List of British monarchy records

This List of British monarchy records lists various statistical records relating to the monarchy of the United Kingdom and its predecessors and constituents.

SummaryEdit

Record name Highest record Holder(s) Lowest record Holder(s)
Length of Reign 24,892d (68a) Elizabeth II 40d Sweyn
Longevity 34,314d (93a) 2,727d (7a) Margaret of Norway
Longevity of heir apparent 26,132d (71a) Charles, Prince of Wales 52d Henry of Surrey
Longevity of heir presumptive 30,552d (83a) Sophia of Hanover ~3,650d (10a) Richard of Shrewsbury
Age of ascension 23,684d (64a) William IV 6d Mary, Queen of Scots
Age difference between monarchs 19,940d (54a) George II and George III 539d (1a) Edward VIII and George VI
Age at marriage 22,000d (60a) Edward I 1,595d (4a) David II
Consort's age at marriage ~13,870 (38a) Maud of Huntingdon 2,640d (7a) Isabella of Valois
Length of marriage 26,523d (72a) Elizabeth II and Prince Philip 143d Alexander III and Yolande of Dreux
Number of marriages 6 Henry VIII 0 Æthelstan, Eadred, Edward the Martyr, Canute II, William II, Edward Balliol, Edward V, Edward VI, Elizabeth I
Number of children 29 Henry I of England Æthelstan, Eadred, Eadwig, Edward the Martyr, Canute II, Edward the Confessor, William II, Edward Balliol, Richard II, Edward V, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, Mary I, Elizabeth I, William III, Mary II and Edward VIII
Number of legitimate children 19 Edward I of England (in addition to those listed immediately above who had no children at all): Richard I and Charles II
Age of parent 66a 18a Harold Harefoot
Height 1.94 m Edward IV 1.52 m Victoria

Reign of British monarchsEdit

LongestEdit

The longest reign of a British monarch is that of the current monarch, Elizabeth II (68 years, 55 days since 6 February 1952). The second longest reign is the 63 years 216 days of Victoria between 1837 and 1901. Queen Elizabeth II's reign became longer than Queen Victoria's on 9 September 2015.[1] The third longest reign (and longest of a King) was that of George III, who reigned for 59 years 96 days between 1760 and 1820.[2]

James Stuart, the Old Pretender, was a pretender to the throne from 16 September 1701 until his death on 1 January 1766, a total of 64 years 108 days.[3][failed verification]

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh has been the monarch's spouse (prince consort) since 6 February 1952, for a total of 68 years, 55 days, making him the longest-serving consort overall.[4] The Queen consort with the longest tenure was Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who was George III's consort for 57 years, 70 days,[4] between 1761 and 1818.

Prince Charles is the longest serving heir-apparent,[5] Duke of Cornwall, and Duke of Rothesay, with a tenure of 68 years, 55 days, and Prince of Wales,[6] with a tenure of 61 years, 250 days.

Margaret of Scotland, Countess of Kent was heir presumptive to William I of Scotland, Alexander II and Alexander III for a total of about 43 years, 14 days (her tenure as heir presumptive to Alexander II was also the longest single tenure at 26 years, 274 days). The longest-serving heir-presumptive of either sex was Robert II, who was heir-presumptive to Robert I and then David II for a total of 46 years, 353 days; he also served the longest single tenure (41 years, 260 days as heir-presumptive to David II).

ShortestEdit

The shortest-reigning monarch was Lady Jane Grey who ruled for 9 days from 6 July until 15 July 1553 (although she was only proclaimed queen by the Lords of the Council on 10 July). Note: Jane's reign is disputed.

The king with the shortest definitively known reign was Edgar the Ætheling who ruled for 2 months, 12 days in 1066 before submitting to William the Conqueror. Some records indicate that Sweyn Forkbeard reigned for only 40 days in 1013–4.[7]

The queen consort with the shortest tenure was Yolande de Dreux, second wife of Alexander III, who was queen for 154 days in 1285 and 1286.

The shortest tenure as heir apparent was that of the unnamed son of Henry VIII who died within hours of birth in September 1513.

Elizabeth I holds the records for the shortest tenure of an English heir presumptive (almost 2 years as heir-presumptive to Henry VIII) unless one recognizes the 13-day tenure attributed to Lady Jane Grey's sister, The Lady Herbert of Cardiff. This would also be the record for shortest total tenure as heir-presumptive (Elizabeth was later heiress-presumptive to her sister Mary).

The shortest total tenure as a male heir-presumptive was George I (54 days).

Mary, Queen of Scots, was heir presumptive from birth until her accession to the throne at the age of 6 days.

Pretenders in PowerEdit

During the Middle Ages and the Mid-18th Century, a number of pretenders to the throne controlled all or a substantial portion of England and Scotland:

  • Empress Matilda: Daughter and only surviving child of Henry I of England, fought her cousin King Stephen for the throne. She held him prisoner from 7 April to 1 November 1141 and controlled a substantial portion of the country from 1141 to 1148.
  • Henry the Young King, who was crowned junior king in 1170 at the age of 15, led a revolt against his father Henry II for several months in 1173–74 and controlled much of England.
  • Louis VIII of France: Controlled the Southeast of England and later the whole country briefly during the First Barons' War from 1215 to 1217.
  • Edward Balliol was crowned king of Scotland in 1332 and was able to control some parts of it until 1356. His claim was recognized and supported by England.
  • James III and VIII sent his son Bonnie Prince Charlie to reclaim his kingdom and the latter controlled Scotland and Northern England for several months in 1745.

LongevityEdit

See also: List of longest-living members of the British royal family

MonarchsEdit

Longest-livedEdit

The longest-lived British monarch and ruler is Queen Elizabeth II, the current monarch, who is now aged 93 years, 346 days, having surpassed her great-great-grandmother Victoria on 21 December 2007, who had held the record since 18 January 1901, surpassing her own grandfather George III.[8][self-published source]

The longest-lived male consort is her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who is 98 years, 296 days old.

The longest-lived king was Edward Balliol of Scotland, who died at age 83 or 84 in 1367. Note: Edward Balliol's reign is disputed.

The longest-lived undisputed king was George III, who died at the age of 81 years, 239 days in 1820.[8][self-published source]

The longest-lived male ruler was Richard Cromwell who ruled as Lord Protector (1658–1659) who lived until the age of 85 years, 282 days.

The longest-lived queen consort and overall consort was Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later known as the Queen Mother, consort to George VI, and mother of the current longest-lived British monarch, who was 101 years 238 days at the time of her death on 30 March 2002.[9] Prince Philip would pass her as longest-lived overall consort on 4 February 2023.

Shortest-livedEdit

The youngest Scottish monarch to die was Margaret, Maid of Norway, who died at the age of 7 years, five months, and 18 days in 1290.[10][unreliable source?][dubious ]

The youngest English monarch to die was Edward V, who was most likely murdered after he was deposed, when he was 12 years, 10 months.[10][unreliable source?][dubious ]

Heirs apparentEdit

The present Prince of Wales is the oldest heir apparent at 71 years, 139 days.[11]

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is the oldest heir apparent to an heir apparent at 37 years, 285 days old.

Prince George of Cambridge is the oldest heir apparent to an heir apparent to an heir apparent at 6 years, 254 days old.

Heirs presumptiveEdit

The oldest ever heir presumptive was Sophia of Hanover, who lived from 14 October 1630 to 8 June 1714 (83 years 237 days), she died prior to Queen Anne.[11]

The oldest male heir presumptive was Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover and Duke of Cumberland, who was displaced as Queen Victoria’s heir by the birth of his great-niece Victoria, Princess Royal, when he was aged 69 years, 169 days.

Age of ascensionEdit

OldestEdit

The oldest monarch at the start of his reign was William IV who succeeded to the throne in 1830 at the age of 64 years 309 days.[12] If the current Prince of Wales became the King today, he would be the oldest to do so at the age of 71 years, 139 days.[13]

The oldest female monarch at the time of her ascension was Mary I,[14][self-published source] aged 37 years, 151 days when she became queen in 1553.

The oldest queen consort was Alexandra of Denmark, wife of Edward VII, who was aged 56 years, 52 days when she became queen in 1901.[15] If Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, were to become Queen consort (or possibly Princess consort) today, she would be the oldest to do so at the age of 72 years, 259 days.

YoungestEdit

The youngest British monarch at the start of her reign was Mary, Queen of Scots, who became queen aged 6 days in 1542.[16] The youngest king was Henry VI, who was 8 months and 26 days old at the time of his accession.[14]

The youngest queen consort was Isabella of Valois, second wife of Richard II, aged 6 years 11 months and 25 days when she became queen in 1396.

Age differences, outgoing and succeeding monarchsEdit

GreatestEdit

The greatest age difference of an outgoing British monarch and successor was 54 years and 217 days between George II (born 30 October 1683) and his grandson George III (born 4 June 1738) who succeeded on the former's death on 25 October 1760.

SmallestEdit

The smallest age difference of an outgoing British monarch and successor was 1 year and 171 days between Edward VIII (born 23 June 1894) and his brother George VI (born 14 December 1895) who succeeded on the former's abdication on 11 December 1936.

MarriageEdit

Most marriagesEdit

Henry VIII was married six times, making him Britain's most-married monarch. The queen who was married the most times was Mary, Queen of Scots, who had three husbands. The most-married queen consort was Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII, who had four husbands.

Never marriedEdit

William II, Edward V, Edward VI, and Elizabeth I all lived and died unmarried. In addition, Edward VIII was unmarried during his tenure as monarch, though he then married Wallis Simpson after his abdication (which was caused by this marriage plan).

YoungestEdit

The youngest monarch to marry was David II, who married Joan, daughter of Edward II when he was 4 years 134 days old in 1328.[12]

The youngest female monarch at the time of her marriage was Mary II, who was 15 years, 188 days old when she married William III in 1677.

The youngest queen consort was Isabella of Valois, who married Richard II when she was 6 years, 358 days old in 1396.[17]

OldestEdit

The oldest monarch at the time of his first marriage was William IV, who was 52 years, 324 days old when he married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen in 1818.

Mary I was the oldest queen at the time of her first marriage, aged 38 years, 157 days when she married Philip of Spain in 1554.

When second or subsequent marriages are included the oldest monarch at the time of his marriage was Edward I, whose second marriage was to Margaret of France in 1299 when he was 60 years, 83 days old and she was no more than 20.

The oldest queen consort at the time of her marriage was Maud, Countess of Huntingdon, who married David I when she was around 40 years old.

LongestEdit

The longest marriage of a British sovereign is between Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, who have been married since 20 November 1947, making their marriage 72 years, 133 days old.[18]

ShortestEdit

The shortest marriage is between Alexander III of Scotland and Yolande, who were married for 4 months and 19 days from 1285-1286 until the former's death.[10][unreliable source?]

ChildrenEdit

MostEdit

The British monarch with the most children was Henry I, who had 29 children (5 legitimate).[19]

The British monarch with the most legitimate children was George III, who had 15 children with Queen Charlotte of whom 13 reached adulthood.

The Queen regnant with the most children was Queen Victoria who had 9 children of whom all reached adulthood.

The Queen regnant with the most pregnancies was Anne, who had 17, but only 5 resulted in live-born children (two of whom survived past the age of one, one reached the age of two, but all of them died before their mother).

Age of parentsEdit

At 19, Henry IV is the youngest King to father a child, prior to his accession.[10][unreliable source?][failed verification]

The youngest queen regnant to give birth is Mary II, who gave birth to a stillborn child in 1678, prior to her accession, when she was just 16.

The youngest mother to give birth to a monarch was Lady Margaret Beaufort, wife of Edmund Tudor, who was 13 years and almost 8 months when she gave birth to Henry VII in 1457.

The oldest King to become a father was Edward I, who fathered his last child, Eleanor, in 1306, when he was 66, almost 67 years old.[10][unreliable source?]

The youngest Queen Consort to become a mother was Eleanor of Provence, who gave birth to Edward I, in 1239, when she was around 16.

The oldest Queen Consort to become a mother was Eleanor of Aquitaine, who gave birth to John, in 1166, when she was 44.

Physical attributesEdit

TallestEdit

The tallest measured British monarch was Edward IV,[12] whose skeleton measures 6'4½" (1.94 m). Records indicate that when fully clad in armour he would have been about 6'7" (2 metres), an exceptional height for any man, especially of that time.

Both Edward Longshanks and Richard the Lionheart were also considered unusually tall for the medieval period - although contrary to popular belief, 'Longshanks' was not called that due to the length of his legs, but his arms; they were over a yard long (91 cm), though there is no evidence to suggest they were particularly disproportionate to the rest of his body.

The tallest queen was Mary, Queen of Scots, who was 5'11", which is exceptionally tall for a woman, especially of that time. Her Stuart descendants Mary II and Anne were both of comparable height.

ShortestEdit

The shortest British monarch in adulthood was most likely Queen Victoria, who stood only 5' (1.52 m) when in her 30s, and was possibly an inch or two shorter towards the end of her life.

Reign-life ratioEdit

Greatest proportionEdit

James VI reigned nearly 58 years as king of Scotland and died at age 59, making him king of Scotland for over 98 percent of his life.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Queen Elizabeth II becomes longest-reigning UK monarch". BBC. 9 September 2015.
  2. ^ "English Monarchs with the longest reign". English Heritage. 7 September 2015.
  3. ^ ""Prince James Francis Edward", The British Monarchy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  4. ^ a b "Philip the record-setting consort". BBC. 18 April 2009.
  5. ^ "Prince Charles becomes longest-serving heir apparent". BBC. 20 April 2011.
  6. ^ Bryan, Nicola. "Prince Charles is longest-serving Prince of Wales". BBC News. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  7. ^ McWhirter, Norris (1996). Guinness Book of Records. Guinness Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 0-85112-646-4.
  8. ^ a b "Kings & Queens - by Age".
  9. ^ "The longest-lived Royal in history". BBC. 20 August 2003.
  10. ^ a b c d e Mike Ashley (7 June 2012). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. Hachette UK.
  11. ^ a b "Prince Charles becomes oldest heir for nearly 300 years". BBC. 19 September 2013.
  12. ^ a b c Antony Mason. Kings and Queens - A Very Peculiar History. Andrews UK.
  13. ^ "Prince of Wales will be oldest monarch crowned". Daily Telegraph. 19 September 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Kings & Queens - by Age of Accession to the Throne".
  15. ^ "Oldest British Queen Consort at start of reign". Guinness Book of Records.
  16. ^ "11 Things You Might Not Know About Mary, Queen of Scots". Mental Floss.
  17. ^ "Royal wedding: Kate Middleton will be 'oldest bride'". Daily Telegraph. 16 November 2010.
  18. ^ "Queen Elizabeth II becomes first British monarch to celebrate 70th wedding anniversary". Washington Post. 20 November 2017.
  19. ^ Thompson, Kathleen (2003). "Affairs of State: the Illegitimate Children of Henry I". Journal of Medieval History. 29 (2): 129–151. doi:10.1016/S0304-4181(03)00015-0. ISSN 0304-4181.