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The following list of rulers of Estonia indicates the rules throughout that nation's history. This list starts with the ancient Counties and Parishes each headed by Seniores and Meliores (Elders) as noted by Henry of Livonia. The highest political institutions in Estonia during ancient times were the Maavald Kingdom (king Lembitu Wytamas 1211-1217, ruler of the Estonian army) (memorial Lembitu) The administrative jurisdiction of the parish and county elders were limited, the counties themselves remained autonomous[1] until the German and Danish conquest in the 13th century. Ending with the states and the rulers of states (starting from the time of the first successful Danish conquest in 1219) who either ruled or laid claims of sovereignty over some parts of the territory of present-day Estonia, as well as the leaders of the independent Republic of Estonia since 1918.

Contents

Ancient countiesEdit

 
Counties of Ancient Estonia

AlempoisEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

HarjuEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

JärvaEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

JogentaganaEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

LäänemaaEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

MõhuEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

NurmekundEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

RevalaEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

SaaremaaEdit

Title: Elder – It is probable that these men, whose names appear on a treaty with the Order of the Brethren of the Sword in 1251, were the chiefs of administrative units on Saaremaa, Muhu, and Sõrve. Their "signatures" were, in all likelihood, phonetically "Latinized" by the authors of the document.

SakalaEdit

Title: Elder (-1223)

UgandiEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

VaigaEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

VirumaaEdit

Title: Elder (-1224)

Rulers of EstoniaEdit

Part of the Kingdom of DenmarkEdit

House of EstridsenEdit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Canute I
(Knud Valdemarsen )
1220–1227 (deposed)
  1205
illegitimate son of Valdemar II of Denmark and Helena Guttormsdotter
Hedwig of Pomerelia
before 1260
two children
1260
aged 55
Occupied by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword:1227-1237
Occupied by the Livonian Order of the Teutonic Order:1237-1238
Canute I
(Knud Valdemarsen )
1238–40 (restored)
  1205
illegitimate son of Valdemar II of Denmark and Helena Guttormsdotter
Hedwig of Pomerelia
before 1260
two children
1260
aged 55
Valdemar I the Victorious
(Valdemar Sejr)
1240–41
  9 May/28 June 1170
second son of Valdemar I and Sophia of Minsk
(1) Dagmar of Bohemia
c. 1205
Lübeck
one son
(2) Berengaria of Portugal
18/24 May 1214
four children
28 March 1241
Vordingborg Castle
aged 70
Eric I Ploughpenny
(Erik Plovpenning)
1241–50
  c. 1216
eldest son of Valdemar I and Berengaria of Portugal
Jutta of Saxony
17 November 1239
six children
9 August 1250
on the Schlei
aged 33–34
Abel
1 November
1250–1252
  c. 1218
second son of Valdemar I and Berengaria of Portugal
Matilda of Holstein
25 April 1237
Schleswig Cathedral
four children
29 June 1252
Eiderstedt
aged 33–34
Christopher I
(Christoffer 1.)
25 December
1252–1259
  c. 1219
third son of Valdemar I and Berengaria of Portugal
Margaret Sambiria
c. 1248
five children
29 May 1259
Ribe
aged 39–40
Eric II Klipping
(Erik Klipping)
1259–66 (abdicated)
  c. 1249
eldest son of Christopher I and Margaret Sambiria
Agnes of Brandenburg
11 November 1273
Schleswig Cathedral
seven children
22 November 1286
Finderup
aged 36–37
Margaret Sambiria
(Margrethe Sambiria)
1266-1282
  c. 1230
daughter of Sambor II of Pomerelia and Matilda of Mecklenburg
Christopher I of Denmark
c.1248
five children
December 1282
Finderup
aged 51–52
Eric II Klipping
(Erik Klipping)
1282–86 (restored)
  c. 1249
eldest son of Christopher I and Margaret Sambiria
Agnes of Brandenburg
11 November 1273
Schleswig Cathedral
seven children
22 November 1286
Finderup
aged 36–37
Eric III Menved
(Erik Menved)
1286–1319
  c. 1274
eldest son of Eric II and Agnes of Brandenburg
Ingeborg of Sweden
June 1296
Kärnan Castle
fourteen children
13 November 1319
Roskilde
aged 44–45
Christopher II
(Christoffer 2.)
25 January
1320–26
(deposed)
  29 September 1276
second son of Eric II and Agnes of Brandenburg
Euphemia of Pomerania
c. 1300
six children
2 August 1332
Nykøbing Castle
aged 55
Eric (IV)
(Erik Christoffersen)
1321-26
(deposed)
  c. 1307
eldest son of Christopher II and Euphemia of Pomerania
Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1330
no issue
early 1332
aged c. 25
Valdemar II
(Valdemar 3.)
1326–1329
(deposed)
  c. 1314
only son of Eric II, Duke of Schleswig and Adelaide of Holstein
Richardis of Schwerin
two sons
c. 1364
aged 49–50
Canute II Porse
(Knud Pedersen Porse)
(House of Porse)

1329–30 (elected)
  c.1282
Son of Peter Knudsen Porse
Ingeborg of Norway
21 June 1327
three children
30 May 1330
Copenhagen
aged 47–48
Ingeborg of Norway
(Ingibjörg Hákonardóttir)
1329–32 (co-ruler)
  1301
daughter of Haakon V of Norway and Euphemia of Rügen
Eric, Duke of Södermanland
1312
Oslo
two children

Canute II Porse
21 June 1327
three children
17 June 1361
aged 59–60
Otto
(Otto Christoffersen)
1332-38
  c. 1310
second son of Christopher II and Euphemia of Pomerania
unmarried after 1341
aged c. 31/32
Valdemar II
(Valdemar 3.)
1338-40
(restored)
  c. 1314
only son of Eric II, Duke of Schleswig and Adelaide of Holstein
Richardis of Schwerin
two sons
c. 1364
aged 49–50
Valdemar III Atterdag
(Valdemar Atterdag)
21 June
1340–46
  c. 1320
third son of Christopher II and Euphemia of Pomerania
Helvig of Schleswig
c. 1340
Sønderborg Castle
six children
24 October 1375
Gurre Castle
aged 54–55

In 1346, Northern Estonia is sold to the Livonian Order. This Order was already ruling Southern Estonia since 1237.

Southern EstoniaEdit

Bishoprics of Livonia (Bishopric of Riga) and Estonia (Bishopric of Leal)Edit

Livonian OrderEdit

Northern and Southern Estonia (reunited)Edit

Livonian OrderEdit


In 1558, during the Livonian War, Dorpat ceased to exist.

In 1573, Ösel-Wiek was annexed by Denmark.

Duchy of EstoniaEdit

Part of the Swedish Empire (1561–1721)Edit

House of VasaEdit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Eric XIV (Erik XIV)
1561– 29 September 1568
  Tre Kronor (castle), 13 December 1533 son of Gustav I and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg Karin Månsdotter Died (Poisoned) while imprisoned in Örbyhus Castle, 26 February 1577. Aged 43, buried at Västerås Cathedral
John III (Johan III)
30 September 1568 – 17 November 1592
  Stegeborg Castle, Östergötland, 20 December 1537 son of Gustav I and Margaret Leijonhufvud Catherine Jagellonica (1562 – 1583),
Gunilla Bielke (1585–1597)
Tre Kronor (castle), 17 November 1592, aged 54, buried at Uppsala Cathedral
Sigmund (Sigismund)
17 November 1592 – 24 July 1599
  Gripsholm Castle, 20 June 1566, son of John III and Catherine Jagellonica of Poland. Anna of Austria (1592–1598),
Constance of Austria (1605–1631)
Warsaw, Poland, 30 April 1632, aged 65, buried at Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland
Charles IX (Karl IX)
22 March 1604 – 30 October 1611
also as regent Duke Charles, 1599–1604
  Tre Kronor (castle), 4 October 1550 son of Gustav I and Margaret Leijonhufvud Maria of Palatinate-Simmern (1579–1589),
Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (1592–1611)
Nyköping Castle, 30 October 1611, aged 61, buried at Strängnäs Cathedral
Gustav II Adolph (Gustav II Adolf)
30 October 1611 – 6 November 1632
  Tre Kronor (castle), 9 December 1594, son of Charles IX and Christina of Holstein-Gottorp. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg 6 November 1632, in the Battle of Lützen, Electorate of Saxony, aged 37, buried in Riddarholmen Church
Christina (Kristina)
6 November 1632 – 6 June 1654
  Stockholm, 8 December[2] 1626, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg Unmarried Rome, 19 April 1689, aged 62, buried at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the House of WittelsbachEdit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav)
6 June 1654 – 13 February 1660
  Nyköping Castle, 8 November 1622, son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catharina of Sweden (daughter of Charles IX) Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp Gothenburg, 13 February 1660, aged 37, buried in Riddarholmen Church
Charles XI (Karl XI)
13 February 1660 – 5 April 1697
  Tre Kronor (castle), 24 November 1655 son of Charles X and Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark Tre Kronor (castle), 5 April 1697, aged 41, buried in Riddarholmen Church
Charles XII (Karl XII)
5 April 1697 – 30 November 1718
  Tre Kronor (castle), 17 June 1682 son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder Unmarried Fredrikshald, Norway, 30 November 1718, aged 36, buried in Riddarholmen Church
Ulrica Eleanor (Ulrika Eleonora)
5 December 1718 – 29 February 1720
  Tre Kronor (castle), 23 January 1688 daughter of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder Frederick I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Stockholm, 24 November 1741, aged 53, buried in Riddarholmen Church

House of HesseEdit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Frederick (Fredrik I av Hessen)
24 March 1720 – 10 September 1721
  Kassel, (in today's Germany), 23 April 1676 son of Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Maria Amalia of Courland Louise Dorothea of Prussia
Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden
Stockholm, 25 March 1751, aged 74, buried in Riddarholmen Church

On 10 September 1721, Sweden ceded Estonia to the Tsardom of Russia, in the Treaty of Nystad.

Governors during Swedish ruleEdit

Part of the Russian Empire (1721–1917)Edit

House of RomanovEdit

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Emperor from Emperor until Death
Peter I the Great     9 June 1672
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children
10 September 1721 8 February 1725 8 February 1725, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Catherine I     15 April 1684
Ringen (Rõngu), Duchy of Livonia, Sweden
Peter I of Russia
1707
9 children
8 February 1725 17 May 1727 17 May 1727, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter II   23 October 1715
St. Petersburg, Tsardom of Russia
unmarried 18 May 1727 30 January 1730 30 January 1730, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Anna   7 February 1693
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland
November 1710
no children
13 February 1730 28 October 1740 28 October 1740, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Ivan VI (disputed)   23 August 1740
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
unmarried 28 October 1740 6 December 1741 16 July 1764 (murdered)
Shlisselburg, Russian Empire
Elizabeth   29 December 1709
Kolomenskoye, Tsardom of Russia
Alexey Razumovsky
1742
no children
6 December 1741 5 January 1762 5 January 1762, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter III   21 February 1728
Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
16 August 1745
one son
9 January 1762 17 July 1762 17 July 1762 (murdered), Ropsha, Russian Empire
Catherine II the Great   2 May 1729
Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia
Peter III of Russia
16 August 1745
one son
9 July 1762 6 November 1796 6 November 1796, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Paul I     1 October 1754
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
29 September 1773
one stillborn son

Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
26 September 1776
ten children
17 November 1796 11 March 1801 11 March 1801 (assassinated), St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander I the Blessed   23 December 1777
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Louise of Baden
28 September 1793
2 daughters
24 March 1801 1 December 1825 1 December 1825, Taganrog, Russian Empire
Constantine I (disputed)   27 April 1779
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
26 February
no children
1 December 1825 26 December 1825 27 June 1831
Vitebsk, Russian Empire
Nicholas I   6 July 1796
Gatchina, Russian Empire
Princess Charlotte of Prussia
13 July 1817
7 children
26 December 1825 2 March 1855 2 March 1855, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander II the Liberator     29 April 1818
Moscow, Russian Empire
Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
16 April 1841
8 children
2 March 1855 13 March 1881 13 March 1881 (assassinated), St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander III the Peace-Maker     10 March 1845
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Dagmar of Denmark
9 November 1866
6 children
13 March 1881 1 November 1894 1 November 1894
Livadiya, Russian Empire
Saint Nicholas II     6 May 1868
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
26 November 1894
5 children
1 November 1894 15 March 1917 17 July 1918 (executed)
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Michael II (disputed)     22 November 1878
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Natalia Brassova
15 October 1911
one son (born before his parents' marriage)
15 March 1917 16 March 1917 12 June 1918 (murdered)
Perm, Russian SFSR

Governors during Russian ruleEdit

  • 1710–1711 Rudolph Felix BauerGeneral-Governor
  • 1711–1719 Prince Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov – General-Governor
  • 1719–1728 Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin – General-Governor
  • 1728–1736 Friedrich Baron von Löwen
  • 1736–1738 Sebastian Ernst von Manstein
  • 1738–1740 Gustaf Otto Douglas
  • 1740–1743 Woldemar von Löwendahl
  • 1743–1753 Peter August Friedrich von Holstein-Beck (1696–1775)
  • 1753–1758 Prince Vladimir Petrovich Dolgorukiy
  • 1758–1775 Peter August Friedrich von Holstein-Beck – General-Governor
  • 1775–1792 Count George Browne – General-Governor
  • 1783–1786 Georg Friedrich von Grotenhielm
  • 1786–1797 Heinrich Johann Baron von Wrangell
  • 1797–1808 Andreas von Langell
  • 1808–1809 Peter Friedrich Georg von Oldenburg (1784–1812)
  • 1809–1811 Vacant
  • 1811–1816 Grand Duke Paul Friedrich August von Oldenburg (1783–1853)
  • 1816–1819 Berend Baron Üxküll
  • 1819–1832 Gotthard Wilhelm Baron Budberg von Bönninghausen
  • 1832–1833 Otto Wilhelm von Essen
  • 1833–1841 Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff
  • 1842–1859 Johann Christoph Engelbrecht von Grünewaldt
  • 1859–1868 Wilhelm Otto Cornelius Alexander Ulrich
  • 1868–1870 Mikhail Nikolaiyevich Galkin-Vraskoy
  • 1870–1875 Prince Mikhail Valentinovich Shakhovskoiy-Glebov-Strezhnev
  • 1875–1885 Viktor Petrovich Polivanov
  • 1885–1894 Prince Sergey Vladimirovich
  • 1894–1902 Yefstafiy Nikolaiyevich Skalon
  • 1902–1905 Aleksey Valerianovich Bellegarde
  • 1905–1906 Nikolay Georgiyevich von Bünting
  • 1906–1907 Pyotr Petrovich Bashilov
  • 1907–1915 Izmail Vladimirovich Korostovetch
  • 1915–1917 Pyotr Vladimirovich Veryovkin

Russian Provisional Government, 1917Edit

Title: Chairman (1917)

Title: Prime Minister (1917)

Part of the German Empire (1917–1918)Edit

House of HohenzollernEdit

Image Name Date of birth Monarch From Monarch Until Date of death
Wilhelm II 27 January 1859 25 October 9/28 November 1918[3]
(abdicated)
4 June 1941

The October Revolution of 1917 eraEdit

(independent de facto)

Title: Chairman of the Soviet Executive Committee of Estonia (Eestimaa Nõukogude Täitevkomitee esimees) (1917–18)

  • Jaan Anvelt (5 November (23 October) 1917 – 4 March 1918)

(independent de jure)

Title: Gouvernement Commissioner (Kubermangukomissar) (1917–18)

  • Jaan Poska (28 November (15 November) 1917 – 24 February 1918)

Soviet Republic of Sailors and Builders of NargenEdit

Title: Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (Rahvakomissaride Nõukogu esimees) (1917–18)

Republic of EstoniaEdit

Prime Minister (Peaminister) of the Estonian Provisional Government
Portrait
Name Birth Reign Death
Konstantin Päts 23 February 1874 24 February 1918 – 9 May 1919 18 January 1956

Title: Prime Minister (Peaminister) (1919–1920)

Title: Head of State (Riigivanem) (1920–34)

  • Ants Piip (20 December 1920 – 25 January 1921)
  • Konstantin Päts (25 January 1921 – 21 November 1922)
  • Juhan (Johann) Kukk (21 November 1922 – 2 August 1923)
  • Konstantin Päts (2 August 1923 – 26 March 1924)
  • Friedrich Karl Akel (26 March 1924 – 16 December 1924)
  • Jüri Jaakson (16 December 1924 – 15 December 1925)
  • Jaan Teemant (15 December 1925 – 9 December 1927)
  • Jaan Tõnisson (9 December 1927 – 4 December 1928)
  • August Rei (4 December 1928 – 9 July 1929)
  • Otto August Strandman (9 July 1929 – 12 February 1931)
  • Konstantin Päts (12 February 1931 – 19 February 1932)
  • Jaan Teemant (19 February 1932 – 19 July 1932)
  • Kaarel Eenpalu (19 July 1932 – 1 November 1932)
  • Konstantin Päts (1 November 1932 – 18 May 1933)
  • Jaan Tõnisson (18 May 1933 – 21 October 1933)
  • Konstantin Päts (21 October 1933 – 24 January 1934)

Title: Prime Minister acting Head of State (Peaminister Riigivanema ülesannetes) (1934–37)

  • Konstantin Päts (24 January 1934 – 3 September 1937)

Title: President-Regent (Riigihoidja) (1937–1938)

  • Konstantin Päts (3 September 1937 – 24 April 1938)

Title: President of the Republic (1938–40)

  • Konstantin Päts (24 April 1938 – 21 June 1940)
  • Johannes Vares (21 June – 21 July 1940 (Prime Minister acting as the President of Repuvblic, Soviet-installed collaborant)

Title: Prime Minister acting President (Peaminister Vabariigi Presidendi ülesandeis) (1940–92)

Title: Acting Prime Minister (Peaministri asetäitja) (since 1944)

Title: Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia (in the body of Soviet Union) (1990–91)

Title: Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi Ülemnõukogu esimees) (1991–92)

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Reign
Lennart Meri   6 October 1992 – 8 October 2001
Arnold Rüütel   8 October 2001 – 9 October 2006
Toomas Hendrik Ilves   9 October 2006 – 10 October 2016
Kersti Kaljulaid   10 October 2016

United Baltic DuchyEdit

Title: Regent Councillor (1918)

Commune of the Working People of EstoniaEdit

Title: Chairman of the Council of The Commune of the Working People of Estonia (Eesti Töörahva Komuuna Nõukogu esimees) (1918–19)

Estonian SSREdit

Title: Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Estonian SSR (Eesti NSV Ülemnõukogu Presiidiumi esimees) (1940–88)

Title: Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Estonian SSR (independent) (1988–90)

Soviet UnionEdit

Title: Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (NLKP Keskkomitee peasekretär) (1940–91)

Reichskommissariat OstlandEdit

Title: Führer und Reichskanzler (1941–44)

Title: Generalkomissar für Estland (1941–44)

Title: Eesti Omavalitsuse juht (1941–45)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Raun, Toivo (2001). Estonia and the Estonians. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. p. 12. ISBN 0-8179-2852-9.
  2. ^ Note that the birth date is 8 December in the Julian calendar, which was in effect in Sweden at the time, corresponding to 18 December in the Gregorian calendar.
  3. ^ His abdication was announced by the Chancellor on 9 November, and the Emperor went into exile in the Netherlands. He did not formally abdicate until 28 November.