Vyslokas (Lithuanian), Weisslok or Weisslog (German), Wisłok (Polish)
Wkra   Vkra (Lithuanian), Wkra (Polish)
Wupper   Wipper (upper part of river), Wippera (Latin), Wupper (German)
Wye     Gwy (Welsh, Breton), Vaga / Waia (Latin)

YEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Yantra   Etar (older Bulgarian), Iantra (Romanian), Iatus (Latin), Jantra (German), Yantra - Я̀нтра (Bulgarian), Oszam (Hungarian),
Ybbs   Íbosa (Portuguese), Jivice (Croatian), Ois, Weiße Ois (upper regions), Ybbs (Austro-Bavarian, German)
Yonne   Icaunus (Latin), Yonne (French)
Yser     IJzer (Dutch), Isera (Latin), Izer (Walloon), Yser (French), Yzer (West Flemish)
Yug   Ioug (French), Jug (German, Italian), Yug - Юг (Komi, Russian)

ZEdit

English Name Countries Other name(s) or older name(s)
Zeta   Zenta (Greek), Senta (Latin) Zeta (Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Albanian)
Zbruch   Sbrutch (German), Zbroutch (French), Zbruč (Czech, Italian), Zbruch - Збруч (Ukrainian), Zbrucz (Polish)
Zenne   Senne (French, German), Zenne (Dutch)
Zêzere   Zêzere (Portugues), Zézere (Galician, Mirandese)
Zrmanja   Tedanius (Latin), Zermagna (Italian), Zrmanja (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian)
Zwarte Water   Swarte Wetter (Western Frisian), Zwarte Water (Dutch), Zwärte Wäter (Low Saxon)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Berounka nebo Mze?(in Czech)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i J. G. Th. Graesse Orbis Latinus, 1909
  3. ^ Jean Marie Cassagne et Mariola Korsak, Origine des noms de villes et villages de la Charente, éditions Bordessoules, 1998, p. 72
  4. ^ Julius Casear, Civil Wars
  5. ^ Ramon Amigó Anglès, L'Albi i els seus noms, 2001 (in Catalan)
  6. ^ Annegret Plontke-Lüning, Acampsis in Brill’s New Pauly, 2006
  7. ^ Braund, Inaishvili & Tezgor, The Akampsis - Tchorokhi - Çoruh: A Frontier and a Navigation Road, 2017
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition 2:757d
  9. ^ W. Rickmer Rickmers, "Lazistan and Ajaristan", The Geographical Journal 84:6 (Dec., 1934), p. 466. at JSTOR
  10. ^ Ernest Nègre, Toponymie générale de la France, vol. 1, Librairie Droz, 1990, p. 49.
  11. ^ Katičic', Radoslav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans. Paris: Mouton, 1976: 147
  12. ^ a b Braund, D. "Places: 226577 (Danuvius/Istros/Hister (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
  13. ^ Katičić, Radoslav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One. Paris: Mouton, 1976: 144.
  14. ^ Dyer, Robert (1974). "Matoas, the Thraco-Phrygian name for the Danube, and the IE root *madų". Glotta. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (GmbH & Co. KG). 52 (1/2): 91. JSTOR 40266286.
  15. ^ Pliny the Elder (ca. 178 AD) Naturalis Historia 6.VII
  16. ^ Braund, D. "Places: 825398 (Tanais (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  17. ^ djouiye at Patois Vallée d'Aoste.
  18. ^ Jean-Baptiste Cerlogne, Dictionnaire du patois valdôtain, Aosta, Imprimerie Catholique, 1907.
  19. ^ Sivan, H., R. Mathisen. "Places: 138334 (Duranius (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Woolf, G. "Places: 177508 (Dubis (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  21. ^ Haley, E. "Places: 236455 (Durius (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  22. ^ Pliny the Elder (78 AD) Naturalis Historia 3.147.1
  23. ^ Šašel Kos, M., P. Kos. "Places: 197253 (Dravus (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ Wilkes, J. "Places: 481815 (Drilon (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  25. ^ Strabo, ca. 10 AD, Geography 4.1.3
  26. ^ Loseby, S. "Places: 148069 (Druentia (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  27. ^ "Lagan" in Nationalencyklopedin multimedia plus, 2000
  28. ^ Wolf-Armin Frhr. v. Reitzenstein: Lexikon bayerischer Ortsnamen. Herkunft und Bedeutung. C.H.Beck, München 2006, ISBN 3-406-55206-4, page 152
  29. ^ Ernst Förstemann: Altdeutsches Namenbuch, Bd. 2: Ortsnamen. Nordhausen 1859. S. 889.
  30. ^ Walter Steinhauser: Der Name der Leitha und die Hunnenschlacht am Nedao. In: Jahrbuch für Landeskunde von Niederösterreich. NF 36, Bd. 2, Wien 1964
  31. ^ L. Toorians (2005), De etymologie van Dorestat, p. 49, Jaarboek Oud-Utrecht 2005, ISBN 90-71108-24-4
  32. ^ "A List of the Latin Names of Places in Great Britain and Ireland". Archived from the original on 2010-02-05. Retrieved 2017-11-26. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  33. ^ "The River Liffey, its ancient name". Irisharchaeology.ie. 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  34. ^ Albrecht Greule: Vor- und frühgermanische Flussnamen am Oberrhein. Ein Beitrag zur Gewässernamengebung des Elsass, der Nordschweiz und Südbadens. Winter, Heidelberg 1973, pp. 129–132.
  35. ^ "Toponomastica: denominazioni ufficiali in lingua friulana". Arlef.it. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  36. ^ Hellquist, Elof (1922). Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Stockholm: Gleerups förlag. p. 416.
  37. ^ a b Wahlberg, Mats (2003): Svenskt ortnamnslexikon. Uppsala: Språk- och Folkminnesinst.
  38. ^ Dictionnaire Topographique de la Sarthe, p. 137
  39. ^ a b Fabien Régnier, Jean-Pierre Drouin, Les peuples fondateurs à l'origine de la Gaule, édition Yoran Embanner, 2014, page 818,ISBN 978-2914855945
  40. ^ a b Carsten Peust, How Old Are the River Names of Europe? A Glottochronological Approach, Linguistik Online, 2015
  41. ^ Språktidningen 2008/2: Älvar på samiska]
  42. ^ Explanation at Legia Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine, an Iron Age study group named after the river
  43. ^ a b Baltic languages add declensions to and change the spelling of foreign proper nouns to suit grammatical and phonetic requirements and therefore nearly always appear to name rivers differently.
  44. ^ Pomponius Mela, 3,30: De Chorographia 3,30 amnium in alias gentes exeuntium Danuvius et Rhodanus, in Rhenum Moenis et Lupia, in oceanum Amissis, Visurgis et Albis clarissimi
  45. ^ a b Georgiev, Vladimir Ivanov Georgiev. Introduction to the History of the Indo-European Languages (1981, p. 351).
  46. ^ Mills, A D (1998). A dictionary of English place-names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. &nbsp, 240. ISBN 0-19-280074-4.
  47. ^ Haselgrove, C., J. Kunow. "Places: 109039 (Helinium (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  48. ^ a b Brian Campbell, Rivers and the Power of Ancient Rome, Appendix 2: Navigable Rivers according to Ancient Authors, pp 405-10, UNC Press Books, 2012
  49. ^ Dragoş Moldovanu, Etimologia Hidronimului Moldova, Editura Academiei 1981-82 (in Romanian)
    Andrei Brezianu, Vlad Spânu, The A to Z of Moldova, Scarecrow Press, 2010, p. 240
  50. ^ Gerros (river) at pleaiades.stoa.org
  51. ^ The only mention appears by Livius, who gave this name to the river formed by the confluence of the Barbana (=Bojana) and Clausula (the arm of the Drin joining Bojana). See, for example, Barbana in William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
  52. ^ Annals of Fulda [1]
  53. ^ Albrecht Greule, Deutsches Gewässernamenbuch, Walter de Gruyter, 2014, page 338
  54. ^ a b Wilkes, J. "Places: 207268 (Margus (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  55. ^ a b Herodotus, The Histories, 4.49
  56. ^ Musalla on the Tabula Peutingeriana
  57. ^ a b Albrecht Greule, Deutsches Gewässernamenbuch, Walter de Gruyter, 2014, page 363
  58. ^ Robert Ferguson, The River-Names of Europe, Williams & Norgate, 1862
  59. ^ Novak, Vilko. 2006. Slovar stare knjižne prekmurščine. Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU, pp. 262, 269.
  60. ^ Wilkes, J. "Places: 207269 (Maris(os) (river))". Pleiades. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  61. ^ Friedrich Umlauft (1886) Geographisches Namenbuch von Österreich-Ungarn: eine Erklärung von Länder-, Völker-, Gau-, Berg-, Fluss- und Ortsnamen. A. Hölder, 1886, p. 53.
  62. ^ In the Treaty of Meerssen (text (p. 3))
  63. ^ Smith, A.H. (1962). The Place-names of the West Riding of Yorkshire. 7. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–141.

External linksEdit