List of Dutch villages, castles and country houses destroyed or damaged by the French in 1672-1673

This is an incomplete list of Dutch Republic villages, country houses and castles, that were destroyed or seriously damaged by French troops in 1672/1673 during the Rampjaar (Disaster Year)[1][2] in the Franco-Dutch War. (This list was compiled from enumerations in the literature - please refer to the footnotes and the bibliography below.) In this Guerre de Hollande the strategy of the troops of the French king Louis XIV was "to burn as much as possible. You should burn down entire villages", wrote the French army general Louvois to his intendant.[3] Some castles have disappeared completely,[4] others are still there as a ruin or were rebuilt and still exist in some later version. However, Valkenburg Castle in Valkenburg aan de Geul was not destroyed by French troops but was blown up by stadholder William III after he had expelled the French troops in 1672,[5] to prevent a repeat occcupation by the French. It was never rebuilt.

Isaac Sorious: 't Slot te Breukelen, Breukelen castle, destroyed by French troops in 1672, etching 1672-1676, Rijksmuseum
Isaac Sorious: Moort te Swammerdam en Bodegraven den 28 Dec. (Murder in Zwammerdam and Bodegraven, 1672), a cut-out of Gedenk-teykenen, der wonderlyke geschiedenissen, voorgevallen in de Vereende Nederlanden, in't jaar, MDCLXXII.
Unknown author: Amerongen Castle as it was before its destruction by the French in 1673.
Roelant Roghman: Castle Gunterstein in Breukelen, 1646/47.
Abraham Rademaker: t Kasteel te Kuilenburg (Culemborg Castle), 1620.
W.P. Hoevenaar: Ameliswaard door de Franschen verrast ten jare 1673. Ameliswaard surprised by the French in the yeear 1673. w:nl:Oud-Amelisweerd (in Dutch) in Bunnik with French troops on the foreground. Print from around 1840.
The restored Castle Merckenburg, w:nl:Kasteel Merckenburg, 2005.
Unknown author: Jaarsveld Castle, w:nl:Kasteel Jaarsveld (in Dutch) in the 17th century.
Ruin of Sluis Castle, w:nl:Kasteel van Sluis, 1887
Ruin of w:nl:Kasteel Cranendonck (in Dutch), no date supplied.
Abraham Rademaker: Hofke bij Bommel, castle ruin of Hof bij Maasbommel, 1718-1730.
Jacobus Schijnvoet after Roelant Roghman: View of Ruwiel Castle at Oud-Aa near Breukelen, later destroyed by French troops in 1673. Print 1711 and later.

Destroyed or damaged villagesEdit

In 1672/1673 French troops damaged and destroyed not only castles, but also villages, which were depicted by Isaac Sorious in 1672-1676 in a thematic series of etchings:

  • Abcoude was burned on 6 November 1672.[6][7] Etching by Isaac Sorious: Abcoude, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum.[8]
  • Breukelen was destroyed in 1672.[6][9]
  • Bodegraven was rased to the ground[10][11] and the population was killed.[2][12]
  • Harmelen, the church was destroyed in 1672 by French troops.[13]
  • Naarden[14]
  • Nigtevecht, also Nichtevecht, was destroyed nearly completely on 21 April 1673,[15] leaving only a stump.. of the church tower and the house of the schoolmaster.[6][16][17] Etching by Isaac Sorious: Nigtevecht, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum.[8]
  • Overmeer near Nederhorst den Berg. Etching by Isaac Sorious: Overmeer, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum.[8][18]
  • Vreeswijk was damaged two times with a short interval in early October 1672 and the church was destroyed.[19] Etching by Isaac Sorious: Vreeswyk of de Vaart by Vianen, verwoeste brug en gebouwen, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum.[8][18]
  • Waverveen was destroyed. Etching by Isaac Sorious: Waverveen, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum.[8][18]
  • IJsselstein was burned partially by the French in 1672.[20]
  • Zwammerdam was totally destroyed[10][11][12] and its population killed.[2]

Country houses and castles damaged or destroyed in 1672-1673 by French troopsEdit

Alphabetically by Dutch municipality:

AEdit

BEdit

  • Baambrugge, Rijksstraatweg 147, Valckenheining (Valck en Heining) on Angstel River. The French destroyed in 1672 at least one of the homesteads of the Valckenier family, according to the book Het ontroerde Nederlandt (1674). The family built Valckenheining on the location of the former homestead.
  • Balgoij, Huis Balgoij, gemeente Wijchen. French troops destroyed this house in 1672, leaving still extant remains underground.[32]
  • Brakel, w:nl:Kasteel Brakel (in Dutch), blown up on 11 September 1672 by French troops after non-payment of the levy under threat of fire and was never rebuilt, a ruin.[33][34]
  • Breukelen
    • Aastein was destroyed by the French in 1672. Aastein was located near the farmhouse Uilenvlucht and is sometimes mistaken for the homesteads Huis Ter Aa and Over de Aa (Clarenborg), both in Breukelen.[35][36][37]
    • Gunterstein Castle, Slot te Breukelen, burned and blown up on 12 September 1673.[38][39][40][41][42][43][8]
    • w:nl:Kasteel Nijenrode (in Dutch), Huis Nyenrode, (largely) destroyed on 6 and 7 September 1673. The French headquarters was established here and farmers had to pull over a stone wall for protection of the castle.[44][45][9][46][47][48][6] Etching by Isaac Sorious: Huis te Nieuwenrode, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672.[8]
    • w:nl:Queekhoven (in Dutch), Zandpad 51, was destroyed in 1672, and was rebuilt later.[49][50][51][52]
    • w:nl:Kasteel Ruwiel (in Dutch), Ruwiel Castle, a former castle to the north west of Breukelen, was destroyed by French troops on 21 July 1673.[53][54][55][56][57]
    • Vecht en Dam was destroyed in 1672/1673.[58]
    • Vegtvliet or Vechtvliet, Rijksstraatweg 220, owned by the Amsterdam merchant Willem van den Broeck, when the French left in 1673[59][60] Etching by J. Sorious Het huis van de Heer vanden Broek, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672[8] in part II of Het ontroerde Nederlandt (1676).
    • Voortwijk was burned by the French in 1672.[61]
    • w:nl:Vreedenoord (in Dutch) or Vredenoord, Straatweg 68. A farmhouse was set on fire in 1672 by the French. At the same location Vredenoord was erected.[62]
  • Bunnik:

CEdit

DEdit

EEdit

  • Epe, Quickborn, also Domselaar or Huis te Epe, was damaged severely by French troops.[70]

GEdit

HEdit

JEdit

LEdit

  • Lobith, w:nl:Tolhuis (Lobith) (in Dutch). French troops damaged the large tower of this toll castle in 1672.[90]
  • Loenen aan de Vecht
    • former Castle Kronenburg (in Dutch) of Cronenburg(h), Rijksstraatweg 84. Occupied in 1672 by 200 Dutch State soldiers, but due to the great force majeure and lack of ammunition, they had to surrender to the French army of 1500 men led by the Duke of Luxembourg. After this, the French occupied the castle for two months and it was only partly dismantled, because the Dutch lord of the castle was a Catholic.[91] In September 1673, the round main tower was blown up with gunpowder.[92][93][94][95][96]
    • Nieuwerhoek, Rijksstraatweg 78, heavily damaged in the French siege of Kronenburg.[97]
  • Lopik, Huis te Jaarsveld or Veldenstein, just outside the village of Jaarsveld was pillaged in 1673 by French troops and set on fire.[98]

MEdit

NEdit

OEdit

  • Overasselt,
    • Nagelhorst, Kasteelsestraat 10, was for the larger part destroyed in 1672.[127]
    • Overasselt. "Adelijcke havesaet" and "kasteel" (Huis te) Overasselt (House at Overasselt), north of the street Hoogstraat, was set on fire by the French on 1 May 1672 and was probably never rebuilt.[128]

PEdit

VEdit

  • Vuren. "Thuys te Vuyren" (House at Vuyren) in municipality West Betuwe was destroyed by French troops in 1672.[133]

WEdit

  • Wageningen, w:nl:Kasteel van Wageningen, Wageeningen Castle. French troops probably destroyed most of this castle in 1672. There are indications that walls have been blown up. All the towers, the gatehouse, the building along the east wall and the castle moat have disappeared on a map of 1722 .[134][135][136]

?Edit

Location in Utrecht province to be determined:

  • Country house of the Lord van de Weert. Etching by Isaac Sorious, 1672 - 1676: Huis van de Heer vande Weert, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum.[8][18]
  • Country house Huis Kroonwyck of Mr. Pauw. Etching by Isaac Sorious: Het Huis Kroon-wyck van de heer Pauw, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum.[8][18] Is the same as w:nl:Cromwijck (in Dutch)?

GalleryEdit

Romeyn de HoogheEdit

Isaac Sorious: Destroyed villages and castles in Utrecht province in 1672, 1672-1676[8]Edit

Saved country estates and fortressesEdit

 
Constantijn Huygens jr. - Kasteel Zuilichem (1657). Zuilichem Castle was saved because of the good relations of the Huygens family with the French court. Father Constantijn Huygens was a Dutch top diplomate and his son Christiaan Huygens was a research director in French service at the Académie des sciences in Paris.

Some country estates, castles but also fortresses were saved from destruction by the French in 1672, including

Dutch and French language literatureEdit

17th centuryEdit

 
(Abraham de Wicquefort:) Getrouw advys aen de oprechte Hollanders; rakende hetgeen gepasseert is in de dorpen van Bodegrave en Swammerdam,.., 1674.
  • van Domselaer, Tobias, de Hooghe, Romeyn et al.: Het ontroerde Nederlandt door de wapenen des konings van Vrankryk, dat is Een waarachtigh verhaal van den Fransen, Engelsen, Keulsen en Munstersen oorlogh, tegen de Vereenigde Nederlanden, met desselfs binnelandtse beroerten, daer in naukeuriglijk alle der zelver voorvallen worden verhandelt, Markus Willemsz. Doornik, Amsterdam, 1674, 1676
  • (Wicquefort, Abraham de:)
    • Advis fidelle aux veritables Hollandois. Touchant ce qui s'est passé dans les villages de Bodegrave & Swammerdam, & les cruautés inoüies, que les François y ont exercées. Avec un memoire de la derniere marche de l'Armée du Roy de France en Brabant & en Flandre, [Den Haag], [Daniel en Johannes Steucker], 1673, 202 p. Illustraties Romeyn de Hooghe. Facsimile reprint: Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2010, 236 p. ISBN 978-1166458713. Illustrations on Wikimedia Commons.
    • Getrouw advys aen de oprechte Hollanders; rakende hetgeen gepasseert is in de dorpen van Bodegrave en Swammerdam, en de ongehoorde wreedtheden, die de Fransen aldaer gepleeght hebben; met een memorie van den koning van Vranckrijck door Brabant en Vlaanderen, [Den Haag], 1674, 317 pagina's. Pdf at Wikimedia Commons.[157]
    • Journael, of dagelijcksch verhael van de handel der Franschen in de steden van Uytrecht en Woerden, sedert hun koomst daer binnen, tot aan hun vertrek: daer in hun gruwelijcke wreetheyt en tyrannie, in dese twee plaetsen, gelijck oock in verscheyde andere, T'Amsterdam : by Jan Claesz. ten Hoorn, Amsterdam 1674.[158][159]

19th centuryEdit

  • Craandijk, J.: Wandelingen door Nederland, Haarlem 1883 2e druk
  • De Rijk, J. A.: Wandelingen door Gooi- en Eemland en omstreken, Arnhem 1967. Oorspronkelijk verschenen in De Gooi- en Eemlander, 1881, reprint 1905

20th centuryEdit

  • Blankenberg, Huub and Taselaar, Klaas: Historisch reisboek voor Nederland, Fibula-Van Dishoeck Bussum, Unieboek B.V. Bussum, 1983, ISBN 9022836126
  • Klok, R. H. J.: Archeologisch reisboek voor Nederland, Fibula-Van Dishoeck Haarlem, Unieboek B.V. Bussum, 1977, ISBN 9789022836163
  • Munnig Schmidt, E. and Lisman, A. J. A. M., met tekeningen van Schut, C. J. Th: Plaatsen aan de Vecht en de Angstel, Canaletto, Alphen aan de Rijn, 1993, ISBN 906469611X
  • Olde Meierink, Ben et al.: Kastelen en ridderhofsteden in Utrecht, Uitgeverij Matrijs, Utrecht, 1995, ISBN 9789053450727
  • Wilmer, C. C. S.: Buitens binnen Utrecht, Kwadraat, 1982, ISBN 9789064812019

21st centuryEdit

  • Fafianie, Ton, Rijntjes, R., van der Wiel, Manon, and editor Stades-Visscher, Elisabeth: Nieuwegein Geschiedenis en architectuur. Monumenteninventarisatie Utrecht, Zeist 2002, ISBN 9789067202893
  • Jas, J., Keverling Buisman, F., Storms-Smeets, E., te Stroete, A., Wingens, M., editor Vredenberg, J.: Kastelen in Gelderland, Uitgeverij Matrijs, 2013, ISBN 978-90-5345-410-7
  • Mansel, Philip: Lodewijk XIV. Koning van de wereld, Spectrum, 2019. Translation of King of the World: the Life of Louis XIV, Penguin, 2019 ISBN 9789000370481
  • Munnig Schmidt, E. and Jonker-Duynstee, J. J. A. M.: Vechtgids. Culturele gids van de Vechtstreek, Oudheidkundig Genootschap Niftarlake, 2012, ISBN 9789087042752
  • van Nimwegen, Olaf: De Veertigjarige oorlog 1672-1712, Prometheus Amsterdam, 2019, ISBN 9789044638714
  • Panhuysen, Luc:
    • Oranje tegen de Zonnekoning : De strijd van Willem III en Lodewijk XIV om Europa, Atlas Contact, Amsterdam/Antwerpen, 2016, ISBN 978-9045036298
    • Rampjaar 1672. Hoe de Republiek aan de ondergang ontsnapte, Olympus, 2019, ISBN 9789046707319
  • Op de Beeck, Johan: De zonnekoning. Glorie & schaduw van Lodewijk XIV, Horizon, 2018, ISBN 978-9492626172

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Panhuysen, Luc: Rampjaar 1672. Hoe de Republiek aan de ondergang ontsnapte, Olympus, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c historischnieuwsblad.nl Luc Panhuysen: Historisch Nieuwsblad 3/2006. Het rampjaar 1672. Op alles leek het woord ‘verraad’ van toepassing, 2006. Consulted on 16 November 2020.
  3. ^ Mansel 2019, p. 226, 229-230. However, Louis, Grand Condé warned King Louis XIV for the "brutal disgust we have brought upon ourselves" by the actions of French troops in the Nethelands.
  4. ^ van Nimwegen 2019, p. 83. "Lodewijk XIV zelf kan het bloedbad in de Hollandse dorpen niet worden aangerekend. Anders ligt dit echter bij de stelselmatige verwoesting van landhuizen, landstreken en zelfs steden waartoe de Zonnekoning gericht opdracht gaf." Translation: "Louis XIV himself cannot be blamed for the massacre in the Dutch villages. The situation is different, however, with the systematic destruction of manors, regions and even cities, directed by the Sun King. "
  5. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 274: "In 1672 werd hij [Kasteel Valkenburg] door troepen van stadhouder Willem III verwoest, nadat deze het kasteel op de Fransen hadden heroverd."
  6. ^ a b c d Panhuysen 2019, p. 304
  7. ^ a b Klok 1977, p. 184: "De Fransen hadden op 6 november 1672 reeds het dorp Abcoude in brand gestoken en kwamen op 30 november terug". Klok cites an unspecified description by "Mr. Breuninghoff, around 1860 head schoolmaster of Abcoude":.. om het nog staande gedeelte in de asch te leggen, bood de bezetting van het slot, die inmiddels versterking bekomen had, zoo veel tegenweer, dat de vijand genoodzaakt was, met achterlating van verscheidene gevangenen, onverrichter zake terug te keeren."
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l www.rijksmuseum.nl Isaac Sorious. Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  9. ^ a b c Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 137
  10. ^ a b Op de Beeck 2018, p.232. Bodegraven and Zwammerdam were rased to the ground.
  11. ^ a b In Bodegraven and Zwammerdam 2000 houses were ... set on fire with the inhabitants still within. Mansel 2019, p. 230
  12. ^ a b van Nimwegen 2019, p.81-82
  13. ^ Jaap Renaud: Harmelen, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 237-241 on p. 238.
  14. ^ De Rijk 1967, p. 212
  15. ^ The 13th-century church was largely destroyed by French troops. After being rebuilt the church was reopened in 1677. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 200
  16. ^ www.kerknigtevecht.nl Geschiedenis Hervormde kerk. De grote brand in 1673. Consulted on 14 November 2020.
  17. ^ Destroyed by 600 French troops, leaving only the house of the schoolmaster intact, now near the Dutch Protestant church. Munnig-Schmidt 2012, p. 149
  18. ^ a b c d e Tobias van Domselaer, Romeyn de Hooghe et al.: Het ontroerde Nederlandt door de wapenen des konings van Vrankryk, dat is Een waarachtigh verhaal van den Fransen, Engelsen, Keulsen en Munstersen oorlogh, tegen de Vereenigde Nederlanden, met desselfs binnelandtse beroerten, daer in naukeuriglijk alle der zelver voorvallen worden verhandelt, Markus Willemsz. Doornik, Amsterdam, 1674, 1676
  19. ^ There was a French fortification with an inner and an outer wall and a palissade on formerly ... unbroken ground tevoren onbebouwd ground, which in 2002 was called Raadhuisplein. Fafiani 2002 p. 45
  20. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 158
  21. ^ Marieke Knuijt: Amerongen, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 14-119, on p. 117.
  22. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl Amerongen. Consulted on 10 November 2020.
  23. ^ www.kasteelamerongen.nl Het kasteel - De geschiedenis van het ‘Huys’ in het kort. Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  24. ^ The castle was lit by putting straw fagots against it, which local farmers had to supply to the French troops. The castle burned for two days. Panhuysen 2019, p. 306.
  25. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 133
  26. ^ kasteleninutrecht.eu Amerongen. Consulted on 14 November 2020. Ontleend aan Ben Olde Meijering (red.): Kastelen en ridderhofsteden in Utrecht, 1995
  27. ^ van Nimwegen 2019, p.83. Destroyed by special order of Louis XIV, who suspected the owner Van Reede of inciting German and Nordic princes against France.
  28. ^ A. A. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig woordenboek der Nederlanden IX, Gorinchem 1847, p. 575.
  29. ^ Appendix, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 536.
  30. ^ Wilfried Ahoud: Appeltern, in Jas, J., Keverling Buisman, F., Storms-Smeets, E., te Stroete, A., Wingens, M.: Kastelen in Gelderland, Uitgeverij Matrijs, 2013, ISBN 978-90-5345-410-7, p. 478-479.
  31. ^ Jas et al., 2013, p. 274.
  32. ^ Wim Kattenberg: Balgoij, in Jas et al. 2013, p. 499
  33. ^ monumentenregister.cultureelerfgoed.nl Complexnummer: 528825. Quote from the file "complex (pdf)": The end came in 1672 when French troops blew the castle up for non-payment of the levy under threat of fire. It was never rebuilt. Consulted on 14 November 2020.
  34. ^ Jas, J., Kastelen in Gelderland, p. 104-105, 506
  35. ^ Jaap Renaud, Jan H. Huiting en Ben Olde Meierink: Aastein, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 92-95
  36. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl Aastein / Ter Aa
  37. ^ Taco Hermans: Middeleeuwse woontorens in Nederland. De bouwhistorische benadering van een kasteelvorm, 2016, p. 13-15
  38. ^ In 1673 blown up by the French. Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 138
  39. ^ On departure the French set the castle on fire and blew up the castle tower leaving a ruin, but in 1680-1681 the castle was rebuilt. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 13-14 en 96
  40. ^ After recapture of Naarden by Dutch Staatse troops, the French demolished Gunterstein leaving a ruin. Kees Hensbergen: Gunterstein, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 212-217, on p. 213.
  41. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 58
  42. ^ Craandijk 1883, p. 117
  43. ^ De Rijk 1967, p. 205
  44. ^ On 7 September 1673 it was blown up using mines with gun powder, and the trees were axed. Craandijk 1883, p. 110
  45. ^ De Rijk 1967, p. 204
  46. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 13 and 86: Swiss mercenaries in French service burned Kasteel Nijenrode down on 7 September 1673.
  47. ^ Swiss troops employed by the French blew up the high tower on 6 September 1673 and set fire to the other parts of the castle, which was largely burnt down as a result. Taco Hermans: Nijenrode, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 341-346, on p. 342.
  48. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 63
  49. ^ a b Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 138
  50. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 102
  51. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 86
  52. ^ kasteleninutrecht.eu Queekhoven. Consulted on 14 November 2020.
  53. ^ Jaap Renaud: Ruwiel, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 381-384, on p. 382.
  54. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl Ruwiel. Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  55. ^ www.kasteleninutrecht.eu Ruwiel. Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  56. ^ A.A. Manten: De laatste eeuw van kasteel Ruwiel, in: Tijdschrift van de Historische Kring Breukelen, jrg 6, nr. 4, 1991, blz. 188 - 199, on p. 197, refer to dspace.library.uu.nl Utrecht University Repository Tijdschrift / Historische Kring Breukelen THKB_1991-04-1.pdf. Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  57. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 82
  58. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 69
  59. ^ The name Vegtvliet or Vechtvliet was only used after 1700. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 13 en 110.
  60. ^ Vegtvliet werd "lelijk toegetakeld" (was badly damaged), Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 75.
  61. ^ Craandijk 1883, p. 120
  62. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 88
  63. ^ Wilmer 1982, p. 85
  64. ^ Reinder Haakstra: Nieuw-Amelisweerd, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 108-113, on p. 112
  65. ^ Wilmer 1982, p. 88
  66. ^ Nico van der Woude: Oud-Amelisweerd, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 102-107, on p. 103. Did the castle still exist at the time, what was it precisely that the French demolished? There are no known drawings from the 17th century, p. 105
  67. ^ A.J. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig woordenboek der Nederlanden, Deel 3 C-D, J. Noorduyn 1841, p. 149, artikel Culemborg (kasteel van). Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  68. ^ Jan Vredenberg: Culemborg, p. 200, 202 in Jas et al., 2013.
  69. ^ Nicolaas Conijn: Middachten, in Jas et al., 2013, p.437
  70. ^ Jorien Jas: Quickborn, p. 239 in Jas et al., 2013
  71. ^ cornelistromp.nl "'t Sal waerachtig wel gaen", de Trompenburgh, Het mooiste Huis van Holland. Consulted on 16 November 2020.
  72. ^ van Nimwegen 2019, p.83
  73. ^ trompenburgh.nl De buitenplaats In het kort. Consulted on 16 November 2020.
  74. ^ Huis Spiegelrust of Tromp was destroyed as well. De Rijk 1967, p. 212
  75. ^ web.archive.org www.kasteleningelderland.nl Goudenstein (Haaften). Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  76. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl Huis te Haaften / Goudenstein. Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  77. ^ Jas, Jorien (eindred.): Kastelen in Gelderland, Uitgeverij Matrijs, 2013, p. 105, 352-353. Here a fire levy, "brandschatting", was mentioned.
  78. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 140
  79. ^ Located along the Vleutense Rijn a few kilometers north of the village proper. Jaap Renaud: Harmelen, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 237-241 on p. 238.
  80. ^ monumentenregister.cultureelerfgoed.nl Heukelum Complexnummer: 512016 Complexomschrijving. Citaat: "In 1672 is dit kasteel door de French troops opgeblazen." Consulted on 16 November 2020.
  81. ^ kasteelheukelum.nl Kasteel Heukelum, 2011. "Kasteel en stad liepen zware schade op." Consulted on 28 November 2020.
  82. ^ mijngelderland.nl Kastelen Frissestein en Engelenburg. Consulted on 3 November 2020.
  83. ^ Jas 2013, pp. 105, 268-269
  84. ^ kasteleninnederland.nl Frissesteyn / Herwijnen / Frissestijn. Consulted on 22 November 2020.
  85. ^ monumentenregister.cultureelerfgoed.nl Monumentnummer: 45558 te Herwijnen. Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  86. ^ Wilfried Ahoud: Hoevelaken, in Jas et al. 2013, p. 371
  87. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl. Consulted on 5 November 2020.
  88. ^ kasteleninutrecht.eu Jaarsveld. Consulted on 5 November 2020.
  89. ^ monumentenregister.cultureelerfgoed.nl Huis te Jaarsveld Complexnummer: 511206. Quote:"Het kasteel werd in 1673 verwoest door de Fransen en niet weer herbouwd. Een beschrijving uit 1683 noemt 'de vermaerde hoge en vrije heerlyckheyt van Jaersvelt, bestaende uit een vervallen sloth, leggende in sijne dubbele grachten, den duyventoren, thuymanshuys'." Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  90. ^ Jan Harenberg: Tolhuis, in Jas et al., 2013, p. 440
  91. ^ Taco Hermans en Elisabeth de Ligt: Kronenburg, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 269-273, on p. 270.
  92. ^ Restored in 1680. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 132
  93. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl Kronenburg. Consulted on 5 November 2020.
  94. ^ www.kasteleninutrecht.eu Kronenburg. Consulted on 5 November 2020.
  95. ^ Tower blown up with gunpowder. Craandijk 1883, p. 135
  96. ^ Blown up completely with gunpowder. Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 86
  97. ^ Restored in 1680. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 130
  98. ^ Jan H. Huiting: Jaarsveld, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 261-263, on p. 262.
  99. ^ www.cranendonck.nl Kasteel Cranendonck. Consulted on 5 November 2020.
  100. ^ van der Aa: Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden, Zesde deel I-K, januari 1846 J. Noorduyn, artikel Kranendonk (Huis-Te-) p. 635. Quote: "De Fransen deden het, den 16 September 1673, in de lucht springen." books.google.nl. Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  101. ^ Craandijk 1883, p. 107
  102. ^ Destroyed in 1672, as shown in an etching by J. Sorious. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 72
  103. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 53-54
  104. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 144
  105. ^ Verwoest door de Fransen. Herbouwd in 1710. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 13-14
  106. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl slot te Maarssen / Zuylenburg / Ter Meer. Consulted on 5 November 2020.
  107. ^ Vogelzang, Fred: Ridderhofsteden in Utrecht. De veranderende betekenis van een adellijk symbool, pp. 372-383 in Gietman, Conrad: Adelsgeschiedenis 15 - Huis en habitus over kastelen, buitenplaatsen en notabele levensvormen, Uitgeverij Verloren B.V., 2017, on p. 378
  108. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 34
  109. ^ Huis Termeer was plundered and burnt down on 12 December 1672. Craandijk 1883, p. 91
  110. ^ Ter Meer was located on the Julianaweg, Maarssen, and was destroyed by the French on December 12, 1672. The ruins were not cleared until the early 18th century. Douwe Koen: Ter Meer, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 306-309
  111. ^ John Raggers: De geschiedenis van Het Hof, een poging tot reconstructie, februari 2020. Stichting Historisch Maasbommel. PDF www.hanzestadmaasbommel.info.
  112. ^ Tijmen Pranger: Maasbommel, in Jas, J., Keverling Buisman, F., Storms-Smeets, E., te Stroete, A., Wingens, M.: Kastelen in Gelderland, Uitgeverij Matrijs, 2013, ISBN 978-90-5345-410-7, p. 483.
  113. ^ Marjan Witteveen: Well, in Jas et al. 2013, p. 322
  114. ^ Jan Vredenberg: Millingen, p. 324 in Jas et al., 2013
  115. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl Montfoort. Consulted on 5 November 2020.
  116. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 145
  117. ^ Charles Noordam: Montfoort, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 318-324, on p. 322.
  118. ^ www.absolutefacts.nl Ben Hendriks: Kasteel Nederhorst. Kasteel in Noord-Holland., zonder jaar. Consulted on 10 November 2020.
  119. ^ www.kasteleninnederland.nl Nederhorst / De Horst. Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  120. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 196
  121. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 144
  122. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 146
  123. ^ The French general Condé had a fortress, a 'schans', built at the newly built Doorslagsluis lock from 1671 to protect Utrecht. But the effective functioning of the Dutch Water Line during the Disaster Year could be sabotaged by allowing water to drain from the flooded area between Jutphaas and IJsselstein in the years 1672-1674 via the Doorslagsluis. French soldiers were stationed here until the end of 1673. www.pen.nl De Doorslagsluis in Jutphaas, 6 januari 2013 (in Dutch). Consulted on 14 November 2020.
  124. ^ Isaac Sorious included an etching of this sconce in his series depicting the destruction by the French in 1672, entitled De schans aen Iutfaes, 1672 - 1676, Rijksmuseum. This etching is described by Rijksmuseum as De schans bij Jutphaas, verwoest door de Fransen in 1672 (The sconce near Jutphas, destroyed by the French in 1672).
  125. ^ The Doorslagsluis lock itself is a municipal monument. www.nieuwegein.nl Gemeentelijke monumenten Nieuwegein. Consulted on 14 November 2020.
  126. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 114
  127. ^ Jas et al. 2013, p. 266
  128. ^ Jan Vredenberg: Heumen, in Jas et al. 2013, p. 267.
  129. ^ www.absolutefacts.nl Ruud van Capelleveen: Kasteel Poederoijen. Kasteel in Gelderland., zonder jaar. Consulted on 10 November 2020.
  130. ^ mijngelderland.nl Ben Boersema: Kasteel Poederoyen Van verdedigingsburcht naar woonkasteel. Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  131. ^ Jas 2013, p. 105, 521
  132. ^ Jas 2013 p. 105
  133. ^ Jas et al., 2013, p. 274
  134. ^ kasteleninnederland.nl Kasteel van Wageningen. Consulted on 3 November 2020.
  135. ^ mijngelderland.nl Ben Boersema: Kasteel Wageningen Strategisch stadskasteel . Consulted on 21 November 2020.
  136. ^ Luuk Keunen: Wageningen, in Jorien Jas (eindredacteur), Kastelen in Gelderland, Uitgeverij Matrijs, Utrecht 2013, p. 474-477.
  137. ^ Jaap Renaud: Abcoude, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 98-101, p.98
  138. ^ www.routeyou.com Kasteel Zuilichem. Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  139. ^ Saved because it was the headquarters of the French commander or because bribes were paid. Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 82
  140. ^ Ineke Dukes-Greup: Oudaen, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 351-355, on p. 352.
  141. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 55-56
  142. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 110: "Omdat het slot in 1672 eigendom van een Deens edelman was geworden, werd het door de troepen van Louvois ontzien.", "Because the castle had become the property of a Danish nobleman in 1672, it was spared by the troops of Louvois."
  143. ^ mijngelderland.nl Kasteel Engelenburg bij Herwijnen. Consulted on 4 November 2020.
  144. ^ www.absolutefacts.com Ruud van Capelleveen: Schenkenschans in 1672, z.j., historischnieuwsblad.nl Luc Panhuysen: Historisch Nieuwsblad 3/2006. Het rampjaar 1672. Op alles leek het woord ‘verraad’ van toepassing, 2006. and mijngelderland.nl Marieke Muilwijk: Tachtigjarige Oorlog: Schenkenschans. De Waal als barrière - Strijd aan de Waal 3, z.j. Consulted on 16 November 2020.
  145. ^ Tolien Wilmer: Keppel, p. 153 in Jas et al., 2013
  146. ^ www.kasteleninutrecht.eu Zuilenstein. Consulted on 16 November 2020. Citaat: "Dan volgt het rampjaar 1672, maar Zuilenstein blijft gespaard voor de vernielingen van de Fransen, doordat stadhouder Willem III er zich persoonlijk mee bemoeide".
  147. ^ binnenstebuiten.kro-ncrv.nl Ted van Hooff: Geschiedenis en innovatie op landgoed Zuylestein. Consulted on 6 November 2020.
  148. ^ Te Nesse on Kastelen in Utrecht. Consulted on 14 November 2020.
  149. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 143
  150. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Lisman 1993, p. 184
  151. ^ Kasteel Loenersloot was saved because the lord of the castle was a catholic. Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 172
  152. ^ Munnig Schmidt and Jonker-Duynstee 2012, p. 43
  153. ^ www.slotzuylen.nl Geschiedenis van Slot Zuylen. Consulted on 9 November 2020. "Door goede contacten bleef het gespaard in het rampjaar 1672, toen menig ander kasteel door de Fransen werd verwoest."
  154. ^ Evert de Jonge: Nijenbeek, in Jas et al. 2013, p. 468.
  155. ^ Blankenberg and Taselaar 1983, p. 157
  156. ^ Saved by a French commander with the withdrawal of the French troops. Jaap Renaud: Duurstede, in Olde Meierink, Ben et al., 1995, p. 180-186, on p. 182.
  157. ^ books.google.nl Getrouw advys aen de oprechte Hollanders; rakende hetgeen gepasseert is in de dorpen van Bodegrave en Swammerdam, en de ongehoorde wreedtheden, die de Fransen aldaer gepleeght hebben; met een memorie van den koning van Vranckrijck door Brabant en Vlaanderen. Consulted on 18 November 2020.
  158. ^ dspace.library.uu.nl Utrecht University Repository , full text scan. Consulted on 18 November 2020.
  159. ^ www.rijksmuseum.nl Titelprent voor: Journael, of dagelijcksch Verhael van de handel der Franschen in de Steden van Uytrecht en Woerden, serdert hun koomst daer binnen, tot aan hun Vertrek, 1674, Romeyn de Hooghe (attributed to), 1672 - 1674 RP-P-OB-77.206. Consulted on 18 November 2020.

External linksEdit

CastlesEdit

Rampjaar, Disaster Year 1672-1673Edit