List of English words of Yiddish origin
This is a list of words that have entered the English language from the Yiddish language, many of them by way of American English. There are differing approaches to the romanisation of Yiddish orthography (which uses the Hebrew alphabet) and the spelling of some of these words may therefore be variable (for example, schlep is also seen as shlep, schnoz as shnozz).
Many of these words are more common in the American entertainment industry (initially via vaudeville), the Catskills/Borscht Belt, and New York City English. A number of Yiddish words also entered English via large Jewish communities in Britain, particularly London, where Yiddish has influenced Cockney English.
Yiddish is a Germanic language, originally spoken by the Jews of Central and later Eastern Europe, written in the Hebrew alphabet, and containing a substantial substratum of words from Hebrew as well as numerous loans from Slavic languages. For that reason, some of the words listed below are in fact of Hebrew or Slavic origin, but have entered English via their Yiddish forms.
Since Yiddish is very closely related to modern German, many native Yiddish words have close German cognates; in a few cases it is difficult to tell whether English borrowed a particular word from Yiddish or from German. Since Yiddish was originally written using the Hebrew alphabet, some words have several spellings in the Latin alphabet. The transliterated spellings of Yiddish words and conventional German spellings are different, but the pronunciations are frequently the same (e.g., שוואַרץ, shvarts in Yiddish is pronounced the same way as schwarz in German).
Many of these words have slightly different meanings and usages in English from their Yiddish originals. For example, chutzpah is usually used in Yiddish with a negative connotation, meaning improper audacity, while in English it has a more positive meaning. In Yiddish, שלעפּ, shlep is usually used as a transitive verb for carrying (or dragging) something else, while the English term, "schlep", is also used as an intransitive verb, for dragging oneself. In Yiddish, גליטש, glitsh means "slip", while the English form, "glitch", means malfunction.
List of wordsEdit
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These English words of Yiddish origin, except as noted, are in the online editions of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD), or the Merriam-Webster dictionary (MW). The parentheses-enclosed information at the end of each word's entry starts with the original Yiddish term in Hebrew script, the Latin script transliteration, and the literal English translation (if different than the English definition given earlier). This may be followed by additional relevant languages (mostly Hebrew and German). One or more dictionary references appear at the end.
- Bagel: A ring-shaped bread roll made by boiling or steaming, and then baking, the dough (from Yiddish: בײגל, romanized: beygl; OED, MW).
- Blintz: A sweet cheese-filled crepe (בלינצע, blintse, from Belarusian: блінцы, romanized: blincy, lit. 'pancakes' (plural); AHD).
- Bris: The circumcision of a male child. (ברית, bris, from Hebrew: ברית, romanized: brith, lit. 'covenant'; OED, MW)
- Boychik: Boy, young man. (English boy + Eastern Yiddish: טשיק, -chik, diminutive suffix (from Slavic); AHD)
- Bupkis (also Bupkes, Bupkus, Bubkis, Bubkes): Emphatically nothing, as in 'He isn't worth bupkis' (באָבקעס, bobkes; of uncertain origin (OED); perhaps originally meaning '[goat] droppings', from a word meaning 'beans', of Slavic origin) (MW, OED)
- Daven: To recite Jewish liturgical prayers (דאַוונען, davnen; AHD)
- Dreck: Worthless, distasteful, or nonsensical material (דרעק, drek, from Middle High German: drec, lit. 'rubbish'; cognate with German: Dreck, 'dirt, filth'; AHD)
- Dybbuk: The malevolent spirit of a dead person that enters and controls a living body until exorcised (דבּוק, dibbuk, 'a latching-onto'; AHD)
- Fleishig: Made with meat (פֿליישיק, fleyshik, 'meaty', from fleysh, 'meat'; cf. German: fleischig, 'meaty'; MW)
- Ganef or Gonif: A thief, scoundrel, rascal (גנבֿ, ganev/ganef, 'thief', from Hebrew: גנב, gannav; AHD)
- Gelt //: Money in general; also the chocolate coins given to children on Hanukkah (געלט, gelt, 'money'; cognate with German: Geld, 'money'; related to 'gold'; AHD)
- Glitch: A minor malfunction (גליטש, glitsh, from גליטשן, glitshn, 'slide'; cf. German: glitschen, 'slither'; AHD)
- Golem: A man-made humanoid; an android, Frankenstein monster (גלם, goylem, from Hebrew: גלם, gōlem; OED, MW)
- Goy: A gentile, term for someone not of the Jewish faith or people (גוי; plural גויים or גוים, goyim; from Hebrew: גויים or גוים, goyim, 'nations', plural of גוי, goy, 'nation'; AHD)
- Haimish (also Heimish) //: Home-like, friendly, folksy (היימיש, heymish; cf. German: heimisch; AHD).
- Kibitz //: To offer unwanted advice, e.g. to someone playing cards; to converse idly, hence a kibitzer, gossip (קיבעצן, kibetsn; cf. German: kiebitzen, may be related to German: Kiebitz, 'lapwing'; OED, MW)
- Klutz: A clumsy person (קלאָץ, klots, 'wooden beam'; cf. German: Klotz, 'block'; OED, MW)
- Knish //: A doughy snack stuffed with potato, meat, or cheese (קניש, from Polish: knysz; MW, AHD)
- Kosher: Correct according to Jewish law, normally used in reference to Jewish dietary laws; (slang) appropriate, legitimate (originally from כּשר, kašer/kasher; AHD)
- Kvell: To express great pleasure combined with pride (קװעלן, kveln, from an old Germanic word; cognate with German: quellen, 'swell'; OED, MW)
- Kvetch //: to complain habitually, gripe; as a noun, a person who always complains (קװעטשן, kvetshn, 'press/squeeze'; cognate with German: quetschen, 'squeeze'; OED, MW) There is also a connection[vague] to the Hebrew and Aramaic radix "k.w.z",[clarification needed] meaning "squeeze".
- Latke //: Potato pancake, especially during Hanukkah (לאַטקע, from Russian: латка, romanized: latka, lit. 'pastry/patch' or Ukrainian: оладка, romanized: oladka, lit. 'pancake/fritter'; AHD)
- Litvak: A Lithuanian Jew (ליטוואַק, litvak; OED)
- Lox: Cured salmon, sometimes referred to as Nova, often used loosely to refer to smoked salmon (לאַקס, laks, 'salmon'; cf. German: Lachs; OED, MW)
- Mamzer: Bastard (from Yiddish/Hebrew: ממזר, mamzer; OED)
- Maven: Expert, aficionado (מבֿין, meyvn, from Hebrew: מבין, mevin, 'understand'; OED, MW)
- Mazel tov, also Mazal tov: Congratulations! (מזל־טובֿ, mazl-tov, from מזל טוב, mazzāl ṭōv: מזל, mazzāl, 'fortune' or 'sign of the Zodiac (constellation)' + טוב, ṭōv, 'good'; OED, MW:Hebrew)
- Megillah: A tediously detailed discourse (מגלה, megile, 'lengthy document, scroll [esp. the Book of Esther]', from מגלה, məgillā, 'scroll'; OED, MW). Usually used in American English as "the whole Megillah" meaning an overly extended explanation or story.
- Mensch: An upright person; a decent human being (מענטש, mentsh, 'person'; cognate with German: Mensch, 'human'; OED, MW)
- Meshuga, also Meshugge, Meshugah, Meshuggah //: Crazy (משגע, meshuge, from Hebrew: משוגע, m'shuga‘; OED, MW). Also used as the nouns meshuggener and meshuggeneh for a crazy man and woman, respectively.
- Meshugaas, also Mishegaas or Mishegoss //: Crazy or senseless activity or behavior; craziness (משוגעת, meshugaas, from Hebrew: משוגעת, məšugga‘ath, a form of the above; OED, AHD)
- Milchig: made with milk (מילכיק, milkhik, 'milky', from מילך, milkh, 'milk'; cf. German: milchig; MW)
- Minyan: The quorum of ten adult (i.e., 13 or older) Jews that is necessary for the holding of a public worship service; in Orthodox Judaism ten adult males are required, while in Conservative and Reform Judaism ten adults of either sex are required. (מנין, minyen, from Hebrew: מנין, minyān; OED, MW:Hebrew)
- Mishpocha //: relative or extended family member (משפּחה, mishpokhe, from Hebrew: משפּחה, mišpāḥā; OED)
- Naches //: The feeling of pride and/or gratification in 1: the achievements of another(s); 2. one's own doing good by helping someone or some organization (נחת, nakhes, from Hebrew: נחת, naḥath, 'contentment'; OED)
- Narrischkeit //: Foolishness, nonsense (נאַרישקייט, narishkeyt, from נאַריש, narish, 'foolish' + ־קייט, -keyt, 'ness'; cf. German: närrisch, 'foolish'; OED)
- Nebbish, also Nebbich: An insignificant, pitiful person; a nonentity (from interjection נעבעך, nebekh, 'poor thing!', from Czech: nebohý; OED, MW)
- Noodge, also Nudzh: To pester, nag, whine; as a noun, a pest or whiner (נודיען, nudyen, from Polish or Russian; OED)
- Nosh: Snack (noun or verb) (נאַשן, nashn; cf. German: naschen; OED, MW)
- Nu: A multipurpose interjection analogous to "well?", "so?", or "so what?" (נו, nu, perhaps akin to Russian: ну, nu, Polish: nu; OED)
- Nudnik: A pest, "pain in the neck"; a bore (נודניק, nudnik, from the above נודיען, nudyen; cf. Polish: nudny, 'boring'; OED, MW)
- Oy or Oy vey: An interjection of grief, pain, or horror (אוי וויי, oy vey, 'oh, pain!' or 'oh, woe!'; cf. German: oh weh, 'oh, woe!'; OED)
- Pareve //: Containing neither meat nor dairy products (פּאַרעווע, pareve; OED, MW)
- Pisher: a nobody, an inexperienced person (פּישער, pisher, from פּישן, pishn, 'piss'; cf. German: pissen or dialectal German: pischen; OED)
- Potch: Spank, slap, smack (פּאַטשן, patshn; cf. German: patschen, 'slap'; OED)
- Plotz: To burst from strong emotion; often used humorously to express minor shock or disappointment (פּלאַצן, platsn, 'crack'; cf. German: platzen; OED)
- Putz: (vulgar) A penis, term used as an insult (פּאָץ, pots; AHD)
- Schav: A chilled soup made of sorrel. (שטשאַוו, shtshav, from Polish: szczaw; AHD)
- Schlemiel //: An inept clumsy person; a bungler; a dolt (שלעמיל, shlemil or שלימיל, shlimil, from Hebrew: שלא מועיל, 'ineffective'; OED, MW) The word is widely recognized from its inclusion in the Yiddish-American hopscotch chant from the opening sequence of the American sitcom Laverne & Shirley.
- Schlep: To drag or haul (an object); to walk, esp. to make a tedious journey (שלעפּן, shlepn; cf. German: schleppen; OED, MW)
- Schlimazel also Schlemazl: A chronically unlucky person (שלימזל, shlimazl, from [Middle Dutch: slimp, 'crooked/bad' or Middle High German: slimp, 'awry' or schlimm, 'poor/lacking'] + Hebrew:מזל, mazzāl, 'luck'; cf. German: Schlamassel; M-W;OED). The difference between a schlemiel and a schlimazel is described through the aphorism, "The schlemiel spills his soup on the schlimazel." In June 2004, Yiddish schlimazel was one of the ten non-English words that were voted hardest to translate by a British translation company.[clarification needed] The word is widely recognized from its inclusion in the Yiddish-American hopscotch chant from the opening sequence of the American sitcom Laverne & Shirley.
- Schlock: something cheap, shoddy, or inferior (perhaps from שלאַק, shlak, 'a stroke'; cf. German: Schlag; OED, MW)
- Schlong: (vulgar) A penis (שלאַנג, shlang, 'snake'; cf. German: Schlange; OED)
- Schlub: A clumsy, stupid, or unattractive person (זשלאָב, zhlob, 'hick', perhaps from Polish: żłób; OED, MW)
- Schmaltz: Melted chicken fat; excessive sentimentality (שמאַלץ, shmalts or German: Schmalz; OED, MW)
- Schmatte: A rag (שמאַטע, shmate, from Polish: szmata; OED)
- Schmeer also schmear: (noun or verb) Spread (e.g., cream cheese on a bagel); bribe (שמיר, shmir, 'smear'; cf. German: schmieren; OED, MW)
- Schmo: A stupid person (an alteration of schmuck; OED)
- Schmooze: To converse informally, make small talk or chat (שמועסן, shmuesn, 'converse', from Hebrew: שמועות, shəmūʿōth, 'reports/gossip'; OED, MW)
- Schmuck: (vulgar) A contemptible or foolish person; a jerk; (שמאָק, shmok, 'penis'; MW)
- Schmutter: Pieces of clothing; rubbish (שמאַטע, shmate, 'rag'; cf. schmatte; OED)
- Schmutz //: Dirt (שמוץ, shmuts or German: Schmutz; OED)
- Schnook: An easily imposed-upon or cheated person, a pitifully meek person, a particularly gullible person, a cute or mischievous person or child (perhaps from שנוק, shnuk, 'snout'; cf. Northern German: Schnucke, 'sheep'; OED)
- Schnorrer: beggar, esp. "one who wheedles others into supplying his wants" (שנאָרער, shnorer; cf. German: Schnorrer; OED, MW)
- Schnoz or Schnozz also Schnozzle: A nose, especially a large nose (perhaps from שנויץ, shnoyts, 'snout'; cf. German: Schnauze; OED, MW)
- Schvartze: (can be derogatory) A Black person (from שוואַרץ, shvarts, 'black'; cf. German: schwarz; OED)
- Shabbos, Shabbas, Shabbes: Shabbat (שבת, Shabes, from Hebrew: שבת, Shabat; AHD)
- Shammes or Shamash //: The caretaker of a synagogue; also, the ninth candle of the Hanukkah menorah, used to light the others (שמשׂ, shames, from Hebrew: שמש, šammāš, 'attendant'; OED, MW)
- Shamus: a detective (possibly שאַמעס, shammes or the Irish name Seamus; OED, Macquarie)
- Shegetz: (derogatory) a young non-Jewish man (שגץ or שײגעץ, sheygets, from Hebrew: שקץ, shekets, 'abomination'; AHD)
- Shemozzle: (slang) Quarrel, brawl (perhaps related to schlimazel, q.v.; OED). This word is commonly used in Ireland to describe confused situations during the Irish sport of hurling, e.g. 'There was a shemozzle near the goalmouth'. In particular, it was a favourite phrase of television commentator Miceal O'Hehir who commentated on hurling from the 1940s to the 1980s.
- Shikker, Shicker, Shickered: Drunk (adjective or noun) (שכּור, shiker, from Hebrew: שיכור, shikor; OED)
- Shiksa or Shikse //: (often derogatory) A young non-Jewish woman (שיקסע, shikse, a derivative of sheygets, from Polish: siksa; AHD)
- Shmendrik or Shmendrick: A foolish or contemptible person (from a character in an operetta by Abraham Goldfaden; OED)
- Shtetl: A small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Eastern Europe (שטעטל, shtetl, 'town', diminutive of שטאָט, shtot, 'city'; cf. German: Städtl, South German / Austrian colloquial diminutive of Stadt, 'city'; AHD)
- Shtibl: A small synagogue or place of prayer (שטיבל, shtibl, 'little room'; cf. German: Stüberl; OED)
- Shtick: Comic theme; a defining habit or distinguishing feature or business (שטיק, shtik, 'piece'; cf. German: Stück, 'piece'; AHD)
- Shtup: (vulgar slang) To have sexual intercourse (שטופּ, shtoop, 'push/poke/intercourse'; cf. German: stupsen, 'poke'; OED)
- Shul: a synagogue (שול, shul, 'school', from Middle High German: schuol, 'school'; cf. German: Schule, 'school'; MW)
- Shvitz: to sweat (v.), a sauna or steam bath (n.) (שוויצן, shvitsn; cf. German: schwitzen; OED)
- Spiel or Shpiel: A sales pitch or speech intended to persuade (שפּיל, shpil, 'play' or German: Spiel, 'play'; AHD)
- Tchotchke: A knickknack, trinket, curio (צאַצקע, tsatske, טשאַטשקע, tshatshke, from Polish: cacko; OED, MW)
- Tref or Trayf or Traif //: Not kosher (טרייף, treyf, from Hebrew: טרפֿה, ṭərēfā, 'carrion'; AHD)
- Tsuris //: Troubles, grief (צרות, tsores/tsoris, from Hebrew: צרות, tsarot, 'troubles'; AHD)
- Tuchus (also Tuches, Tuchis, or Tukhus) //: The buttocks, bottom, rear end (תחת, tokhes, from Hebrew: תחת, taḥath, 'underneath'; OED)
- Tummler: An entertainer or master of ceremonies, especially one who encourages audience interaction (טומלער, tumler, from טומלען, tumlen, 'make a racket'; cf. German: (sich) tummeln, 'go among people' or 'cavort'; OED, MW)
- Tush (also Tushy): The buttocks, bottom, rear end (תּחת, tokes; cf. tuchus; OED, MW)
- Tzimmes: A sweet stew of vegetables and fruit; a fuss, a confused affair, a to-do (צימעס, tsimes; OED, MW)
- Vigorish (also contraction Vig): That portion of the gambling winnings held by the bookmaker as payment for services (וויגריש, vigrish, from Russian: выигрыш, vyigrysh, 'winnings'; OED)
- Verklempt: Choked with emotion (פֿאַרקלעמט, farklemt, 'depressed/grieving', originally 'pressed, gripped'; cf. German: verklemmt meaning 'uptight' MW)
- Yarmulke: A round cloth skullcap worn by observant Jews (יאַרמלקע, yarmlke, from Polish: jarmułka and Ukrainian: ярмулка, yarmulka, 'skullcap', from Turkish: yağmurluk, lit. 'raincoat/oilskin'; see yarmulke; OED, MW)
- Yekke: (mildly derogatory) A German Jew; Its most common usage derives from the British Mandate period to describe Fifth Aliyah German Jews, who were perceived to be more formal in dress and manners. (יעקע, yeke, 'jacket'; cf. German: Jacke; OED)
- Yenta: A talkative woman; a gossip; a scold (יענטע, yente, from a given name; OED, MW)
- Yiddish: The Yiddish language (ייִדיש, Yidish, 'Jewish'; cf. German: jüdisch; AHD)
- Yontef also Yom Tov: A Jewish holiday on which work is forbidden, e.g. Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Pesach (יום- טובֿ, yontef, 'holiday', from Hebrew: יום טוב, yōm ṭōv, 'good day'; OED)
- Yutz: A fool (יאָנץ, yonts, perhaps derived from putz; NPD, AHD)
- "Bartleby.com: Great Books Online – Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more". www.bartleby.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007.
- Horwitz, Bert (19 August 2005). "A Hill of Bupkis". The Jewish Daily Forward. New York. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- See also Wex, Michael. Born to Kvetch. St. Martin's Press, New York, 2005.
- Even-Shoshan, Avraham. HaMilon HeHadash (The New Dictionary) (in Hebrew). Kiriat-sefer. ISBN 978-9651701559.
- "World Wide Words: The whole megillah". World Wide Words.
- Conway, Oliver (22 June 2004). "Congo word 'most untranslatable'". BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- Carr, David, "Abramson’s Exit at The Times Puts Tensions on Display", The New York Times, May 18, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- Mottel Baleston, "Common Yiddish Words", The Messianic Association website
- Jeffrey Goldberg, "Words That The New York Times Will Not Print", The Atlantic, 2010-06-09. "'Joe Lieberman is too polite to complain, but the Gore questions are getting to be a pain in the tuchis.' ... Though Leibovich's copy editors allowed tuchus to be spelled incorrectly, the Washington Post is obviously more tolerant of Jewish flamboyance ..."