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List of Egyptian mummies (royalty)

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The following is a list of mummies that include Egyptian Pharaohs and their named mummified family members.[a] Some of these mummies have been found to be remarkably intact, while others have been damaged from tomb robbers and environmental conditions. Given the technology/wealth at the time, all known predynastic rulers were buried in open tombs. It was not until Pharaoh Den of the first dynasty that things such as a staircase and architectural elements were added which provided better protection from the elements.[1]

IdentifiedEdit

Name Alias Year of Death Dynasty gender Year discovered Image Description
Ahhotep II N/A Unknown 17th Female 1858 1858   The mummy of Ahhotep II was destroyed in 1859.[2]
Ahmose (princess) N/A Unknown 17th Female 1903 1903-1905   Princess Ahmose was buried in tomb QV47 in the Valley of the Queens.[3] Her mummy was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli during his excavations from 1903-1905.[4]
Ahmose I Amasis 1525 1525 BC 18th Male 1881 1881   Ahmose I's mummy was discovered in 1881 within the Deir el-Bahri Cache. His name was later found written in hieroglyphs when the mummy was unwrapped. The body bore signs of having been plundered by ancient grave-robbers, his head having been broken off from his body and his nose smashed.[5]
Ahmose-Henutemipet N/A Unknown 17th/18th Female 1881 1881   Ahmose-Henutemipet was found in 1881 entombed in DB320. Her remains were found badly damaged, likely by tomb robbers.
Ahmose-Henuttamehu N/A Unknown 17th/18th Female 1881 1881   Ahmose-Henuttamehu was found in 1881 entombed in DB320. Like Ahmose-Henutemipet, she was found to be an old woman when she died as her teeth are worn.
Ahmose-Meritamon Meryetamun Unknown 17th Female Unknown   Ahmose-Meritamon was found entombed in DB320. Like other mummies of the era, she was found to be heavily damaged by tomb robbers. An examination of her mummy shows that she suffered a head wound prior to her death which was the possible result of falling backwards.[6]
Ahmose-Meritamun Ahmose-Meritamon Unknown 18th Female 1930 1930   Her mummy was found carefully rewrapped, which was determined to have occurred during the reign of Pinedjem I.
Ahmose Inhapy Ahmose-Inhapi Unknown 17th/18th Female 1881 1881   The mummy was found in the outer coffin of Lady Rai, the nurse of Inhapy's niece Queen Ahmose-Nefertari. Her skin was still present, and no evidence of salt was found. The body was sprinkled with aromatic powdered wood and wrapped in resin soaked linen.[7]
Ahmose-Sitamun Sitamun Unknown 18th Female Unknown N/A Ahmose-Sitamun was found entombed in DB320. At some point she was moved to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo where she remains to this day.
Ahmose-Sitkamose Sitkamose Unknown 17th/18th Female 1881 1881   Sitkamose's mummy was discovered in 1881 in the Deir el-Bahari cache. Her mummy was unwraped by Gaston Maspero on June 19, 1886 where it was found to be damaged by tomb robbers. Sitkamose was about thirty years old when she died, Grafton Eliot Smith described her as a strong-built, almost masculine woman.[8]
Ahmose-Tumerisy N/A Unknown 17th Female Unknown N/A Ahmose-Tumerisy was an ancient Egyptian princess of the late 17th Dynasty. Since her titles were "King's Daughter" and "King's Sister", it is likely that she was a daughter of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and a sister of pharaoh Ahmose I. Her name is known from her coffin, which is now in the Hermitage Museum. Her mummy was found in the pit MMA 1019 in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna.[9]
Amenemhat Son of Thutmose IV Unknown 18th Male Unknown N/A Amenemhat was a prince of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt; the son of Pharaoh Thutmose IV.[10] He is depicted in the Theban tomb TT64, which is the tomb of the royal tutors Heqareshu and his son Heqaerneheh.[11] He died young and was buried in his father's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, KV43, together with his father and a sister called Tentamun.[12] His canopic jars and possible mummy were found there.[13]
Amenemope Usermaatre Amenemope 0992 992 or 984 BC 21st Male 1946 1946 N/A While the tomb was discovered in 1940, his mummy was not found until the end of World War II. The mummy was found with various jewelry and two funerary masks which are now all displayed at the Cairo Museum.
Amenemopet N/A Unknown 18th Female 1857 1857 N/A The mummy of Amenemopet was buried in the Sheikh Abd el-Qurna cache where it was discovered in 1857.
Amenhotep I Amenophis I 1506 1506 or 1504 BC 18th Male Unknown   His mummy was moved sometime in the 20th or 21st Dynasty for safety, probably more than once. The mummy of Amenhotep I features an exquisite face mask which has caused his body not to be unwrapped by modern Egyptologists.
Amenhotep II Amenophis II 1401 1401 or 1397 BC 18th Male 1898 1898  
Amenhotep III Amāna-Ḥātpa 1353 1353 or 1351 BC 18th Male 1898 1898   [14]
Ashayet Ashait Unknown 11th Female Unknown N/A
Djedkare Isesi Tancheres Unknown 0055th Male 1940 1940s N/A
Duathathor-Henuttawy Henuttawy Unknown 20th Female Unknown  
Hatshepsut Hatchepsut 1458 1458 BC 18th Female 1903 1903 N/A
Henhenet N/A Unknown 11th Female Unknown N/A
Henuttawy C Henettawy Unknown 21st Female 1923 1923-1924 N/A
Hornakht Harnakht Unknown 22nd Male 1942 1942  
Kamose N/A 1550 1550 BC 17th Male 1857 1857 N/A In 1857, the mummy of Kamose was discovered seemingly deliberately hidden in a pile of debris. Egyptologists Auguste Mariette, and Heinrich Brugsch noted that the mummy was in very poor shape.
Merneptah Merenptah 1203 1203 BC 19th Male 1898 1898  
Mutnedjmet Various 1332 1319 or 1332 BC 18th Female Unknown N/A
Nauny Nany Unknown 21st Female Unknown N/A
Nebetia N/A Unknown 18th Female 1857 1857 N/A
Neferefre Raneferef Unknown 0055th Male Unknown N/A
Nesitanebetashru N/A Unknown 21st Female Unknown  
Pentawer Pentaweret 1155 1155 BC 20th Male Unknown  
Psusennes I Pasibkhanu 1001 1001 BC 21st Male 1940 1940  
Ramesses I Ramses 1290 1290 BC 19th Male 1817 1817   [15][16]
Ramesses II Ramesses the Great 1213 1213 BC 19th Male 1881 1881  
Ramesses III Usimare Ramesses III 1155 1155 BC 20th Male 1886 1886  
Ramesses IV Heqamaatre Ramesses IV 1149 1149 BC 20th Male 1898 1898  
Ramesses V Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V 1145 1145 BC 20th Male 1898 1898  
Ramesses VI Ramesses VI Nebmaatre-Meryamun 1137 1137 BC 20th Male 1898 1898  
Ramesses IX Amon-her-khepshef Khaemwaset 1111 1111 BC 20th Male 1881 1881 N/A
Ranefer Ranofer Unknown 0044th Male Unknown N/A
Seqenenre Tao  • Seqenera Djehuty-aa,
 • Sekenenra Taa
Unknown 17th Male 1881 1881  
Sesheshet Sesh Unknown 0066th Female 2009 2009 N/A
Seti I Sethos I 1279 1279 BC 19th Male 1881 1881   [17][18]
Seti II Sethos II 1193 1193 BC 19th Male 1908 1908  
Siptah Merenptah Siptah 1191 1191 BC 19th Male 1898 1898  
Sitdjehuti Satdjehuti Unknown 17th Female 1820 1820 N/A
Thutmose II Various 1479 1479 BC 18th Male 1881 1881   [19][20]
Thutmose III Various 1425 1425 BC 18th Male 1898 1898  
Thutmose IV Menkheperure 1391 1391 or 1388 BC 18th Male 1898 1898  
Tiaa (princess) N/A Unknown 18th Female 1857 1857 N/A
Tiye The Older Lady 1338 1338 BC 18th Female 1898 1898   Tiye was found to be extensively damaged by past tomb robbers.
Tutankhamun King Tut 1323 1323 BC 18th Male 1922 1922   Main article: Tutankhamun's mummy
Tjuyu  • Thuya,
 • Thuyu
1375 1375 BC 18th Female 1905 1905 N/A
Webensenu N/A Unknown 18th Male 1898 1898   Webensenu was an ancient Egyptian prince of the 18th dynasty. He was a son of Pharaoh Amenhotep II.[21] He is mentioned, along with his brother Nedjem, on a statue of Minmose, overseer of the works in Karnak.[22] He died as a child and was buried in his father's tomb, KV35, where there were found his canopic jars and shabtis. His mummy is still there, and it indicates that he died around the age of ten.[23][24]


DisputedEdit

The following entries are previously identified mummies that are now in dispute. Over time through the advance in technology, new information comes to light that discredits old findings and beliefs. The mummies that have been lost or destroyed since initial discovery may never be properly identified.

Assumed name(s) Dynasty Sex Year discovered Image Description
Ahmose-Nefertari 18th Female 1881 1881   Ahmose-Nefertari is assumed to have been retrieved from her tomb at the end of the New Kingdom and moved to the royal cache in DB320. Her presumed body, with no identification marks, was discovered in the 19th century and unwrapped in 1885 by Emile Brugsch but this identification has been challenged.[25] When the mummy was found it emitted such a bad odor that it was reburied on museum grounds in Cairo until the offensive smell abated. If this is Ahmose-Nefertari, then she was determined to have died in her 70s. The mummy's hair had been thinning and plaits of false hair had been woven in with its own to cover this up. The body also had been damaged in antiquity and was missing its right hand.[26]
Ahmose Sapair 18th Male 1881 1881   In 1881, a mummy of a 5- to 6-year-old boy was found in cache (DB320) and identified as Ahmose-Sipair. This was disputed as Prince Ahmose-Sipair is always portrayed as an adult on the coffin of the scribe and other antiquities, thus the child-mummy cannot be his.[27]
Akhenaten 18th Male 1907 1907   Uncertainty remains over the identity of this mummy as the young age at death is inconsistent with Akhenaten's reign. CT scans done in 2010 strongly suggest that the mummy may be Pharaoh Smenkhkare.
Ankhesenamun 18th Female 1817 1817 N/A Believed to be Ankhesenamun, as she is the mother of the two fetuses found in Tutankhamun's grave. Uncertainty remains if the mummy found in KV55 is accepted to be Akhenaten. She is also known as mummy KV21A from the tomb that she was discovered in.
Mayet 11th Female 1921 1921 N/A Mayet's position within the royal family of Mentuhotep II is disputed.[28] It is generally assumed that she was a daughter of the king as she was about five years old when she died.
 • Nefertiti,
 • Nebetah, or
 • Beketaten
18th Female 1898 1898    • Main article: The Younger Lady
Two main DNA tests have been done on this mummy which have resulted in three different possible identities. Early speculation was that the mummy belonged to Queen Nefertiti, and while DNA testing was done it neither confirmed nor denied this as being factual. DNA testing published in 2010 revealed her to be a daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his chief wife Tiye; and the mother of Tutankhamun.[29] This DNA report concluded that the mummy is likely Beketaten, or Nebetah, but again no conclusive answer was found. In any case the mummy was found to be extensively damaged by past tomb robbers which caused numerous holes.
Setnakhte 20th Male 1898 1898   The alleged mummy of Setnakhte has never been identified with certainty, although the so–called "mummy in the boat" found in KV35 was sometimes identified with him, an attribution rejected by Aidan Dodson who rather believes the body belonged to a royal family member of Amenhotep II of the 18th Dynasty. In any case the mummy was destroyed by looters in 1901, thus preventing any analysis on it.[30]
Tetisheri 17th/18th Female 1881 1881   No tomb has yet been conclusively identified with Queen Tetisheri, though a mummy that may be hers was included among other members of the royal family that were reburied in the Royal Cache.
Thutmose I 18th Male 1881 1881   Egyptologist Gaston Maspero thought this was the mummy of Thutmose I largely on the strength of familial resemblance to the mummies of Thutmose II and Thutmose III. In 2007 though, Dr. Zahi Hawass announced that the mummy is a thirty-year-old man who had died as a result of an arrow wound to the chest. Due to the young age of the mummy and the cause of death, it was determined that the mummy was probably not of Thutmose I.[31]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Mummies have been found by archaeologists whom have determined their royal status, but have not been able to provide any conclusive name. These mummies are not listed here as not enough information is available on the subject.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shaw, Ian and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 84. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1995. ISBN 0-8109-9096-2
  2. ^ Ann Macy Roth, The Ahhotep Coffins, Gold of Praise: Studies of Ancient Egypt in honor of Edward F. Wente, 1999
  3. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p. 128
  4. ^ Demas, Martha, and Neville Agnew, eds. 2012. Valley of the Queens Assessment Report: Volume 1. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Conservation Institute. Getty Conservation Institute, link to article
  5. ^ Smith, G Elliot. The Royal Mummies, pp. 15–17. Duckworth, 2000 (reprint).
  6. ^ G.E. Smith, Catalogue General Antiquites Egyptiennes du Musee du Caire: The Royal Mummies, 1912, pp 6-8 and pl IV. Available via University of Chicago
  7. ^ E.G. Smith, Catalogue General Antiquites Egyptiennes du Musee du Caire: The Royal Mummies, Cairo, 1912; retrieved from The University of Chicago Library
  8. ^ Mummy of Ahmose-Sitkamose
  9. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p. 128
  10. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p.137
  11. ^ Dodson & Hilton, p.134
  12. ^ Dodson & Hilton, p.135
  13. ^ Dodson & Hilton, p.137
  14. ^ Beckerath, Jürgen von, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997) p.190
  15. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Äegyptischen Pharaonischen (Mainz: Phillip von Zabern, 1997), p.190
  16. ^ Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge.
  17. ^ Michael Rice (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge.
  18. ^ J. von Beckerath (1997). Chronologie des Äegyptischen Pharaonischen (in German). Phillip von Zabern. p. 190.
  19. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.204. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  20. ^ Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 289. The British Museum Press, 1995
  21. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p.141
  22. ^ Wolfgang Helck: Urkunden der 18. Dynastie, Heft 18, Berlin 1956, pp. 1447
  23. ^ Dodson & Hilton, pp.135,141
  24. ^ Betsy Bryan: The 18th Dynasty before the Amarna Period, in Ian Shaw (editor): The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford, New York 2000, ISBN 978-0192804587, p. 248
  25. ^ Dylan (July 22, 2014). "The so-called Royal Cachette TT 320 was not the grave of Ahmose Nefertari!". www.dylanb.me.uk. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  26. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce. Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2006. ISBN 0-500-05145-3
  27. ^ "XVIII'th Dynasty Gallery I". The Theban Royal Mummy Project. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  28. ^ Michael Rice: Who is who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London/New York 1999. ISBN 978-0-203-44328-6, p. 117.
  29. ^ Hawass, Zahi; Gad, Yehia Z.; Ismail, Somaia; Khairat, Rabab; Fathalla, Dina; Hasan, Naglaa; Ahmed, Amal; Elleithy, Hisham; Ball, Marcus; Gaballah, Fawzi; Wasef, Sally; Fateen, Mohamed; Amer, Hany; Gostner, Paul; Selim, Ashraf; Zink, Albert; Pusch, Carsten M. (February 2010). "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 303 (7): 641. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  30. ^ Schneider, Thomas (2010). "Contributions to the Chronology of the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period". Ägypten & Levante. 20., pp. 386–387
  31. ^ Anderson, Lisa (14 July 2007). "Mummy awakens new era in Egypt". Chicago Tribune.