List of Burmese royal consorts

  (Redirected from List of Burmese consorts)

This is a list of the queen consorts of the major kingdoms that existed in present-day Myanmar. Those with the rank of Nan Mibaya (Queens Or King's consort of The Palace Aka Most Supreme Queens Of The Senior rank or Principal Queens Of Burma), Mibaya Nge (Junior Queens Aka Junior King's consorts), Kolotetaw (Concubines) —are listed.

PrimerEdit

Rankings of consortsEdit

Prior to the Konbaung period (1752–1885), the consorts of the Burmese monarchs were organized in three general tiers:The Principal Queens Or Supreme Queens Of The Senior Rank Or Queens Of Palace (“Nan-ya Mibaya” (Burmese:နန်းရမိဖုရားကြီး)), Junior Queens (“Mibaya Nge” (Burmese:မိဖုရားငယ်), The Concubines (“Kolotetaw” (Burmese: ကိုယ်လုပ်တော်)[note 1] Starting in the late 18th century, the Konbaung kings inserted the tiers of Hsaungdaw Mibaya (ဆောင်တော် မိဖုရား, lit. "Queen of the Royal Apartment") and Shwe-Yay Hsaung Mibaya (ရွှေရေးဆောင် မိဖုရား, lit. "Queen of the Gilded Chamber") between the tiers of senior queen and junior queen.[1]

Each tier had further rankings within it. The order of precedence within the topmost tier was:[1]

The Royal Supreme Queens of Senior Rank or 4 Principal Queens Of Burma
Rank Title Description
1. Nanmadaw Mibaya Khaunggyi (နန်းမတော် မိဖုရား ခေါင်ကြီး) aka
Taung Nan Mibaya (တောင်နန်း မိဖုရား)
Chief Queen (or Empress) aka The Royal Supreme Queen of the Southern Palace
2. Myauk Nan Mibaya (မြောက်နန်း မိဖုရား) The Royal Supreme Queen of the Northern Palace
3. Ale Nan Mibaya (အလယ်နန်း မိဖုရား) The Royal Supreme Queen of the Central Palace
4. Anauk Nan Mibaya (အနောက်နန်း မိဖုရား) The Royal Supreme Queen of the Western Palace

Even though they are in the same position,they have to respect someone higher rank than themselves and There should always be only three or four in this rank because there were three or 4 supreme queen aka main queen since the Bagan period

The Senior Queens Of Second Rank
Rank Title Description
1 TaungHsaungDaw Mibaya(bur.တောင်ဆောင်တော်မိဖုရား) Royal Queen Of The Southern Apartment
2 MyaukHsaungDaw Mibaya(bur.‌ေြမာက်ဆောင်တော်မိဖုရား) Royal Queen Of The Northern Apartment
The Senior Queens Of The Third Rank
Rank Title Description
1 Taung Shwe Yay Mibaya(bur.တောင်ရွှေရေးမိဖုရား Royal Queen Of The Southern Gilded Chamber
2 Myauk Shwe Yay Mibaya(bur.‌ေြမာက်ရွှေရေးမိဖုရား Royal Queen Of The Northern Gilded Chamber
3 Ale Shwe Yay Mibaya(bur.အလယ်ရွှေရေးမိဖုရား The Royal Queen Of The Central Gilded Chamber
4 Anauk Shwe Yay Mibaya(bur.အနောက်ရွှေရေးမိဖုရား The Royal Queen Of The Western Gilded Chamber
Queens Of Fourth Rank or The Junior Queens
Rank Title Description
1 Myo Zar Mibaya(bur.မြို့စားမိဖုရား) The Queen Who ruled a city that rewarded by Kings
2 Ywa Zar Mibaya(bur.ရွာစားမိဖုရား) The Queen Who ruled a village that rewarded by Kings
The Concubines
Rank Title Description
1 Ko Lote Taw Gyi(bur.ကိုယ်လုပ်တော်ကြီး The Supreme Senior Concubine
2 Ko Lote Taw(bur.ကိုယ်လုပ်တော် The Junior Concubine
3 Chay Taw Tin(bur.‌ေြခတော်တင် The Lady Who Beloved By Kings
4 Maung Ma(bur.မောင်းမ The Palace Madam

Aside from a few rare exceptions, the Queen of the Southern Palace was the official chief queen consort.[note 2] In theory, the chief queen consort alone had the right to a white umbrella and to sit with the King on the royal throne.[2]

NamesEdit

The names of the queens, if known, are given according to their most well known common name, which often happens to be the primary name used by the royal chronicles. The chronicle reported names of the queens may be their popular/commonly known name (e.g., Pwa Saw, Nanmadaw Me Nu); formal title (e.g., Agga Mahethi, Sanda Dewi); personal name (e.g., Shin Bo-Me, Yun San); or generic name of the office (Hanthawaddy Mibaya, "Queen of Hanthawaddy"; or Myauk Pyinthe, "Queen of the Northern Palace"). Finally, the names of the queens with no known records are given as "(Unknown)".

Duration of consortshipEdit

The "Became consort" and "Ceased to be consort" dates indicate the period in which a given queen was in the role of royal consort—not the duration of marriage.

Pagan dynastyEdit

Early PaganEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Taung Pyinthe Chief ? 1001 Saw Rahan II [3]
Myauk Pyinthe North
Ale Pyinthe Center
Taung Pyinthe Chief 1001 c. 1014 Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu [3][4]
Myauk Pyinthe North
c. 1014 1021
Ale Pyinthe Center 1001 ?
(Unknown) Chief 1021 c. 1 April 1038 Kyiso
(Unknown) Chief c. 1 April 1038 11 August 1044 Sokkate [5]
Myauk Pyinthe North? August 1044

Pagan EmpireEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Agga Mahethi Chief c. 1048 c. 1077 Anawrahta [note 3]
Saw Mon Hla North c. 1058 c. 1071
Manisanda North c. 1070s 11 April 1077
Usaukpan Chief 11 April 1077 c. 1077/78 Saw Lu [6]
Manisanda North
Chief c. 1077/78 c. April 1084
Apeyadana Chief 21 April 1084 12th century Kyansittha [note 4]
Manisanda North c. 1112/1113
Khin Tan Center
Thanbula Chief c. 12th century
Yadanabon I Chief 1112/13 c. 1050s Sithu I [note 5]
Ti Lawka Sanda Dewi Center
Chief c. 1050s 1167
Yazakumari West 1112/13 ?
Taung Pyinthe (Sithu I) South
Taung Pyinthe (Narathu) Chief 1167 c. February 1171 Narathu [note 6]
Myauk Pyinthe (Narathu) North
Min Aung Myat Chief c. February 1171 c. May 1174 Naratheinkha [note 7]
Saw Lat North
Saw Ahlwan Center
Weluwaddy West c. April 1174
Chief c. May 1174 1186 Sithu II [note 8]
Min Aung Myat South 1185?
Saw Lat North 1190s?
Saw Ahlwan Center
Taung Pyinthe II (Sithu II) Chief c. 1190s 18 August 1211
Myauk Pyinthe II (Sithu II) North
Wadanthika Center c. 1190s
Saw Mya Kan Center 18 August 1211
Pwadawgyi Chief 18 August 1211 c. 1231–35 Htilominlo [7]
Myauk Pyinthe (Htilominlo) North
Saw Mi Pyan Center
Shin Saw Chief c. 1231 c. 1235 Naratheinga Uzana [note 9]
Saw Min Waing North
Yaza Dewi Chief 19 July 1235 c. May 1251 Kyaswa [8]
Thonlula Chief c. May 1251 c. May 1256 Uzana [9]
Yadanabon II Chief 6 May 1256 1262 Narathihapate [note 10]
Pwa Saw North
Chief 1262 1 July 1287
Pwa Saw of Thitmahti Chief 30 May 1289 17 December 1297 Kyawswa [note 11]
Saw Soe North
Mi Saw U Center

Small kingdomsEdit

MyinsaingEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Saw U Chief 17 December 1297 13 April 1310 Athinkhaya [10]
(Unknown) Chief c. 1312/13 Yazathingyan
Mi Saw U Chief c. 17 December 1297 7 February 1313 Thihathu [11]
Yadanabon North c. 1300

PinyaEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Mi Saw U Chief 7 February 1313 c. February 1325 Thihathu [11]
Yadanabon North
Atula Maha Dhamma Dewi Chief c. February 1325 1 September 1340 Uzana I [12]
Saw Htut Chief 1 September 1340 29 March 1344 Sithu [13]
Atula Sanda Dewi Chief 29 March 1344 12 December 1350 Kyawswa I [14]
Mway Medaw North
Saw Omma Chief 12 December 1350 19 March 1359 Kyawswa II [15]
19 March 1359 May 1364 Narathu
June 1364 September 1364 Uzana II
Saw Sala North June 1364 [16]

SagaingEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Saw Hnaung Chief 15 May 1315 5 February 1327 Saw Yun [8]
5 February 1327 1335/36 Tarabya I
(Unknown) Chief 1335/36 c. August 1339 Anawrahta I
Saw Pa Oh Chief c. August 1339 c. March 1349 Kyaswa [16]
(Unknown) Chief c. March 1349 c. November 1349 Anawrahta II
(Unknown) Chief c. November 1349 23 February 1352 Tarabya II
Soe Min Kodawgyi Chief 23 February 1352 April 1364 Thihapate [16]

AvaEdit

House of MyinsaingEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Saw Omma of Pinya Chief September 1364 c. 3 September 1367 Thado Minbya [17]
Khame Mi Chief 5 September 1367 c. 1390s Swa Saw Ke [18]
Shin Saw Gyi North
Chief c. 1390s April 1400
Saw Omma of Sagaing Center 5 September 1367 c. 1390s
North c. 1390s April 1400
Saw Taw Oo West 5 September 1367 c. 1390s
Center c. 1390s April 1400
Min Hla Myat Chief April 1400 25 November 1400 Tarabya [19]
Shin Saw Chief 25 November 1400 c. February 1422 Minkhaung I [note 12]
Saw Khway North
Min Pyan Center
Shin Mi-Nauk West 25 November 1400 July 1408
Shin Bo-Me c. August 1408 c. October 1421
Saw Min Hla Chief c. October 1421 August 1425 Thihathu [20]
Shin Bo-Me North
Shin Sawbu Center c. January 1423
Shin Bo-Me Chief August 1425 November 1425 Min Hla [21]
by 9 November 1425 16 May 1426 Min Nyo [22]
Shin Myat Hla Chief 16 May 1426 April 1439 Mohnyin Thado [23]
Shin Bo-Me North
Shin Sawbu Center by 31 August 1426 1429 [24]
Min Hla Nyet Chief by 26 April 1439 January 1442 Minye Kyawswa I [25]
Atula Thiri Maha Yaza Dewi Chief by 11 March 1442 24 July 1468 Narapati I [26]
Ameitta Thiri Maha Dhamma Dewi Chief 24 July 1468 c. August 1480 Thihathura I [27]
Atula Thiri Dhamma Dewi Chief c. August 1480 7 April 1501 Minkhaung II [note 13]
Tanzaung Mibaya (Minkhaung II) North
Salin Minthami Chief c. 1485/86 4 March 1501 Thihathura II [note 14]
18 April 1501 14 March 1527 Narapati II [note 15]
Salin Minthami Lat North c. June 1501
Min Taya Hnamadaw North July 1501 14 March 1527
Dhamma Dewi Center February 1502
Taungdwin Mibaya West

Confederation of Shan statesEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
(Unknown) Chief 14 March 1527 c. January 1533 Sao Long I [note 16]
(Unknown) Chief c. January 1533 May 1542 Sao Hung Hpa
(Unknown) Chief June 1542 c. September 1545 Sao Hkun Mong
(Unknown) Chief c. September 1545 c. October 1551 Narapati III
Narapati Mibaya Chief c. October 1551 22 January 1555 Narapati IV [28]

PromeEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Saw Myat Lay Chief 1482 ? Thado Minsaw [29]
Shwe Zin Gon Chief 1526 c. December 1532 Bayin Htwe [30]
Chit Mi North
Thiri Hpone Htut Chief c. December 1532 c. February 1539 Narapati [31]
c. February 1539 19 May 1542 Minkhaung [32]

RamanyaEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
May Hnin Thwe-Da Chief 30 January 1287 c. 14 January 1307 Wareru [33]
Shin Saw Hla North? c. 1293 [34]
(Unknown) Chief by 28 January 1307 March 1311 Hkun Law
May Hnin Htapi Chief 10 April 1311 September 1323 Saw O [35]
Sanda Min Hla I Chief by 28 September 1323 April 1330 Saw Zein [36]
May Hnin Htapi North
(Unknown) Chief April 1330 April 1330 Zein Pun
Sanda Min Hla I Chief April 1330 May 1330 Saw E [37]
May 1330 1348 Binnya E Law [37]
Tala Shin Saw Bok North May 1330 1348
Sanda Min Hla II Chief 1348 c. 1365 Binnya U [note 17]
Hnin An Daung North
Chief c. 1365 2 January 1384
Sanda Dewi Center 1348 c. 1365
North c. 1365 2 January 1384
Thiri Yaza Dewi West 1348 c. 1365
Center c. 1365 2 January 1384
Thiri Maya Dewi I West c. 1365 c. 28 January 1368
Piya Yaza Dewi Chief 5 January 1384 c. April 1392 Razadarit [note 18]
Tala Mi Daw North c. March 1390
Yaza Dewi Chief c. April 1392 c. 1421
Lawka Dewi North
Thiri Maya Dewi II Center
Mi Ta-Lat Principal (Chief?) 1421 1424 Binnya Dhammaraza [38]
Yaza Dewi Chief c. 1424 c. 1446? Binnya Ran I [39][40]
Soe Min Wimala Dewi Principal 1431 1446
Ye Mibaya Chief 1446 30 May 1451 Binnya Waru [39]
(Unknown) Chief 30 May 1451 June 1453 Binnya Kyan
(Unknown) Chief June 1453 c. January 1451 Leik Munhtaw
None N/A c. January 1451 1471 Shin Sawbu [note 19]
Yaza Dewi II Chief 1471 1492 Dhammazedi [41]
Wihara Dewi Chief
Agga Thiri Maya Dewi Chief 1492? 1526? Binnya Ran II [note 20]
Maha Yaza Dewi North
Atula Dewi Principal
Yaza Dewi III Principal
(Unknown) Chief 1526 1539 Taka Yut Pi [note 21]
Minkhaung Medaw North? by 1535
(Unknown) Chief June 1550 August 1550 Smim Sawhtut
(Unknown) Chief August 1550 12 March 1552 Smim Htaw

ArakanEdit

House of LaunggyetEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Saw Sit Chief May 1429 9 May 1433 Saw Mon [42]
Saw Paba Chief 9 May 1433 c. January 1459 Khayi [43]
Saw Pyinsa North
Saw Yin Mi Center 1437
Saw Nandi Chief c. January 1459 5 August 1482 Saw Phyu [44]
Saw Htin North
Thu Rakhaing Chief 5 August 1482 c. February 1492 Dawlya [45]
Shwe Einthe North
Saw Htwe Me Chief c. February 1492 c. January 1494 Saw Nyo [45]
Saw Nandi North
Min Gahna Center
Saw Shin Saw Chief c. January 1494 c. July 1494 Ran Aung [45]
Saw Mi Saw Chief c. July 1494 February 1502 Salingathu [46]
Saw Thuba Chief February 1502 c. November 1513 Raza I [46]
Shin Pwa North
Shin Pyo Center
Saw Thuza Chief c. November 1513 January 1515 Gazapati [47]
Taung Nan Mibaya Chief January 1515 July 1515 Saw O [48]
Saw Nanzet Chief July 1515 c. April 1421 Thazata [48]
c. April 1421 27 May 1531 Minkhaung
Saw Min Hla Chief 27 May 1531 11 January 1554 Min Bin [note 22]
Saw Kauk Ma I North
Minkhaung Medaw Center? by 1540
Saw Thanda Chief 11 January 1554 6 March 1556 Dikkha [49]
Saw Mi Lat North
Saw Kauk Ma II Center
Saw Hpone Htut Chief 6 March 1556 24 July 1564 Saw Hla [note 23]
Saw Thanda North
Dhamma Dewi I Chief 24 July 1564 1565–68 Sekkya [note 24]
Saw Thanda North
Chief 1565–68 7 February 1572
Saw Mi Taw Chief 7 February 1572 4 July 1593 Phalaung [note 25]
Saw Thanda South
Shin Lat I Center
Saw U North
Wizala Dewi Chief 4 July 1593 4 July 1612 Raza II [note 26]
Pyinsala Sanda North ?
Thupaba Dewi Center
Zalaka Dewi West
Khin Ma Hnaung North? 19 December 1599 4 July 1612?
Saw Phyu Center? c. 17th century
Dhamma Dewi II Chief 4 July 1612 14 May 1622 Khamaung [50]
Shin Htwe North
Thupaba Dewi Center
Natshin Me Chief 14 May 1622 29 May 1638 Thiri Thudhamma I [51]
Hmauk Taw Ma I North
Win Lon Center 1630s?
Chief 29 May 1638 17 June 1638 Sanay [52]

Late Mrauk-UEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Natshin Me Chief 17 June 1638 13 December 1645 Narapati [53]
Yadana I Chief 13 December 1645 May 1652 Thado [note 27]
Shin Lat II South
Saw Bo-Me North
Saw Phyu West
Yadana II Chief May 1652 11 June 1674 Sanda Thudhamma [54]
Thuwana Kalaya Chief 11 June 1674 16 April 1685 Thiri Thudhamma II [55]
Thukomma Chief 16 April 1685 20 June 1692 Wara Dhamma [note 28]
Thubara Chief 20 June 1692 7 November 1693 Mani Thudhamma [note 29]
Thukomma Chief 7 November 1693 3 February 1694 Wara Dhamma
Thubara Chief 20 December 1694 17 February 1695 Sanda Thuriya I
Thukomma Chief 17 February 1695 11 April 1696 Wara Dhamma
Thubara Chief 11 April 1696 4 August 1696 Sanda Thuriya I
Thukhuma Chief 4 August 1696 18 August 1696 Nawrahta [56]
Eindama Chief 18 August 1696 13 May 1697 Marompiya [56]
Pwa Me Chief 13 May 1697 5 June 1698 Kalamandat [57]
Nan Htet Mibaya I Chief 5 June 1698 17 June 1700 Naradipati I [57]
Pwa Saw Chief 17 June 1700 30 March 1707 Sanda Wimala I [57]
Pwa Thway Chief 3 April 1707 August 1710 Sanda Thuriya II [58]
Shwe Ku Chief August 1710 October 1719 Sanda Wizaya I [59]
(Unknown) Chief October 1719 April 1731
Hmauk Taw Ma II Chief April 1731 1734 Sanda Thuriya III [60]
Nan Htet Mibaya II Chief 1734 1735 Naradipati II [61]
1735 August 1737 Narapawara
August 1737 25 March 1738 Sanda Wizaya II
Shwe Yi Chief 28 March 1738 6 February 1743 Madarit [62]
Saw Thanda II Chief 6 February 1743 28 October 1761 Nara Apaya [62]
Tanzaung Mibaya Chief 28 October 1761 3 February 1762 Thirithu [63]
Aung Kyawt San Chief 3 February 1762 1 May 1764 Sanda Parama [63]
Saw Shwe Kya Chief 1 May 1764 17 January 1774 Apaya [64]
Pan Thuza Chief 17 January 1774 22 April 1777 Sanda Thumana [65]
Ma Me Gyi North 27 August 1775
Da Phyu Chief 23 April 1777 2 June 1777 Sanda Wimala II [66]
Sein Khaing Center ?
Chief 2 June 1777 June 1778 Sanda Thaditha [67]
Aung Me South 3 November 1782
Chi Me Chief 11 June 1778
Saw Me Pon Chief 4 November 1782 2 January 1785 Maha Thammada [68]

Toungoo DynastyEdit

House of ToungooEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Soe Min Hteik-Tin Chief 16 October 1510 24 November 1530? Mingyi Nyo [69]
Thiri Maha Sanda Dewi North
Yadana Dewi Center
Maha Dewi West
Dhamma Dewi Chief 24 November 1530 30 April 1550 Tabinshwehti [note 30]
Khin Myat North
Khay Ma Naw Co-chief c. May 1545
Atula Thiri Chief 30 April 1550 15 June 1568 Bayinnaung [70]
Sanda Dewi North April 1553
Chief 15 June 1568 10 October 1581
Yaza Dewi Center 17 March 1563 13 September 1564
Hanthawaddy Mibaya Chief 10 October 1581 19 December 1599 Nanda [note 31]
Min Phyu South c. 5 May 1583 4 May 1596
Thiri Yaza Dewi North 19 December 1599
Min Htwe Center
Min Taya Medaw West c. 1583

House of NyaungyanEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Khin Hpone Myint Chief 19 December 1599 5 November 1605 Nyaungyan [70]
Atula Sanda Dewi I Chief 8 February 1609 9 July 1628 Anaukpetlun [71]
Khin Hnin Paw Chief 9 July 1628 19 August 1629 Minye Deibba [note 32]
Khin Myo Sit Chief 19 August 1629 27 August 1648 Thalun [72]
Atula Sanda Dewi II Chief 27 August 1648 3 June 1661 Pindale [73]
Min Phyu Chief 3 June 1661 14 April 1672 Pye [74]
None N/A 14 April 1672 27 February 1673 Narawara [note 33]
Atula Thiri Maha Dewi Chief 27 February 1673 4 May 1698 Minye Kyawhtin [75]
Sanda Dewi North
Yaza Dewi Center
Maha Dewi Chief 4 May 1698 22 August 1714 Sanay [76]
Thiri Dewi North
Nanda Dewi Center
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi Chief 22 August 1714 14 November 1733 Taninganway [77]
Thiri Sanda Dewi North
Thiri Dhamma Dewi Center
Maha Nanda Dipadi Dewi Chief 14 November 1733 22 March 1752 Maha Dhamma Yaza Dipadi [78]
Maha Yaza Dipadi Dewi North
Maha Dipadi Dewi Center

Restored HanthawaddyEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Thiri Seitta Chief c. January 1741 January 1747 Smim Htaw [note 34]
Hanthawaddy Mibaya II Chief January 1747 6 May 1757 Binnya Dala [note 35]
Thiri Zeya Mingala Dewi North 22 March 1752 29 December 1756

Konbaung DynastyEdit

Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Yun San Chief 29 February 1752 11 May 1760 Alaungpaya [79]
Maha Mingala Yadana Dewi Chief 11 May 1760 28 November 1763 Naungdawgyi [80]
Mingala Dewi North
Thiri Atula Maha Yadana Padomma Dewi Chief 28 November 1763 10 June 1776 Hsinbyushin [81]
Thiri Thuriya Nanda Maha Mingala Dewi North
Maha Mingala Sanda Dewi I Center
Maha Yadana Sanda Dewi Chief 10 June 1776 5 February 1782 Singu [82]
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi I North c. 20 May 1777
Thiri Maha Nanda Dewi Center
North c. 20 May 1777 5 February 1782
Maha Mingala Sanda Dewi II Center
Thiri Sanda Mahay West
Shin Paik Thaung Chief 5 February 1782 11 February 1782 Phaungka [citation needed]
Thiri Nanda Dewi North
Mingala Yadana Dewi Chief 11 February 1782 24 February 1807 Bodawpaya [83]
Thiri Maha Sandabi Yadana Dewi I North 4 January 1807
Thiri Maha Nandabi Yadana Dewi I Center 3 September 1789
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi II Center 3 September 1789 5 June 1819
Thiri Maha Yadana Dewi I North 4 January 1807 10 July 1812
Nanmadaw Me Nu Chief 5 June 1819 15 April 1837 Bagyidaw [84]
Thiri Kalaya Sanda Dewi North 3 November 1819 23 February 1824
Thiri Paba Malla Dewi Center 15 April 1837
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi III North 23 February 1824
Thiri Maha Sanda Dewi West 3 November 1819
Thiri Pawara Ti Lawka Maha Yadana Padomma Dewi Chief 15 April 1837 17 November 1846 Tharrawaddy [85]
Thiri Maha Nandabi Yadana Dewi II North
Thiri Maha Sandabi Yadana Dewi II Center
Thiri Thu Yadana Dewi II West c. 16 October 1845
Thiri Ti Lawka Maha Yadana Dewi Chief 17 November 1846 18 February 1853 Pagan [86]
Thiri Maha Yadana Dewi II North
Thiri Ti Lawka Atula Yadana Dewi Center
Thiri Thu Yadana Mingala Dewi Center
Thiri Pawara Maha Yazeinda Yadana Dewi Chief 26 March 1853 12 November 1876 Mindon [87]
Thiri Maha Yadana Mingala Dewi North 3 May 1872
Maha Yazeinda Dipadi Padomma Yadana Dewi Center 1 October 1878
Thiri Maha Thu Sanda Dewi West 26 July 1855
Thiri Maha Yadana Dewi West 26 July 1855 1 October 1878
Supayagyi Chief 30 October 1878 12 April 1879 Thibaw [note 36]
Supayalat North 18 November 1878
Chief 12 April 1879 29 November 1885

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ (Than Tun 1964: 129): The Pagan period (849–1297) term for Nan Mibaya was Pyinthe (ပြင်သည် ), and the term Usaukpan (ဦးဆောက်ပန်း) also meant the chief queen. (Harvey 1925: 327): Usaukpan was an Old Burmese direct translation of Pali Vatamsaka, an artificial flower of silver or gold used as a hair ornament.
  2. ^ In Burma Proper, it was extremely rare for a queen of the Southern Palace to not also be the chief queen. According to the rankings reported in the chronicles, Sithu II (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 287) and Nanda (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 107) had South Queens who were not their chief queen. In the Mrauk-U Kingdom on the west coast, three kings—Min Khamaung (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 87, 89), Thado (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 115), Sanda Thaditha (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 147, 149)—had South Queens who were not their chief queen.
  3. ^ Chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 267–268) mention Agga Mahethi and Manisanda as Anawrahta's two senior queens towards the end of his reign. Per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 255–256), Queen Saw Mon Hla was sent back to her native land about six years before his death.
  4. ^ See (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 279) for Kyansittha's four senior queens. (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 283) says Thanbula showed up with Kyansittha's son at the palace after the king had anointed Sithu I as heir apparent, and that the king raised her to queen with the title of Usaukpan, which meant the chief queen. Since Sithu I was born in 1090, she could have come in the 1090s at the earliest. Her getting the title probably meant the first chief queen Apeyadana had died. But Queen Apeyadana was still alive in 1102; it means Thanbula probably came to the palace in the 1100s.
  5. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 287): All four of Sithu's senior queens (not just the chief queen) participated in his coronation ceremony. The South Queen, Taung Pyinthe, technically should have been the chief queen but the royal chronicles list her fourth in line behind Yadanabon, Ti Lawka Sanda Dewi and Yazakumari. Later, Sanda Dewi succeeded Yadanabon as chief queen. (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 287, 302): Late in his regin, Sithu II raised two other queens: Khin U and Princess Pabhavati of Padeikkaya. Though the chronicles do not explicitly say they were senior queens, they probably graduated to the rank, especially toward the end of the reign. His remaining three senior queens probably might not have lived as long as the king who lived to 77.
  6. ^ None of the main chronicles has a record of the names of the queens of Narathu. Yazawin Thit (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 122) explicitly says no records of his queens could be found. Yazawin Thit and Hmannan (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 312) mention only that Naratheinkha and Sithu II had the same mother. Per scholarship, (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 124, footnote 2, citing Than Tun), their mother was the North Queen. It means there was a South Queen.
  7. ^ See (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 312) and (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 124) for the names of the Chief and North queens; and (Than Tun 1964: 129) for Saw Ahlwan (Saw Hteikhta in Modern Burmese per Than Tun).
  8. ^ Per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 317), Sithu II took all his brother's senior queens as his at the start of his reign. Per inscriptional evidence (Than Tun 1964: 129), the king had at least six senior queens during his reign. Queen Weluwaddy died in 1186 per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 321). Sithu II kept separate chief and South queens at least with Weluwaddy and Min Aung Myat.
  9. ^ Chronicles do not mention Naratheinga Uzana as king at all. Per (Than Tun 1964: 131–132), contemporary inscriptions say that Uzana, who was crown prince, was now the ruler or at least the regent. Some historians such as Htin Aung (Htin Aung 1970: 43) and Michael Aung-Thwin (Aung-Thwin and Aung-Thwin 2012: 99) do not accept that Uzana was king.
  10. ^ Chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 358) mention Pwa Saw as the only senior queen and the rest as junior queens. Per inscriptional evidence (Ba Shin 1982: 37), Pwa Saw's sister Yadanabon was the first chief queen of Narathihapate.
  11. ^ Chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 360) mention only Saw Soe as the senior queen. But inscriptional evidence (Ba Shin 1982: 41–43) shows Saw Thitmahti was the chief queen, certainly by 1296.
  12. ^ (Than Tun 1959: 125–126): An inscription dated 28 February 1409 by Queen Saw says she was a granddaughter of King Swa Saw Ke by Shin Saw Gyi. Per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 440), Shin Saw (known as Hsinbyushin), Saw Khway and Min Pyan were sisters.
  13. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 111): Yazawin Thit gives Mi Pongyi of Prome as the third senior queen but Hmannan rejects it.
  14. ^ Salin Minthami became co-chief queen in c. 1485/86 per (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 111), and chief queen in 1501 per (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 120).
  15. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 120): Min Taya Hnamadaw of Yamethin became queen soon after her father Minye Kyawswa's death in Waso 863 ME (15 June 1501 to 14 July 1501). (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 121): Dhamma Dewi of Pakhan and Taungdwin Mibaya became queens in Tabaung 863 ME (6 February 1502 to 7 March 1502). See (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 136–137) for the complete list of senior queens and issue.
  16. ^ The main royal chronicles do not have any record of the chief queens of Ava between 1527 and 1551. The title of the chief queen of Shan states was Maha Dewi, certainly by the Toungoo period.
  17. ^ See (Pan Hla 2005: 44–45, 47) for a list of Binnya U's queens. (Pan Hla 2005: 57): Queen Sanda Min Hla II died during the rebellion by Byattaba during the 1360s. (Pan Hla 2005: 61): Thiri Maya Dewi died soon after having given birth to Razadarit.
  18. ^ (Pan Hla 2005: 158–160): Tala Mi Daw, the first wife of Razadarit, was never his chief queen. Per (Pan Hla 2005: 193), she committed suicide soon after Razadarit's coronation ceremony c. March 1391.
    According to Razadarit Ayedawbon (Pan Hla 2005: 203), Piya Yaza Dewi died, and Razadarit raised Yaza Dewi, Lawka Dewi and Thiri Maya Dewi as queens c. Kason 755 ME (11 April 1393 to 10 May 1393) soon after King Swa Saw Ke's campaign near Tharrawaddy. But Hmannan Yazawin (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 432) says Swa's campaign took place a year earlier.
    (Pan Hla 2005: 241, 266): Razadarit also raised two other queens Saw Pyei Chantha and her mother Shin Mi-Nauk in 1408 in addition to Saw Pyei Chantha's aunt Thupaba Dewi who was sent over to Razadarit in a marriage of state in 1403.
  19. ^ Shin Sawbu was the country's only historically verifiable queen regnant. According to Arakanese history (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 18–19), Saw Yin Mi was queen regent of Sandoway (Thandwe) in the 1430s.
  20. ^ Ran's most senior queens in April 1495 per (Aung-Thwin 2017: 278–279). It is unclear if any of the queens lasted his entire reign.
  21. ^ The only known queen of Taka Yut Pi in the chronicles was Minkhaung Medaw (known as Pegu Mibaya). But she most likely could not have been the chief queen. Per Hmannan (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 195–196), Minkhaung Medaw was sent to Pegu (Bago) as part of the formation of an alliance between Prome and Pegu against Toungoo.
  22. ^ See (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 29, 34) for Saw Min Hla and Saw Kauk Ma. Rakhine Razawin Thit (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 33) says Minkhaung Medaw was presented by King Tabinshwehti on 27 February 1547. But per (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 195–196), she was sent to Mrauk-U c. 1540 by King Minkhaung of Prome.
  23. ^ (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 46): Saw Thanda's official title during Saw Hla's reign was Tanzaung Mibaya.
  24. ^ (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 47): Dhamma Dewi died sometime between Thadingyut 927 (5 October to 2 November 1565) and Thadingyut 930 (1 October to 29 October 1568), and was succeeded by Saw Thanda.
  25. ^ Phalaung's queens apparently were not ranked according to tradition. Per (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 48), Saw Mi Taw was the chief queen, followed by Saw Thanda the South Queen. The third ranked queen Shin Lat was officially "Nan Htet Mibaya" (နန်းထက် မိဖုရား), "Queen of the Exalted Palace"), followed by Saw U the North Queen.
  26. ^ The chronicle Rakhine Razawin Thit (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 87) says Raza II had nine senior queens during his reign but gives only six names. "Nine" was most likely a typographical/copying error since Burmese numerals six () and nine () are very similar. Khin Ma Hnaung's official title was Tanzaung Mibaya (တန်ဆောင်း မိဖုရား, "Queen of the Royal Hall"), which was likely the title of the second ranked queen. (Saw Thanda, the second ranked queen, during Saw Hla's reign was also Tanzaung Mibaya per (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 46). Similarly, Nan Htet Mibaya apparently was the title of the third ranked queen; Thupaba Dewi, the third ranked queen of Raza II, was Nan Htet Mibaya. Furthermore, the chronicle does not mention if any of the queens lived to the end of Raza II's reign. The chief queen presumably made it since there is no mention of other chief queens.
  27. ^ Another case of the South Queen not being the chief per (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 115)
  28. ^ (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 118): Several people, including queens, concubines and their attendants, died during a major fire at the palace on 16 February 1686. Presumably, Thukomma survived the fire since the chronicle reports no other chief queen of Wara.
  29. ^ (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 119–120): The Palace Guards installed and removed their puppet kings Wara Dhamma, Mani Thudhamma and Sanda Thuriya I, as they pleased.
  30. ^ (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 127, footnote 2): According to Sein Lwin Lay, Tabinshwehti may not have had a chief queen in the formal sense that he never formally had a formal coronation ceremony with any of his queens; and Khay Ma Naw, whom the king married at the 1545 coronation, nonetheless was not mentioned as his chief queen either.
  31. ^ This is a rare instance where the South Queen was not the chief queen. The two standard chronicles Maha Yazawin (Maha Yazawin Vol. 3 2006: 103) and Hmannan Yazawin (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 107) both say that Min Phyu, Min Htwe and Min Pu were South, Center and North Queens, respectively, while Hanthawaddy was the chief queen. Yazawin Thit (Yazawin Thit Vol. 2 2012: 239) omits the ranks of Min Phyu and Min Htwe, and confirms only that Thiri Yaza Dewi was the North Queen. All chronicles list Min Taya Medaw as the fifth senior queen but do not say when she became a senior queen. She certainly should have become a senior queen after the death of Min Phyu in 1596.
  32. ^ Chronicles, which regard Minye Deibba as a usurper, do not list any of his "queens". Per (Hmannan Vol. 3: 189), Khin Hnin Paw was his lover. Presumably, she was his "queen" during his short reign.
  33. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 289): Narawara had no queens or concubines whatsoever.
  34. ^ (Lieberman 1984: 215–216): Smim Htaw came to power on 8 December [O.S. 27 November] 1740. Hmannan (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 373) says the Lord of Chiang Mai sent his daughter soon after.
  35. ^ Chronicles (Konbaung Set Vol. 1 simply call Binnya Dala's chief queen Hanthawaddy Shin Mibaya (lit. Queen of Hanthawaddy). Her title or personal name is not known. (Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 187): Thiri Zeya Mingala Dewi, Princess of Manipur, became Binnya Dala's queen after the fall of Ava (Inwa) on 22 March 1752. She came along with Gen. Dalaban who submitted to Alaungpaya on 9th waxing of Pyatho 1118 ME (29 December 1756). She later became a concubine of Alaungpaya per (Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 197).
  36. ^ (Konbaung Set Vol. 3 2004: 323, 344–345): Su Paya Gyi's nominal reign as chief queen officially ended at the coronation ceremony held at the start of Thingyan (new year's festival) of 1241 ME.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Yi Yi 1982: 103–104
  2. ^ Scott 1900: 122
  3. ^ a b Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 227
  4. ^ Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 93
  5. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 228
  6. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 274
  7. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 330
  8. ^ a b Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 360
  9. ^ Than Tun 1964: 134
  10. ^ Than Tun 1964: 277
  11. ^ a b Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 371–372
  12. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 377
  13. ^ Than Tun 1959: 124
  14. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 380
  15. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 384–385
  16. ^ a b c Than Tun 1959: 127
  17. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 400
  18. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 404
  19. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 437
  20. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 53–54, 57
  21. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 58
  22. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 59
  23. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 62
  24. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 63
  25. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 61, 80
  26. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 83
  27. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 100
  28. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 153
  29. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 83–84, 113
  30. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 80, 88
  31. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 140
  32. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 195, 213
  33. ^ Pan Hla 2005: 19
  34. ^ Pan Hla 2005: 30
  35. ^ Pan Hla 2005: 38
  36. ^ Pan Hla 2005: 39
  37. ^ a b Pan Hla 2005: 42
  38. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003:48
  39. ^ a b Pan Hla 2005: 368, footnote 1
  40. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 74
  41. ^ Shwe Naw 1922: 65
  42. ^ Rakhine Razawin Thit Vol. 2 1999: 12
  43. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 18–19
  44. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 23
  45. ^ a b c RRT Vol. 2 1999: 25
  46. ^ a b RRT Vol. 2 1999: 26
  47. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 27
  48. ^ a b RRT Vol. 2 1999: 28
  49. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 35, 46
  50. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 87, 89
  51. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 92
  52. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 96
  53. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 99
  54. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 116
  55. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 117
  56. ^ a b RRT Vol. 2 1999: 121
  57. ^ a b c RRT Vol. 2 1999: 123
  58. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 126
  59. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 127–128
  60. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 132
  61. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 133–134
  62. ^ a b RRT Vol. 2 1999: 135
  63. ^ a b RRT Vol. 2 1999: 138
  64. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 140
  65. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 141, 145
  66. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 146–147
  67. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 147, 149
  68. ^ RRT Vol. 2 1999: 153
  69. ^ Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 89
  70. ^ a b Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 68
  71. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3: 150, 189
  72. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3: 249
  73. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3: 250, 268
  74. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3: 250, 286
  75. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3: 321
  76. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 353–354
  77. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 364–365
  78. ^ Hmannan Vol. 3: 395
  79. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 247
  80. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 264
  81. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 367–368
  82. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 371
  83. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 2 2004: 157–158
  84. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 2 2004: 168–169
  85. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 2 2004: 405–406
  86. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 3 2004: 56
  87. ^ Konbaung Set Vol. 3 2004: 306

BibliographyEdit

  • Athwa, Sayadaw (1785). Mon Yazawin (Slapat Rajawan) (in Burmese) (1922 ed.). Yangon: Burma Publishing Workers Association Press.
  • Aung-Thwin, Michael A.; Maitrii Aung-Thwin (2012). A History of Myanmar Since Ancient Times (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-1-86189-901-9.
  • Aung-Thwin, Michael A. (2017). Myanmar in the Fifteenth Century. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-6783-6.
  • Ba Shin, Bo-Hmu (1966). "The Pwa Saws of Bagan" (PDF). Burma Historical Research Department Silver Jubilee Publication (in Burmese) (1982 ed.). Yangon: University of Yangon. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-06-21.
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
  • Htin Aung, Maung (1970). Burmese History before 1287: A Defence of the Chronicles. Oxford: The Asoka Society.
  • Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (in Burmese). Vol. 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing.
  • Lieberman, Victor B. (1984). Burmese Administrative Cycles: Anarchy and Conquest, c. 1580–1760. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05407-X.
  • Maha Sithu (1798). Myint Swe; Kyaw Win; Thein Hlaing (eds.). Yazawin Thit (in Burmese). Vol. 1–3 (2012, 2nd printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing.
  • Maung Maung Tin, U (1905). Konbaung Set Yazawin (in Burmese). Vol. 1–3 (2004 ed.). Yangon: Department of Universities History Research, University of Yangon.
  • Pan Hla, Nai (1968). Razadarit Ayedawbon (in Burmese) (8th printing, 2005 ed.). Yangon: Armanthit Sarpay.
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). Vol. 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar.
  • Sandamala Linkara, Ashin (1931). Rakhine Razawin Thit (in Burmese). Vol. 1–2 (1997–1999 ed.). Yangon: Tetlan Sarpay.
  • Scott, J. George (1900). Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States. Vol. 2. Rangoon: Superintendent, Government Printing, Burma.
  • Sein Lwin Lay, Kahtika U (1968). Mintaya Shwe Hti and Bayinnaung: Ketumadi Taungoo Yazawin (in Burmese) (2006, 2nd printing ed.). Yangon: Yan Aung Sarpay.
  • Than Tun (December 1959). "History of Burma: A.D. 1300–1400". Journal of Burma Research Society. XLII (II).
  • Than Tun (1964). Studies in Burmese History (in Burmese). Vol. 1. Yangon: Maha Dagon.
  • Yi Yi (1960). "Life at the Burmese Court under the Konbaung Kings" (PDF). Burma Historical Research Department Silver Jubilee Publication (1982 ed.). Yangon: University of Yangon. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-06-21.