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This is a purported list of ancient humans remains, including mummies, that may have been DNA tested. Provided as evidence of the testing are links to the mitochondrial DNA sequences, and/or to the human haplogroups to which each case has been assigned. Also provided is a brief description of when and where they lived.[according to whom?] Entries lacking a citation should be viewed with skepticism; in particular, cases with no sequence or haplogroup links, with citation, have no evidentiary basis for appearing.

Contents

mtDNA testsEdit

The following mummies have undergone an mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) test, of remains with the indicated name, from the indicated locations:[citation needed]

Name Original Location
of Remains
Date Lived
(years ago)
Mitochondrial DNA sequence mtDNA Haplogroup Y-DNA Haplogroup
Paglicci 23 Italy 28,000[1] CRS [2] H[citation needed]
Paglicci 25 Italy 23,000[3] 7,025 AluI, 00073A, 11719G, 12308A [4] HV[4]|
Cheddar Man England >9,000[citation needed] 16192T,[citation needed] 16270T[citation needed] U5b1[5]
Ötzi the Iceman Austria/Italy 5,300 [6] K.[7][8] G2a2b[9]
Nakht-Ankh Egypt 4,000[10] Haplogroup M1a1 (mtDNA)|M1a1.[11]
Khnum-Nakht Egypt 4,000[12] Haplogroup M1a1 (mtDNA)|M1a1.[13]
Tel Shadud Canaanite Nobelman Israel 3,300[14] Haplogroup R1b[15]
Tel Shadud speciman L126 Israel 3,300[16] Haplogroup I5a1[17] Haplogroup J[18]
Ramesses III Egypt 3,200[19] E1b1a[20]
Pentawer Egypt 3,200[19] E1b1a[20]
The Norwich Anglo-Saxon England 1,000[citation needed] 16189A,[citation needed] 16223T,[citation needed] 16271C,[citation needed] 16278T[citation needed] X[citation needed]
Juanita the Ice Maiden Peru 500[citation needed] 16111T, 16223T, 16290T, 16319A[21] A[citation needed]
Young Man of Byrsa Tunisia late 6th century BCE U5b2c1[22]
500-year-old Inca child Argentina 500[23] C1b[23]

DNA testsEdit

The following mummies have undergone DNA tests, of remains with the indicated name, from the indicated locations:[citation needed]

Name Original Location
of Remains
Date Lived
(years ago)
DNA sequence Y-DNA Haplogroup
Thuya Egypt 3,390 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Yuya Egypt 3,390 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Tiye (Elder Lady KV35) Egypt 3,370 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Amenhotep III Egypt 3,370 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV55 mummy Egypt 3,350 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV35 Younger Lady Egypt 3,390 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Tutankhamun Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV21 Mummy A Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV21 Mummy B Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D2S1338,

D16S539, CSF1PO [24]

KV62 Fetus 1 Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV62 Fetus 2 Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kambiz Kamrani (2006). "The 28,000 Year Old Paglicci 23 Cro-Magnon mtDNA Ain't Neandertal — It Is More Modern Than Anything Else". Anthropology.net. Archived from the original on January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  2. ^ Caramelli, David; Vai, Stefania (July 2008). "A 28,000 Years Old Cro-Magnon mtDNA Sequence Differs from All Potentially Contaminating Modern Sequences". PLoS ONE. 3 (7): e2700. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.2700C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002700. PMC 2444030. PMID 18628960.
  3. ^ Mallegni, F; Bertoldi, F; Manolis, S.K. (1999). "The Gravettian female human skeleton from Grotta Paglicci, south Italy". HOMO: Journal of Comparative Human Biology. 50 (2): 127–148.
  4. ^ a b Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; et al. (May 27, 2003). "Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans". PNAS. 100 (11): 6593–6597. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.6593C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1130343100. PMC 164492. PMID 12743370.
  5. ^ Brace, Selina; et al. (18 February 2018). "Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain". bioRxiv 267443.
  6. ^ Bonani, Georges; Ivy, Susan D.; et al. (1994). "AMS 14
    C
    Age Determination of Tissue, Bone and Grass Samples from the Ötzal Ice Man"
    (PDF). Radiocarbon. 36 (2): 247–250. doi:10.1017/s0033822200040534. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  7. ^ Ermini, Luca; Olivieri, Cristina; et al. (November 11, 2008). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman". Current Biology. 18 (21): 1687–93. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.09.028. PMID 18976917.
  8. ^ Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J; et al. (2009). "Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: The singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman". BMC Genetics. 10: 29. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-29. PMC 2717998. PMID 19545382.
  9. ^ Keller, Andreas; Graefen, Angela; et al. (February 28, 2012). "New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing". Nature Communications. 3: 698. Bibcode:2012NatCo...3E.698K. doi:10.1038/ncomms1701. PMID 22426219.
  10. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  11. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  12. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  13. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  14. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  15. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  16. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  17. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  18. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  19. ^ a b "Study reveals that Pharaoh's throat was cut during royal coup" (Press release). BMJ. 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  20. ^ a b Hawass, Zahi; Ismail, Somaia; Selim, Ashraf; Saleem, Sahar N.; Fathalla, Dina; Wasef, Sally; Gad, Ahmed Z.; Saad, Rama; Fares, Suzan; Amer, Hany; Gostner, Paul; Gad, Yehia Z.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Zink, Albert R. (December 17, 2012). "Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study". BMJ. 345: e8268. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8268. PMID 23247979. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  21. ^ "Ancient DNA". www.isogg.org. International Society of Genetic Genealogy. 14 May 2005. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  22. ^ Matisoo-Smith EA, Gosling AL, Boocock J, Kardailsky O, Kurumilian Y, Roudesli-Chebbi S, et al. (May 25, 2016). "A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa". PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0155046. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1155046M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155046. PMC 4880306. PMID 27224451.
  23. ^ a b Gómez-Carballa A, Catelli L, Pardo-Seco J, et al. (November 12, 2015). "The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy". Sci Rep. 5: 16462. Bibcode:2015NatSR...516462G. doi:10.1038/srep16462. PMC 4642457. PMID 26561991.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hawass, Zahi; Gad, Y. Z.; Ismail, S.; Khairat, R.; Fathalla, D.; Hasan, N.; Ahmed, A.; Elleithy, H.; Ball, M.; Gaballah, F.; Wasef, S.; Fateen, M.; Amer, H.; Gostner, P.; Selim, A.; Zink, A.; Pusch, C. M. (2010). "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family". JAMA. 303 (7): 638–47. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID 20159872.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit