List of Ebola outbreaks
This list of Ebola outbreaks records the known occurrences of Ebola virus disease, a highly infectious and acutely lethal viral disease that has afflicted humans and animals primarily in equatorial Africa. The pathogens responsible for the disease are the five ebolaviruses recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Reston virus (RESTV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Four of the five variants have caused the disease in humans as well as other animals; RESTV has caused clinical symptoms only in non-human primates. RESTV has caused subclinical infections in humans, producing an antibody response but no visual symptoms or disease state manifestations.
Transmission of the ebolaviruses between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks of Ebola virus disease are often traceable to a single case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee, bats, or duiker. The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.
Learning from failed responses, such as during the 2000 outbreak in Uganda, the World Health Organization (WHO) established its Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, and other public health measures were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa. Outbreaks are also closely monitored by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Special Pathogens Branch.
The following tables of outbreaks are based upon information provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) which excludes all laboratory personnel cases, Reston virus cases (since they are all asymptomatic), or suspected cases. For a complete overview, those cases are included below with footnotes and supporting sources.
Major or massive casesEdit
|Date||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Case fatality rate||Description|
|Jun–Nov 1976||Sudan||SUDV||284||151||53%||Occurred in Nzara (the source town), Maridi, Tumbura, and Juba (cities in present-day South Sudan). The index cases were workers in a cotton factory. The disease was spread by close contact with an acute case, usually from patients to their nurses. Many medical care personnel were infected.|
|Aug 1976||Zaire||EBOV||318||280||88%||Yambuku and surrounding areas in what was then Zaire (present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo). It spread through personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals and clinics.Occurred in|
|Aug–Sep 1979||Sudan||SUDV||34||22||65%||Occurred in Nzara and Maridi. This was a recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.|
|Dec 1994–Feb 1995||Gabon||EBOV||52||31||60%||Occurred in Makokou and gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest along the Ivindo River. Until 1995, the outbreak was incorrectly classified as yellow fever.|
|May–Jul 1995||Zaire||EBOV||315||254||81%||Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas. The outbreak was traced to a patient who worked in a forest adjoining the city. The epidemic spread through families and hospital admissions.|
|Jan–Apr 1996||Gabon||EBOV||31||21||68%||Occurred in the village of Mayibout 2 and neighboring areas. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by villagers hunting for food. Nineteen people involved in the butchery of the animal became ill, and other cases occurred in their family members.|
|Jul 1996–Mar 1997||Gabon||EBOV||60||45||75%||Occurred in the Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville. The index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest timber camp. The disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.|
|Oct 2000–Jan 2001||Uganda||SUDV||425||224||53%||Occurred in the Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Sudan virus infection were attending funerals of case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures. Victims included Matthew Lukwiya.|
|Oct 2001–Jul 2002||Gabon||EBOV||65||53||82%||Occurred on both sides of the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo.|
|Oct 2001–Jul 2002||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||59||44||75%||Occurred on both sides of the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo (RC). This outbreak included the first reported occurrence of Ebola virus disease in the RC.|
|Dec 2002–Apr 2003||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||143||128||90%||Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kelle in the Cuvette-Ouest Department.|
|Nov–Dec 2003||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||35||29||83%||Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages, located in Mbomo District in the Cuvette-Ouest Department.|
|Apr–Jun 2004||Sudan||SUDV||17||7||41%||Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan (present-day South Sudan). This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EVD cases were reclassified later as measles cases.|
|Apr-May 2005||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||12||10||83%||Occurred in the Etoumbi district of Cuvette Ouest Department of the Republic of the Congo |
|Aug–Nov 2007||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||264||187||71%|
|Dec 2007–Jan 2008||Uganda||BDBV||149||37||25%||Occurred in the Bundibugyo District in western Uganda. This was the first identification of the Bundibugyo virus (BDBV).|
|Dec 2008–Feb 2009||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||32||14||45%||Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Kasaï-Occidental province.|
|Jun–Aug 2012||Uganda||SUDV||24||17||71%||Occurred in the Kibaale District.|
|Jun–Nov 2012||Democratic Republic of the Congo||BDBV||57||29||51%||Occurred in the Orientale Province.|
|Dec 2013–Jan 2016||Widespread:
Limited and local:
|EBOV||28,616||11,310||70–71% (general)[note 2]
57–59% (among hospitalized patients)
|Guéckédou, Guinea, in December 2013 and spread abroad. Flare-ups of the disease continued into 2016, and the outbreak was declared over on 9 June 2016.This was the most severe Ebola outbreak in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. It began in|
|Aug–Nov 2014||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||66||49||74%||Équateur province. Outbreak detected 24 August and, as of 28 October 2014, the WHO said that twenty days had passed since the last reported case was discharged and no new contacts were being followed. Declared over on 15 November 2014.Occurred in|
|May–Jul 2018||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||54||33||61%||
On 8 May 2018, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported two confirmed cases of Ebola infection in the northwestern town of Bikoro. On 17 May, a case was confirmed in the city of Mbandaka. Health authorities were planning to ring vaccinate with rVSV-ZEBOV, a recently developed experimental Ebola vaccine, to contain the outbreak. The outbreak was ongoing as of 24 June 2018, in 2014 a different area of Equateur province was affected On 24 July 2018 the outbreak was declared over.
|August 2018 – June 2020||Widespread:
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Limited and local:
On 1 August 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo Ministry of Health declared an outbreak when 4 individuals tested positive for the Ebola virus. On 11 June 2019, the WHO confirmed that a five-year-old boy in Uganda died after being diagnosed with Ebola. On 25 June 2020, the second biggest EVD outbreak ever was declared over.
|May 2020 – November 2020||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||130||55||42%||Kivu Ebola epidemic. The latest viral outbreak is located in Équateur province (in which the 2018 Équateur province Ebola outbreak was centred). By 17 October the case count was 128 with 53 fatalitiesOn 31 May, the DRC Health Minister Eteni Longondo announced an additional Ebola outbreak, separate to the ongoing |
As of November 18th, the World Health Organization and Congolese government has had no reported cases of Ebola in Equateur province or all of the DRC for 42 days. The final numbers indicate 130 cases and 55 fatalities due to the virus
Minor or single casesEdit
|Date||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Description|
|1976||United Kingdom||SUDV or EBOV[note 3]||1||0||Laboratory infection by accidental stick of contaminated needle.|
|1977||Zaire||EBOV||1||1||Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.|
|1989–1990||Philippines||RESTV||3[note 4]||0||The Reston virus (RESTV) was first identified when it caused high mortality in crab-eating macaques in a primate research facility responsible for exporting animals to the United States. Three workers in the facility developed antibodies to the virus but did not get sick.|
|1989||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human cases were reported.|
|1990||United States||RESTV||4[note 4]||0||Monkeys imported from the Philippines introduced RESTV into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.|
|1992||Italy||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines that was the source of the 1989 and 1990 U.S. outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1994||Côte d'Ivoire[note 5]||TAFV||1||0||This case was the first and thus far only recognition of Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later and fully recovered after six weeks.|
|1995||Côte d'Ivoire||Unknown||1||0||One person, fleeing the civil war in neighboring Liberia, was identified as an Ebola case in Gozon. This is considered as a suspected case, excluding from the WHO outbreak counts.|
|1996||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was again introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines that was the source of the 1989 and 1990 U.S. outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1996||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was identified at a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human cases resulted.|
|2008||Philippines||RESTV||6[note 4]||0||First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain very similar to earlier strains. Occurred in November. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.|
|2015||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||On 6 September 2015, the Philippine health secretary reported an outbreak of RESTV in a primate research and breeding facility. Twenty-five workers subsequently tested negative for the virus.|
|2017||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||8||4||
On 11 May 2017, the Ministry of Public Health for the Democratic Republic of the Congo notified the WHO of an Ebola outbreak in the Likati health zone (LHZ) in Bas-Uele province, in the northern part of the country. Suspected infections were reported from Nambwa, Mouma, and Ngay. The LHZ borders the Central African Republic, which made this outbreak a moderate risk to the region.
|2018||Hungary||0||0||On 20 April 2018, a laboratory accident led to a single worker being exposed to the Ebola virus, though he did not develop symptoms.|
List of other Filoviridae outbreaksEdit
|Year||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Case fatality rate||Comments|
|1967|| West Germany
|MARV||31||7||23%||Marburg, Germany where the virus was first identified (historically) and the subsequent naming of the virus per the locationIn 1967 outbreaks in|
|MARV||3||1||33%||Individual had traveled to Zimbabwe|
|1980||Kenya||MARV||2||1||50%||Individual(s) traveled to Kitum Cave|
|1987||Kenya||RAVV||1||1||100%||RAVV(Ravn virus) one of two members of the species Marburg marburgvirus|
|1990||Soviet Union||MARV||1||1||100%||Laboratory incident|
|1998–2000||Democratic Republic of the Congo||MARV & RAVV||154||128||83%||Occurred in Durba|
|2004–2005||Angola||MARV||252||227||90%||Largest Marburg virus outbreak ever occurred in Angola|
|2007||Uganda||MARV & RAVV||4||1||25%||Occurred in Kamwenge |
|2012||Uganda||MARV||15||4||27%||Occurred in Kabale|
|2017||Uganda||MARV||3||3||100%||Uganda has had five outbreaks of the virus|
- In accordance with the sovereignty at the time.
- The mortality rate (death/case ratio) recorded in Liberia up to 26 August 2014 was 70 percent. However, the general estimated case fatality rate (70.8 percent) for this ongoing epidemic differs from the ratio of the number of deaths divided by that of cases due to the estimation method used. Current infections have not run their course, and the estimate may be poor if reporting is biased towards severe cases.
- The Centers for Disease Control chronology notes this infection as "Sudan virus", whereas the 1977 British Medical Journal (BMJ) article refers to it as "Ebola virus". In 1977, there was no distinction between different ebolaviruses. The BMJ article notes only that the patient received "convalescent serum from the Sudan" following similar serum from Zaire
- All cases were asymptomatic.
- The case was repatriated to Switzerland for medical treatment.
- "Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Virus Disease". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology; Viral Special Pathogens Branch), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. 20 October 2016 [Last updated 14 April 2016]. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "Filoviridae: Current Taxonomy (2015)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Towner, J. S.; Sealy, T. K.; Khristova, M. L.; Albariño, C. S. G.; Conlan, S.; Reeder, S. A.; Quan, P. L.; Lipkin, W. I.; Downing, R.; Tappero, J. W.; Okware, S.; Lutwama, J.; Bakamutumaho, B.; Kayiwa, J.; Comer, J. A.; Rollin, P. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Nichol, S. T. (2008). Basler, Christopher F. (ed.). "Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda". PLOS Pathogens. 4 (11): e1000212. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000212. PMC 2581435. PMID 19023410.
- "End of Ebola outbreak in Uganda" (Press release). World Health Organization. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Schoepp, Randal J.; Olinger, Gene G. (2014). "Chapter 7: Filoviruses". In Liu, Dongyou (ed.). Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins. CRC Press. p. 66. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health (2016). "Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Infections". Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets.
- "About Ebola Virus Disease". CDC. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Demetria, Catalino; Smith, Ina; Tan, Titus; Villarico, Daniel; Simon, Edson Michael; Centeno, Rex; Tachedjian, Mary; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Shimojima, Masayuki; Miranda, Noel Lee J.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth (2018). "Reemergence of Reston ebolavirus in Cynomolgus Monkeys, the Philippines, 2015 - Volume 24, Number 7—July 2018 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 24 (7): 1285–1291. doi:10.3201/eid2407.171234. PMC 6038738. PMID 29912712.
- Sun, Lena H. "Scientists find deadly Ebola virus for first time in West African bat". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- Peterson, A. T.; Bauer, J. T.; Mills, J. N. (January 2004). "Ecologic and geographic distribution of filovirus disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (1): 40–7. doi:10.3201/eid1001.030125. PMC 3322747. PMID 15078595.
- "Questions and Answers about Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 25 March 2009. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- Cohen, J. (2004). "Containing the Threat—Don't Forget Ebola". PLOS Medicine. 1 (3): e59. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010059. PMC 539049. PMID 15630468.
- "Mission Statement". National Center for Infectious Diseases & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 31 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- Matt Schiavenza (14 October 2014). "Why Nigeria Was Able to Beat Ebola, but Not Boko Haram". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- "US sends experts to study Nigeria's anti-Ebola strategies". The Punch. 3 October 2014. Archived from the original on 3 October 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "US sends medical experts to study how Nigeria tamed Ebola". Vanguard. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Ebola virus disease". World Health Organization. 12 February 2018.
- "Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Report of a WHO/International Study Team". Bull World Health Organ. 56 (2): 247–270. 1978. PMC 2395561. PMID 307455.
- "Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976". Bull World Health Organ. 56 (2): 271–293. 1978. PMC 2395567. PMID 307456.
- Baron, Roy C.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Zubeir, Osman A. (1983). "Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 61 (6): 997–1003. PMC 2536233. PMID 6370486.
- Georges, Alain-Jean; Leroy, Eric M.; Renaut, André A.; Benissan, Carol Tevi; Nabias, René J.; Ngoc, Minh Trinh; Obiang, Paul I.; Lepage, J. P. M.; Bertherat, Eric J.; Bénoni, David D.; Wickings, E. Jean; Amblard, Jacques P.; Lansoud-Soukate, Joseph M.; Milleliri, J. M.; Baize, Sylvain; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude (1999). "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks in Gabon, 1994–1997: Epidemiologic and Health Control Issues". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179: S65–S75. doi:10.1086/514290. PMID 9988167.
- Khan, Ali S.; Tshioko, F. Kweteminga; Heymann, David L.; Le Guenno, Bernard; Nabeth, Pierre; Kerstiëns, Barbara; Fleerackers, Yon; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Rodier, Guenael R.; Nkuku, Okumi; Rollin, Pierre E.; Sanchez, Anthony; Zaki, Sherif R.; Swanepoel, Robert; Tomori, Oyetowl; Nichol, Stuart T.; Peters, C. J.; Muyembe-Tamfum, J. J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G. (1999). "The Reemergence of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179: S76–S86. doi:10.1086/514306. PMID 9988168.
- Roels, T. H.; Bloom, A. S.; Buffington, J.; Muhungu, G. L.; MacKenzie, W. R.; Khan, A. S.; Ndambi, R.; Noah, D. L.; Rolka, H. R.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, T. G. (1999). "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995: Risk Factors for Patients without a Reported Exposure". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179: S92–S97. doi:10.1086/514286. PMID 9988170.
- Okware, S. I.; Omaswa, F. G.; Zaramba, S.; Opio, A.; Lutwama, J. J.; Kamugisha, J.; Rwaguma, E. B.; Kagwa, P.; Lamunu, M. (2002). "An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda". Tropical Medicine & International Health. 7 (12): 1068–1075. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00944.x. PMID 12460399.
- "Outbreak(s) of Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Congo and Gabon, October 2001–July 2002". Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire. Canada Communicable Disease Report. 29 (15): 223–228. 1 August 2003. PMID 15571171. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Formenty, P.; Libama, F.; Epelboin, A.; Allarangar, Y.; Leroy, E.; Moudzeo, H.; Tarangonia, P.; Molamou, A.; Lenzi, M.; Ait-Ikhlef, K.; Hewlett, B.; Roth, C.; Grein, T. (2003). "Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo, 2003: a new strategy?". Médecine Tropicale: Revue du Corps de Santé Colonial (in French). 63 (3): 291–295. PMID 14579469.
- "Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo – Update 6". World Health Organization. 6 January 2004.
- "Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Yambio, south Sudan, April–June 2004". Weekly Epidemiological Record. 80 (43): 370–375. 2005. PMID 16285261.
- Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Kone, Mamadou Lamine; Yada, Adamou; Leroy, Eric (August 2011). "A limited outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Etoumbi, Republic of Congo, 2005". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 105 (8): 466–472. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2011.04.011. ISSN 1878-3503. PMID 21605882.
- Global Alert and Response (17 February 2009). "End of Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo". Disease Outbreak News. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- World Health Organization (4 October 2012). "End of Ebola outbreak in Uganda". Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- Centers For Disease Control. "Outbreak Postings". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- WHO Ebola Response Team (23 September 2014). "Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa – The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (16): 1481–1495. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1411100. PMC 4235004. PMID 25244186.
- "Case Fatality Rate for ebolavirus". Ebola data and statistics. 2015. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Ebola response roadmap – Situation report" (PDF). World Health Organization. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
The reported case fatality rate in the three intensetransmission countries among all cases for whom a definitive outcome is known is 71 percent.
- "Ebola Situation report". Ebola data and statistics. World Health Organization. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
... [I]s between 57% and 59% in the 3 intense-transmission countries, with no detectable improvement since the onset of the epidemic.
- "Tracing Ebola's Breakout to an African 2-Year-Old". New York Times. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Toll in West Africa Ebola Epidemic Reaches 2,630, Says WHO." Fox News. FOX News Network, 18 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014.
- "WHO Director-General addresses the Executive Board". World Health Organization. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- "Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report Update" (PDF). World Health Organization. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Update on the Ebola virus disease in DRC, No. 5, 30 August 2014". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Congo declares its Ebola outbreak over". reuters. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Congo health ministry confirms 2 Ebola cases in new outbreak". ABC News. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Ebola Virus Disease: Democratic Republic of the Congo: External Situation Report 3" (PDF). reliefweb. World Health Organization. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Ebola Erupts Again in Africa, Only Now There's a Vaccine". The New York Times. 11 May 2018. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- "Democratic Republic of Congo: Ebola Virus Disease – External Situation Report 13". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- "2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bikoro | Democratic Republic of Congo | Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Democratic Republic of Congo: Ebola Virus Disease – External Situation Report 15". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Ebola RDC – Evolution de la riposte de l'épidémie d'Ebola au Vendredi 13 juillet 2018". us13.campaign-archive.com. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Media Advisory: Expected end of Ebola outbreak". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
- "Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo: Disease outbreak news, 25 July 2018". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
- "Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS". who.maps.arcgis.com. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Uganda Situation Reports" (PDF). WHO.Afro.int. WHO. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Editorial, Reuters (August 2018). "Congo declares new Ebola outbreak in eastern province". Reuters. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "Congo announces 4 new Ebola cases in North Kivu province". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "Cluster of presumptive Ebola cases in North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "The Democratic Republic of the Congo: Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak – Epidemiological Situation DG ECHO Daily Map | 03/08/2018". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- "Confirmation of case of ebola virus disease in Uganda". WHO | Regional Office for Africa. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- Hunt, Katie; Swails, Brent (12 June 2019). "Ebola outbreak enters 'truly frightening phase' as it turns deadly in Uganda". CNN. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- "DR Congo's deadliest Ebola outbreak declared over". BBC News. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
- Swanson, Ian (1 June 2020). "Second Ebola outbreak strikes Congo". TheHill. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
- "New Ebola outbreak detected in northwest Democratic Republic of the Congo; WHO surge team supporting the response". www.who.int. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
- "Ebola resurfaces in Équateur Province, north-western Democratic Republic of the Congo". UNICEF. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- "DR Congo's latest Ebola outbreak 'under control'". medicalxpress.com. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
- "For the first time since 2018, there is no active Ebola outbreak in the DRC". U.S. Embassy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 18 November 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- "UNICEF welcomes end of Ebola outbreak in the Equateur Province of the DRC". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- Emond, R. T. D.; Evans, Brandon; Bowen, E. T. W.; Lloyd, G. (1977). "A case of Ebola virus infection". British Medical Journal. 2 (6081): 541–544. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6086.541. PMC 1631428. PMID 890413.
- "Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Virus Disease". United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- Heymann, D. L.; Weisfeld, J. S. l; Webb, P. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Cairns, T.; Berquist, H. (1980). "Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977–1978". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 142 (3): 372–376. doi:10.1093/infdis/142.3.372. PMID 7441008.
- "Ebola Virus Disease." WHO. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 September 2014.
- Hayes, C. G.; Burans, J. P.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Del Rosario, R. A.; Miranda, M. E.; Manaloto, C. R.; Barrientos, A. B.; Robles, C. G.; Dayrit, M. M.; Peters, C. J. (1992). "Outbreak of fatal illness among captive macaques in the Philippines caused by an Ebola-related filovirus". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 46 (6): 664–671. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.1992.46.664. PMID 1621890.
- Miranda, M. E.; White, M. E.; Dayrit, M. M.; Hayes, C. G.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Burans, J. P. (1991). "Seroepidemiological study of filovirus related to Ebola in the Philippines". Lancet. 337 (8738): 425–426. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(91)91199-5. PMID 1671441.
- Jahrling, P. B.; Geisbert, T. W.; Dalgard, D. W.; Johnson, E. D.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Hall, W. C.; Peters, C. J. (1990). "Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA". Lancet. 335 (8688): 502–505. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)90737-P. PMID 1968529.
- Centers for Disease Control (1990). "Update: filovirus infection in animal handlers". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 39 (13): 221. PMID 2107388.
- "Request Rejected" (PDF).
- Le Guenno, B.; Formenty, P.; Wyers, M.; Gounon, P.; Walker, F.; Boesch, C. (1995). "Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus". Lancet. 345 (8960): 1271–1274. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90925-7. PMID 7746057.
- "Suspect Cases of Ebola in Liberia | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases".
- Ch ippaux J. P. (2014). "Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa: the beginnings of a tragic saga". Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 20 (1): 44. doi:10.1186/1678-9199-20-44. PMC 4197285. PMID 25320574.
- Rollin, P. E.; Williams, R. J.; Bressler, D. S.; Pearson, S.; Cottingham, M.; Pucak, G.; Sanchez, A.; Trappier, S. G.; Peters, R. L.; Greer, P. W.; Zaki, S.; Demarcus, T.; Hendricks, K.; Kelley, M.; Simpson, D.; Geisbert, T. W.; Jahrling, P. B.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, T. G. (1999). "Ebola (Subtype Reston) Virus among Quarantined Nonhuman Primates Recently Imported from the Philippines to the United States". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179: S108–S114. doi:10.1086/514303. PMID 9988173.
- Miranda, M. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Retuya, T. J.; Khan, A. S.; Sanchez, A.; Fulhorst, C. F.; Rollin, P. E.; Calaor, A. B.; Manalo, D. L.; Roces, M. C.; Dayrit, M. M.; Peters, C. J. (1999). "Epidemiology of Ebola (Subtype Reston) Virus in the Philippines, 1996". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179: S115–S119. doi:10.1086/514314. PMID 9988174.
- Borisevich, I. V.; Markin, V. A.; Firsova, I. V.; Evseey, A. A.; Khamitov, R. A.; Maksimov, V. A. (2006). "Hemorrhagic (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and Bolivian) fevers: Epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment". Voprosy Virusologi. 51 (5): 8–16. PMID 17087059.
- [Akinfeyeva L. A., Aksyonova O. I., Vasilyevich I. V., et al. A case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Infektsionnye Bolezni (Moscow). 2005;3(1):85–88 [Russian].]
- Barrette, R.; Metwally, S.; Rowland, J.; Xu, L.; Zaki, S.; Nichol, S.; Rollin, P.; Towner, J.; Shieh, W.; Batten, B.; Sealy, T. K.; Carrillo, C.; Moran, K. E.; Bracht, A. J.; Mayr, G. A.; Sirios-Cruz, M.; Catbagan, D. P.; Lautner, E. A.; Ksiazek, T. G.; White, W. R.; McIntosh, M. T. (2009). "Discovery of swine as a host for the Reston ebolavirus". Science. 325 (5937): 204–206. Bibcode:2009Sci...325..204B. doi:10.1126/science.1172705. PMID 19590002.
- "Outbreak news. Ebola Reston in pigs and humans, Philippines". Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire. 84 (7): 49–50. 2009. PMID 19219963.
- "Philippine monkeys infected with Ebola not lethal to humans". 6 September 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "External Situation Report 1" (PDF). Regional Office for Africa. Ebola Virus Disease − Democratic Republic of the Congo. World Health Organization. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- "External Situation Report 25" (PDF). Regional Office for Africa. Ebola Virus Disease − Democratic Republic of the Congo. World Health Organization. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- World News, Reuters (20 April 2018). "Hungarian lab worker isolated after exposure to Ebola virus". IN. Reuters. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- News, Tampa Bay Times (20 April 2018). "UN health agency: Hungarian scientist exposed to Ebola". Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- "Outbreak Table | Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- "Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Kuhn, Jens H.; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Lipkin, W. Ian; Negredo, Ana I.; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Peters, Clarence J.; Tenorio, Antonio; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Jahrling, Peter B. (December 2010). "Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations". Archives of Virology. 155 (12): 2083–2103. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0814-x. ISSN 0304-8608. PMC 3074192. PMID 21046175.
- Ligon, B. Lee (2005). "Outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in Angola: a review of the history of the disease and its biological aspects". Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 16 (3): 219–224. doi:10.1053/j.spid.2005.05.001. PMC 7130051. PMID 16044395.
- "Marburg virus disease – Uganda". World Health Organization. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Pacheco, Daniela Alexandra de Meneses Rocha; Rodrigues, Acácio Agostinho Gonçalves; Silva, Carmen Maria Lisboa da (October 2016). "Ebola virus – from neglected threat to global emergency state". Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. 62 (5): 458–467. doi:10.1590/1806-9282.62.05.458. PMID 27656857.