List of English words of Sanskrit origin

This is a list of English words of Sanskrit origin. Most of these words were not directly borrowed from Sanskrit. The meaning of some words have changed slightly after being borrowed.

Both languages belong to the Indo-European language family and have numerous cognate terms.

AEdit

Ambarella
through Sinhala: ඇඹරැල්ලා æmbarællā ultimately from Sanskrit: अम्बरेल्ला, a kind of tree.[1]
Aniline
through German: Anilin, French: Aniline and Portuguese: Anil from Arabic النيل al-nili and Persian نیلا nila, ultimately from Sanskrit नीली nili.[2]
Aryan
from Latin Ariana, from Greek Ἀρεία Areia, ultimately from Sanskrit आर्य Arya-s "noble, honorable".[3]
Atoll
through Maldivean:އަތޮޅު probably ultimately from Sanskrit अन्तला antala.[4]
Aubergine
from French aubergine, in Catalan albergínia, via Arabic (باذِنْجان al-badinjan) and Persian (بادنجان badin-gan) ultimately from Sanskrit वातिगगम vātigagama,[5] meaning eggplant or aubergine.
Avatar
from Sanskrit अवतार avatāra, which means "descent", an avatar refers to the human incarnation of God during times of distress on earth. Thus, Krishna and Rāma were both avatars of Vishnu, who also manifested himself as an avatar many other times, ten of which are considered the most significant.[6]

BEdit

Bandana
from Sanskrit बन्धन bandhana, "a bond".
Banyan
from Hindi baniyaa ultimately from Sanskrit वणिज्‌ vaṇij, which means "a merchant".[7]
Basmati
through Hindi बासमती ultimately from Sanskrit वास vāsa.[8]
Bahuvrihi
from Sanskrit बहुव्रीहि bahuvrīhih, a composite word, meaning 'much rice'.[9]
Bidi
through Hindi बीड़ी ultimately from Sanskrit वितिक vitika.[10]
Bhakti
from Sanskrit भक्ति "bhakti", portion or more importantly, devotion.
Brinjal
from Portuguese bringella or beringela, from Persian بادنجان badingān, probably from Sanskrit vātiṅgaṇa.[11]
Buddha
from Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha, which means "awakened, enlightened", refers to Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism. Also refers to one who is enlightened in accordance with the teachings of Buddha or a likeness of Buddha.[12]

CEdit

Candy
Middle English candi, crystallized cane sugar, short for sugre-candi, partial translation of Old French sucre candi, ultimately from Arabic sukkar qandī : sukkar, sugar + qandī, consisting of sugar lumps (from qand, lump of crystallized sugar, from an Indic source akin to Pali kaṇḍa-, from Sanskrit khaṇḍakaḥ, from khaṇḍaḥ, piece, fragment, perhaps of Munda origin).[13]
Cashmere
1680s, "shawl made of cashmere wool", from the old spelling of Kashmir, Himalayan kingdom where wool was obtained from long-haired goats.[14]
Cheetah
which is from Sanskrit चित्रस chitra-s "uniquely marked".[15]
Chintz
from Hindi chint, from Sanskrit chitra-s "clear, bright".[16]
Chukar
via Hindi चकोर cakor and Urdu چکور chukar ultimately from Sanskrit चकोर cakorah.[17]
Chukker
from Hindi चक्कर and Urdu چکرchakkar, from Sanskrit चक्र cakra, "a circle, a wheel".[18]
Citipati
from Sanskrit चिति पति citi-pati, which means "a funeral pyre lord".[19]
Cot
from Hindi खाट khaat "a couch", which is from Sanskrit खट्वा khatva.[20]
Copra
from Portuguese copra (16c.), from koppara (cognate with Hindi khopra) "coconut"; related to Hindi khopri "skull", from Sanskrit kharparah "skull".[21]
Cowrie
from Hindi कौड़ी kauri and Urdu کمتدب kauri, from Marathi कवडइ kavadi, which is ultimately from Sanskrit कपर्द kaparda.[22]
Crimson
from Old Spanish cremesin, via Medieval Latin cremesinus from Persian قرمز qirmiz "a kermes", which is ultimately from Sanskrit कृमिज krmi-ja literally: "red dye produced by a worm".[23]
Crocus
from Greek κρόκος crocus, via Semitic languages (e.g. Hebrew כרכום karkōm, Aramaic ܟܘܪܟܡܐ kurkama, Persian كركم kurkum, which mean saffron or saffron yellow[24]); ultimately from Sanskrit कुङ्कुमं kunkumam.[25]

DEdit

Dal
through Hindi दाल dāl ultimately from Sanskrit दलह dalah, meaning cotyledon of a pea pod, a type of Indian food; also refers to lentils.[26]
Das
from Sanskrit दास daasa, a slave or servant.[27] See also Dasa.
Datura
through Latin and Hindi: धतूरा dhatūra "jimson weed" ultimately from Sanskrit धत्तुरह dhattūrāh, a kind of flowering plant.[28]
Deodar
through Hindi देओदार deodār ultimately from Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, a kind of tree.[29]
Deva
from Sanskrit देव deva, which means "a god", akin to Latin deus, "god".[30]
Devi
from Sanskrit देवी devi, which means "a goddess".[31]
Dharma
from Sanskrit: धर्म dharma; akin to Latin: firmus, meaning "conformity to one's duty and nature" and "divine law".[32]
Dhoti
via Hindi dhotī (Hindi: धोती) ultimately from Sanskrit dhautī (Sanskrit: धौती) which means 'to wash', a traditional male garment used in India. Material tied around the waist that covers most of the legs.[33]
Dinghy
from Hindi दिन्गी dingi "a tiny boat", probably from Sanskrit द्रोणम drona-m.[34]
Dvandva
is a Sanskrit technical term literally meaning "a pair".[35]

GEdit

Ganja
via Hindi गांजा (gaanja or "hemp"), ultimately from Sanskrit गञ्जा (gañjā or "hemp").[36]
Gharry
via Hindi word gādī (Hindi: गाड़ी) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit word garta (Sanskrit: गर्त) which means 'chariot'.[37]
Ginger
from Old English gingifer, gingiber, from Late Latin gingiber, from Latin zingiberi, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit (Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" + vera- "body", although, it may have derived instead from Tamil word "Inchi" (இஞ்சி).[38]
Gondwana
from two Sanskrit words, goṇḍa (Devanagari: गोण्ड) which means 'Gondi people or mountaineers' and vana (Devanagari: वन) which means 'forest'.
Guar
through Hindi गार ultimately from Sanskrit गॊपलि gopālī, an annual legume.[39]
Gunny
via Persian گونی "Gooni" a burlap sack and Hindi गोनी, ultimately from Sanskrit गोणी goni "sack".[40]
Gurkha
via Nepalese गोर्खा ultimately from Sanskrit गोरक्ष goraksa, "a cowherd".[41]
Guru
via Hindi गुरु ultimately from Sanskrit गुरु guru-s, which means "a teacher".[42]

JEdit

Jackal
from Turkish çakal, from Persian شغال shaghal, from Middle Indic shagal, ultimately from Sanskrit शृगालः srgalah "the howler".[43]
Jaggery
via Portuguese jágara, jagre and Malayalam ഛക്കര chakkara, ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा śarkarā.[44]
Java
originally a kind of coffee grown on Java and nearby islands of modern Indonesia. By early 20c. it meant coffee generally. The island name is shortened from Sanskrit Yavadvipa "Island of Barley", from yava "barley" + dvipa "island".[45]
Juggernaut
through Odia ଜଗନ୍ନାଥ Jagannatha ultimately from Sanskrit जगन्नाथ jagat-natha-s, which means "lord of the world".[46]
Jungle
through Hindi जंगल jangal "a desert, forest"; also Persian جنگل jangal meaning forest; ultimately from Sanskrit जङ्गल jangala, which means "arid".[47]
Jute
via Bengali পাট Pata ultimately from Sanskrit जुतास juta-s, which means "twisted hair".[48]

KEdit

Karma
from Sanskrit कर्म karman, which means "action".[49]
Kedgeree
probably ultimately from Sanskrit कृशर krśara.[50]
Kermes
via French: Kermès, and Persian قرمز qermez; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit: कृमिज kṛmija meaning "worm-made".[51]
Krait
through Hindi करैत karait probably ultimately from Sanskrit: काराइट, a kind of snake.[52]

LEdit

Lac
through Urdu لاکھ, Persian لاک and Hindi लाख lakh from Prakrit लक्ख lakkha, ultimately from Sanskrit लाक्षा lākṣā, meaning lac.[53]
Lacquer
through French: Laque and Portuguese: Laca from Arabic لك lakk,लाख in Hindi, via Prakrit ultimately from Sanskrit लाक्षा lākṣā.[54]
Langur
through Hindi लुट lut probably ultimately from Sanskrit लंगुलम langūlam.[55]
Lilac
via Arabic للك lilak from Persian نیلک nilak meaning "bluish", ultimately from Sanskrit नील nila, which means "dark blue".[56]
Loot
ultimately from Sanskrit लुण्टा lota-m or लून्त्ति luṇṭhati meaning "he steals" through Hindi लूट lūṭ, which means "a booty, stolen thing".[57]

MEdit

Maharajah
through Hindi महाराजा ultimately from Sanskrit महा राजन् maha-rājān, which means "a great king".[58]
Maharani
through Hindi महारानी finally from Sanskrit महा रानी mahārājnī, which means "consort of a maharajah".[59]
Maharishi
from Sanskrit महर्षि maha-rishi, which means "a great sage".[60]
Mahatma
from Sanskrit महात्मा mahatman, which means "a great breath, soul".[61]
Mahayana
from Sanskrit महायान maha-yana, which means "a great vehicle".[62]
Mahout
via Hindi माहुत (variant of महावत) ultimately from Sanskrit महामात्रह् mahāmātrah.[63]
Mandala
from Sanskrit मण्डल mandala, which means "a disc, circle".[64]
Mandarin
via Portuguese mandarim, Dutch mandarijn, Malay mantri or menteri, and Hindi मंत्री mantri "a councillor" ultimately from Sanskrit मन्त्रिन् mantri, which means "an advisor".[65]
Mantra
from Sanskrit मन्त्र mantra-s which means "a holy message or text".[66]
Maya
from Sanskrit माया māyā, a religious term related with illusion.[67]
Moksha
from Sanskrit मोक्ष moksha, liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth.[68]
Mugger
via Hindi मगर and Urdu مگر magar ultimately from Sanskrit मकर makara ("sea creature"), like a crocodile, which attacks stealthily.[69]
Mung bean
through Hindi मुग mū̃g and Pali/Prakrit मुग्ग mugga ultimately from Sanskrit मुग्दह् mudgah, a kind of bean.[70]
Musk
via Middle English muske, Middle French Musc, Late Latin Muscus and Late Greek μόσχος moskhos from Persian موشک mushk, ultimately from Sanskrit मुस्कस् muska-s meaning "a testicle", from a diminutive of मुस mus ("mouse").[71][72][73]
Mynah
through Hindi मैना maina ultimately from Sanskrit मदन madana-s, which means "love".[74]

NEdit

Nainsook
through Hindi नैनसुख nainsukh ultimately from Sanskrit नयनम्सुख् nayanam-sukh, meaning "pleasing to the eyes".[75]
Nard
through Old French narde and Latin nardus from Greek νάρδος nardos, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit नलदम् naladam.[76]
Narghile
through French Narguilé and Persian نارگيله nārghīleh ultimately from Sanskrit नारिकेलः nārikelah.[77]
Nark
probably from Romany nak "a nose", via Hindi नक् nak ultimately from Sanskrit नक्र‌ nakra.[78]
Neem
through Hindi निम् nīm ultimately from Sanskrit निम्बः nimbah, a kind of tree.[79]
Nilgai
through Hindi नीलगाय nīlgāy lit., blue cow ultimately from Sanskrit नीलगौः nīla-gauh, an ox-like animal.[80]
Nirvana
from Sanskrit निर्वाण nirvāṇa which means "extinction, disappearance".[81]

OEdit

Opal
through French opalle from Latin opalus from Greek ὀπάλλιος opallios, probably ultimately from Sanskrit औपल upalah.[82]
Orange
through Old French orenge, Medieval Latin orenge and Italian arancia from Arabic نارنج naranj, via Persian نارنگ narang and Sanskrit नारङ्ग naranga-s meaning "an orange tree", derived from proto-Dravidian.[83]

PEdit

Pal
1788, from Romany (English Gypsy) pal "brother, comrade", variant of continental Romany pral, plal, phral, probably from Sanskrit bhrata "brother" [84]
Palanquin
via Odia word pālankī (Odia:ପାଲଙ୍କି) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit word palyanka (Sanskrit: पल्यङ्क) which means 'bed' or 'couch'.
Panther
via classical Latin panthēr, itself from the ancient Greek word pánthēr (πάνθηρ) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit पाण्डर pāṇḍara which means ("pale").[citation needed]
Parcheesi
1800, from Hindi pachisi, from pachis "twenty-five" (highest throw of the dice), from Sanskrit panca "five" [85]
Pepper
Old English pipor, from an early West Germanic borrowing of Latin piper "pepper", from Greek piperi, probably (via Persian) from Middle Indic pippari, from Sanskrit pippali "long pepper".[86]
Punch
via Sanskrit पञ्च pancha, meaning "five". The original drink was made from five ingredients: alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, and tea or spices.[87] (The other senses of 'punch' are unrelated.)
Pundit
via Sanskrit पण्डित paṇdita, meaning "learned". A person who offers to mass media their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area.[88]

REdit

Raita
ultimately from Sanskrit रजिकतिक्तक rājikātiktakaḥ via Hindi रायता rāytā, a south Asian condiment and side dish made of yogurt and vegetables.[89]
Raj
through Hindi राज and Pali/Prakrit रज्ज rajja ultimately from Sanskrit राज्य rājya, which means "a king" or "kingdom". Raj means kingdom or domain of a ruler.[90]
Rajah
through Hindi राज from Sanskrit राजन् rājān, which means "a king".[91]
Ramtil
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit रामतिलः rāmatilah, which means "a dark sesame".[92]
Rani
through Hindi रानी ultimately from Sanskrit राज्ञी rājnī, consort of a rajah.[93]
Rice
via Old French ris and Italian riso from Latin oriza, which is from Greek ὄρυζα oryza, through an Indo-Iranian tongue finally from Sanskrit व्रीहिस् vrihi-s "rice", ultimately derived from proto-Dravidian arisi.[94]
Rupee
through Hindi रुपया rupiyā ultimately from Sanskrit रूप्यकम् rūpyakam, an Indian silver coin.[95]

SEdit

Saccharide
via Latin Saccharon and Greek σάκχαρον from Pali सक्खर sakkharā, ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sarkarā.[96]
Sambal
through Afrikaans, Indonesian and Tamil சம்பல் campāl ultimately from Sanskrit सम्बार sambhārei.[97]
Sambar
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit संभारह् śambarah, a kind of Asian deer.[98]
Sandalwood
via Middle English sandell, Old French sandale, Medieval Latin sandalum, Medieval Greek σανδάλιον sandalion (diminutive of σάνδαλον sandalon) and Arabic and Persian صندل; ultimately from Sanskrit चन्दनम् candanam meaning "wood for burning incense".[99]
Sapphire
via Old French saphir, Latin sapphirus and Greek σάπφειρος sappheiros from a Semitic tongue (c.f. Hebrew: ספיר sapir); possibly the ultimate origin is Sanskrit शनिप्रिय sanipriya which literally means "sacred to Saturn (Shani)".[100]
Sari
through Hindi साड़ी sari and Prakrit सदि sadi, finally from Sanskrit षाटी sati "garment".[101]
Shampoo
via Anglo-Indian shampoo and Hindi चाँपो champo from Sanskrit चपयति capayati, which means "kneads".[102]
Shawl
from Persian شال shal, finally from Sanskrit सत्ल् satI, which means "a strip of cloth".[103]
Singapore
via Malay Singapura ultimately from Sanskrit सिंहपुरं Simhapuram, literally "the lion city".[104]
Sri Lanka
from Sanskrit: श्री लंका which means "venerable island". It is said that Shree or Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth, resides there.
Sugar
through Old French sucre, Italian zucchero, Medieval Latin succarum, Arabic: سكر sukkar and Persian: شکر shakar ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sharkara which means "ground or candied sugar" (originally "grit" or "gravel").[105]
Sunn
via Hindi: सुन्न ultimately from Sanskrit: सन sāna, a kind of Asian plant.[106]
Swami
through Hindi स्वामी swami ultimately from Sanskrit स्वामी svami, which means "a master".[107]
Swastika
from Sanskrit स्वस्तिक svastika, which means "one associated with well-being, a lucky charm".[108]

TEdit

Taka
via Maithili and Bengali: টাকা from Sanskrit तन्कह् tankah.[109]
Talipot
through Hindi, Indonesian and Malay talipat from Sanskrit तालपत्रम् tālapatram, a kind of palm.[110]
Tank
a word originally brought by the Portuguese from India, from a Hindi source, such as Gujarati tankh "cistern, underground reservoir for water", Marathi tanken, or tanka "reservoir of water, tank". Perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit tadaga-m "pond, lake pool", and reinforced in later sense of "large artificial container for liquid".[111]
Tendu
via Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit तैन्दुक tainduka.[112]
Teapoy
via Hindi तिपाई tipāi and Urdu تپائي tipāʼī,which originated as a Sanskrit compound: त्रि (trí, "three") and पाद (pā́da, "foot").[113]
Thug
through Marathi ठग thag probably ultimately from Sanskrit स्थग sthaga, which means "a scoundrel".[114]
Til
from Sanskrit तिल tilah, a kind of plant.[115]
Toddy
through Hindi तरी tari ultimately from Sanskrit तल tala-s, a Dravidian origin is also probable.[116]
Toon
through Hindi तुन tūn ultimately from Sanskrit तुन्नह् tunnah, a kind of tree.[117]
Tope
through Hindi टॉप ṭop probably from Prakrit थुपो thūpo, finally from Sanskrit स्तूप stūpah.[118]
Tutty
through Middle English tutie, Old French, Medieval Latin tūtia, Arabic توتي tūtiyā, and Persian توتیا ultimately from Sanskrit तुत्थं tuttham meaning "blue vitriol", a Dravidian origin is also probable.[119]

VEdit

Vina
ultimately from Sanskrit वीणा vīṇā through Hindi वीणा vīṇā, a kind of musical instrument.[120]

WEdit

Wanderoo
through Sinhala: වන්ඩෙරූ vanḍerū finally from Sanskrit वानर vānarah, a kind of monkey.[121]

YEdit

Yoga
through Sanskrit योग yoga-s, which means "yoke, union".[122]
Yogi
through Hindi योगी yogi from Sanskrit योगिन् yogin, one who practices yoga or ascetic.[123]

ZEdit

Zen
through Japanese 禅 and ChineseChán ultimately from Pali झन jhāna and Sanskrit ध्यान dhyana, which means "a meditation".[124]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Ambarella". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  2. ^ "Aniline". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Aryan". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  4. ^ "Atoll". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "aubergine". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Avatar". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "banyan". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  8. ^ "Basmati rice". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  9. ^ "Bahuvrihi". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  10. ^ "Bidi". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  11. ^ "Brinjal". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  12. ^ "Buddha". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  13. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Candy
  14. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cashmere". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  15. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chit". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  16. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chintz". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  17. ^ "Chukar". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  18. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chukker". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  19. ^ "Citipati". Dinosauria.com. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03.
  20. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cot". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  21. ^ Harper, Douglas. "copra". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  22. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cowrie". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  23. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crimson". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  24. ^ Babiniotis, Leksiko tis neoellinikis glossas.
  25. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crocus". Online Etymology Dictionary.
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  27. ^ "Das". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  28. ^ "Datura". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  29. ^ "Deodar". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  30. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Deva". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  31. ^ "Devi". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  32. ^ "Dharma". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  33. ^ "Dhoti". Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit.
  34. ^ Harper, Douglas. "dinghy". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  35. ^ "Dvandva". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
  36. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ganja
  37. ^ "Garta". Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit.
  38. ^ Harper, Douglas. "ginger". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  39. ^ "Guar". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  40. ^ Harper, Douglas. "gunny". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  41. ^ "Gurkha". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  42. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Guru". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  43. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jackal". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  44. ^ "Jaggery". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  45. ^ Harper, Douglas. "java". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  46. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Juggernaut". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  47. ^ Harper, Douglas. "jungle". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  48. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jute". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  49. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Karma". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  50. ^ "Kedgeree". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  51. ^ "Kermes". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  52. ^ "Krait". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  53. ^ Harper, Douglas. "lac". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  54. ^ "Lacquer". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  55. ^ "Langur". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
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  57. ^ Harper, Douglas. "loot". Online Etymology Dictionary.
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  59. ^ "Maharani". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  60. ^ Harper, Douglas. "maharishi". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  61. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mahatma". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  62. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mahayana". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  63. ^ "Mahout". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  64. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandala". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  65. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandarin". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  66. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mantra". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  67. ^ "Maya". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.]
  68. ^ Dictionary.com – Moksha
  69. ^ "Mugger". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  70. ^ "Mung bean". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  71. ^ Harper, Douglas. "musk". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  72. ^ "Musk". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  73. ^ Chantraine, Pierre (1990). Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Klincksieck. p. 715. ISBN 2-252-03277-4.
  74. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mynah". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  75. ^ "Nainsook". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  76. ^ "Nard". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  77. ^ "Narghile". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  78. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nark". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  79. ^ "Neem". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  80. ^ "Nilgai". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  81. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nirvana". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  82. ^ "Opal". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  83. ^ Harper, Douglas. "orange". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  84. ^ Harper, Douglas. "pal". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  85. ^ Harper, Douglas. "parcheesi". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  86. ^ Harper, Douglas. "pepper". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  87. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary – Punch
  88. ^ Oxford Dictionary – Pundit
  89. ^ "Raita". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  90. ^ "Raj". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  91. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Rajah". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  92. ^ "Ramtil". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  93. ^ "Rani". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  94. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=rice
  95. ^ "Rupee". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  96. ^ "Saccharo". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  97. ^ "Sambal". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  98. ^ "Sambar". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  99. ^ "Sandal". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  100. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sapphire". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  101. ^ "Sari". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  102. ^ Harper, Douglas. "shampoo". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  103. ^ "Shawl". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  104. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Singapore". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  105. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sugar". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  106. ^ "Sunn". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  107. ^ Harper, Douglas. "swami". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  108. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Swastika". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  109. ^ "taka". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  110. ^ "Talipot". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  111. ^ Harper, Douglas. "tank". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  112. ^ "Tendu". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  113. ^ "Teapoy". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  114. ^ Harper, Douglas. "thug". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  115. ^ "Til". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  116. ^ Harper, Douglas. "toddy". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  117. ^ "Toon". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  118. ^ "Tussah". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  119. ^ "Tutty". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  120. ^ "Vina". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  121. ^ "Wanderoo". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  122. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yoga". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  123. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yogi". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  124. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Zen". Online Etymology Dictionary.

External linksEdit

  • Sanskrit in Freedictionary.com
  • Sanskrit Dictionary containing terms of modern Spoken Sanskrit