The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the Australia Armed Forces. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service, and to civilians under military command. Being the highest award in the Australian Honours Order of Wearing, the VC takes precedence over all other postnominals and Australian orders and decorations. The VC was instituted by Queen Victoria in 1856, initially to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War. Because of its rarity and inherent significance, the VC is highly prized, both as an award and as a collector's item, with one medal being sold for over A$1 million at auction. Australians have received the VC under the Imperial honours system and later under the Australian Honours System, when in 1991 a new but equivalent award was established by letters patent within the Commonwealth of Australia and its Territories, known as the Victoria Cross for Australia. The Victoria Cross for Australia has been awarded five times: twice to Special Air Service Regiment members, once to a member of the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, and a posthumous award to a member of the 2nd Commando Regiment, and a posthumous award to Teddy Sheean. The first four were for actions in the War in Afghanistan while Sheean's was for actions during World War II.
The Imperial VC has been awarded to 96 Australians—91 were received for actions whilst serving with Australian forces, and another five to former members of the Australian forces then serving with South African and British forces. The majority of the awards were for action in the First World War when a total of 64 medals were awarded. Nine of these awards were for action during the Gallipoli Campaign. 20 medals were awarded for action in the Second World War, 6 in the Second Boer War, 4 in the Vietnam War and 2 in the Russian Civil War. Twenty-eight Australians have been awarded the medal posthumously. One recipient—Captain Alfred Shout VC, MC (who was also Mentioned in Despatches)—was Australia's most decorated soldier of the Gallipoli campaign. His Victoria Cross was posthumously awarded after Shout died of his wounds during the Battle of Lone Pine. Another 19 VCs have been awarded to soldiers who were either born in Australia, or died there, but did not serve in Australian units before being awarded the VC, and as such these are not included in this list.
This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously
AWM = This denotes that the medal is held at the Australian War Memorial
Victoria Cross edit
|Name||Date of action||Conflict||Unit||Place of action||Location of medal|
|Charles Anderson||1942||Second World War||2/19th Battalion||Muar River, Malaya||AWM|
|Thomas Axford||1918||First World War||16th Battalion||Hamel Wood, France||AWM|
|Peter Badcoe||1967*||Vietnam War||Australian Army Training Team||Huong Tra, Vietnam||AWM|
|Robert Beatham||1918*||First World War||8th Battalion||Rosieres, France||Queensland Museum|
|Frederick Bell||1901||Second Boer War||West Australia Mounted Infantry||Transvaal, South Africa||Western Australian|
|Frederick Birks||1917*||First World War||6th Battalion||Ypres, Belgium||AWM|
|John Bisdee||1900||Second Boer War||Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen||Warm Bad, South Africa||Tasmanian Museum|
and Art Gallery
|Arthur Blackburn||1916||First World War||10th Battalion||Pozières, France||AWM|
|Albert Borella||1918||First World War||26th Battalion||Villers-Bretonneux, France||Privately held|
|Walter Brown||1918||First World War||20th Battalion||Villers-Bretonneux, France||AWM|
|Alexander Buckley||1918*||First World War||54th Battalion||Péronne, France||AWM|
|Maurice Buckley||1918||First World War||13th Battalion||Le Verguier, France||AWM|
|Patrick Bugden||1917*||First World War||31st Battalion||Zonnebeke, Belgium||Queensland Museum|
|Alexander Burton||1915*||First World War||7th Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|John Carroll||1917||First World War||33rd Battalion||St. Yves, Belgium||AWM|
|George Cartwright||1918||First World War||33rd Battalion||Bouchavesnes, France||Imperial War Museum|
|Claud Castleton||1916*||First World War||Australian Machine Gun Corps||Pozières, France||AWM|
|Percy Cherry||1917*||First World War||26th Battalion||Lagnicourt, France||AWM|
|Albert Chowne||1945*||Second World War||2/2nd Battalion||Dagua, New Guinea||AWM|
|Thomas Cooke||1916*||First World War||8th Battalion||Pozières, France||Army Museum|
|William Currey||1918||First World War||53rd Battalion||Péronne, France||AWM|
|Arthur Roden Cutler||1941||Second World War||2/5th Field Regiment, RRoAA||Merdjayoun-Damour, Lebanon||AWM|
|Henry Dalziel||1918||First World War||15th Battalion||Hamel Wood, France||AWM|
|Wilbur Dartnell||1915*||First World War||25th (Service) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers||Maktau, Kenya||AWM|
|Phillip Davey||1918||First World War||10th Battalion||Merris, France||AWM|
|Tom Derrick||1943||Second World War||2/48th Battalion||Sattelberg, New Guinea||AWM|
|William Dunstan||1915||First World War||7th Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|John Dwyer||1917||First World War||Australian Machine Gun Corps||Zonnebeke, Belgium||AWM|
|John Edmondson||1941*||Second World War||2/17th Battalion||Tobruk, Libya||AWM|
|Hughie Edwards||1941||Second World War||No. 105 Squadron RAF||Bremen, Germany||AWM|
|Jack French||1942*||Second World War||2/9th Battalion||Milne Bay, Papua||Privately held|
|Alfred Gaby||1918*||First World War||28th Battalion||Villers-Bretonneux, France||Tasmanian Museum|
and Art Gallery
|Bernard Gordon||1918||First World War||41st Battalion||Bray, France||AWM|
|Jim Gordon||1941||Second World War||2/31st Battalion||Djezzine, Syria||Privately held|
|Percy Gratwick||1942*||Second World War||2/48th Battalion||El Alamein, Egypt||Army Museum of|
|Robert Grieve||1917||First World War||37th Battalion||Messines, Belgium||Shrine of Remembrance|
|Stan Gurney||1942*||Second World War||2/48th Battalion||Tel-el-Eisa, Egypt||AWM|
|Arthur Hall||1918||First World War||54th Battalion||Péronne, France||AWM|
|John Hamilton||1915||First World War||3rd Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|George Howell||1917||First World War||1st Battalion||Bullecourt, France||AWM|
|Neville Howse||1900||Second Boer War||New South Wales Medical Staff Corps||Vredefort, South Africa||AWM|
|George Ingram||1918||First World War||24th Battalion||Montbrehain, France||AWM|
|Roy Inwood||1917||First World War||10th Battalion||Polygon Wood, Belgium||Adelaide Town Hall|
|Albert Jacka||1915||First World War||14th Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|William Jackson||1916||First World War||17th Battalion||Armentieres, France||Privately held|
|Clarence Jeffries||1917*||First World War||34th Battalion||Passchendaele, Belgium||Christ Church Cathedral,|
|Jørgen Jensen||1917||First World War||50th Battalion||Noreuil, France||AWM|
|William Joynt||1918||First World War||8th Battalion||Herleville Wood, France||Privately held|
|Richard Kelliher||1943||Second World War||2/25th Battalion||Nadzab, New Guinea||AWM|
|Edward Kenna||1945||Second World War||2/4th Battalion||Wewak, New Guinea||unknown|
|Bede Kenny||1917||First World War||2nd Battalion||Hermies, France||AWM|
|Leonard Keysor||1915||First World War||1st Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|Bill Kibby||1942*||Second World War||2/48th Battalion||El Alamein, Egypt||AWM|
|Bruce Kingsbury||1942*||Second World War||2/14th Battalion||Isurava, Papua||AWM|
|John Leak||1916||First World War||9th Battalion||Pozières, France||Privately held|
|Alby Lowerson||1918||First World War||21st Battalion||Mont St. Quentin, France||AWM|
|Jack Mackey||1945*||Second World War||2/3rd Pioneer Battalion||Tarakan Island, Borneo||AWM|
|Robert MacTier||1918*||First World War||23rd Battalion||Mont St. Quentin, France||AWM|
|Joseph Maxwell||1918||First World War||18th Battalion||Estrees, France||AWM|
|Leslie Maygar||1901||Second Boer War||5th Victorian Mounted Rifles||Geelhoutboom, South Africa||AWM|
|Dominic McCarthy||1918||First World War||16th Battalion||Madam Wood, France||AWM|
|Stanley McDougall||1918||First World War||47th Battalion||Dernancourt, France||AWM|
|Lewis McGee||1917*||First World War||40th Battalion||Ypres, Belgium||Queen Victoria Museum|
and Art Gallery,
|Frank McNamara||1917||First World War||No. 1 Squadron AFC||Tel el Hesi, Palestine||RAF Museum, London|
|Ron Middleton||1942*||Second World War||RAAF attached No. 149 Squadron RAF||Turin, Italy||AWM|
|Mick Moon||1917||First World War||58th Battalion||Bullecourt, France||AWM|
|Harry Murray||1917||First World War||13th Battalion||Gueudecourt, France||AWM|
|James Newland||1917||First World War||12th Battalion||Bapaume, France||AWM|
|Bill Newton||1943*||Second World War||No. 22 Squadron RAAF||New Guinea||AWM|
|Martin O'Meara||1916||First World War||16th Battalion||Pozières, France||Army Museum of|
|Frank Partridge||1945||Second World War||8th (Militia) Battalion||Bougainville, New Guinea||Privately held|
|Keith Payne||1969||Vietnam War||Australian Army Training Team||Ben Het, Vietnam||AWM|
|Samuel Pearse||1919*||North Russia Relief Force||45th Battalion, RF||Emtsa, Russia||AWM|
|Walter Peeler||1917||First World War||3rd Pioneer Battalion||Ypres, Belgium||AWM|
|Charles Pope||1917*||First World War||11th Battalion||Louveral, France||AWM|
|Reg Rattey||1945||Second World War||25th Battalion||Bougainville, New Guinea||Privately held|
|James Rogers||1901||Second Boer War||South African Constabulary||Thaba 'Nchu, South Africa||AWM|
|William Ruthven||1918||First World War||22nd Battalion||Ville-sur-Ancre, France||AWM|
|John Ryan||1918||First World War||55th Battalion||Hindenburg Defences, France||AWM|
|Clifford Sadlier||1918||First World War||51st Battalion||Villers-Bretonneux, France||St George's Cathedral|
|Alfred Shout||1915*||First World War||1st Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|Ray Simpson||1969||Vietnam War||Australian Army Training Team||Kontum Province, Vietnam||AWM|
|Leslie Starcevich||1945||Second World War||2/43rd Battalion||Beaufort, British North Borneo||Army Museum of|
|Percy Statton||1918||First World War||40th Battalion||Proyart, France||AWM|
|Percy Storkey||1918||First World War||19th Battalion||Hangard Wood, France||Army Museum|
|Arthur Sullivan||1919||North Russia Relief Force||45th Battalion, RF||Sheika River, Russia||AWM|
|William Symons||1915||First World War||7th Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|Hugo Throssell||1915||First World War||10th Light Horse||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|Edgar Towner||1918||First World War||Australian Machine Gun Corps||Mont St. Quentin, France||Privately held|
|Frederick Tubb||1915||First World War||7th Battalion||Gallipoli, Turkey||AWM|
|Blair Wark||1918||First World War||32nd Battalion||Bellicourt, France||Queensland Museum|
|Lawrence Weathers||1918||First World War||43rd Battalion||Peronne, France||Privately held|
|Kevin Wheatley||1965*||Vietnam War||Australian Army Training Team||Tra Bong, Vietnam||AWM|
|John Whittle||1917||First World War||12th Battalion||Boursies, France||AWM|
|James Woods||1918||First World War||48th Battalion||Le Verguier, France||AWM|
|Guy Wylly||1900||Second Boer War||Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen||Warm Bad, South Africa||Tasmanian Museum|
and Art Gallery
Victoria Cross for Australia edit
|Name||Date of action||Conflict||Unit||Place of action||Location of medal|
|Cameron Baird||2013*||War in Afghanistan||2nd Commando Regiment||Khod Valley, Afghanistan||AWM|
|Mark Donaldson||2008||War in Afghanistan||Special Air Service Regiment||Urozgan Province, Afghanistan||AWM|
|Daniel Keighran||2010||War in Afghanistan||6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment||Urozgan Province, Afghanistan||AWM|
|Ben Roberts-Smith||2010||War in Afghanistan||Special Air Service Regiment||Kandahar Province, Afghanistan||AWM|
|Teddy Sheean||1942*||Second World War||HMAS Armidale||Arafura Sea, East Timor||AWM.|
- "VC for Australia" (PDF). Australian Government. Retrieved 2 July 2007.
- "Gallipoli VC medal sets auction record". The Age. 24 July 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
- Wigmore 1986, p. 14.
- "Bravery awards at Gallipoli". Australian Government, Department of Veterans' Affairs. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- Wigmore 1986, pp. 180–187.
- "Victoria Crosses held at the Memorial". Australian War Memorial.
- "Major Badcoe's Victoria Cross" (PDF). South Australian Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
"The Victoria Cross - Major Peter Badcoe" (PDF). South Australian Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2009.
- "Victoria Cross". Queensland Museum South Bank. Government of Queensland. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Robert Beatham's medal, owned by Mr Neil Jenman and Mrs Ruth Jenman, is on loan to the Queensland Museum until 2012.
- Lieutenant Colonel Frederick William Bell Archived 8 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, victoriacross.org.uk
- VC medals in the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart Archived 28 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, victoriacross.org.uk
- Anthony Staunton, Cartwright, George (1894 - 1978), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, p. 379. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- VC medals in the Army Museum, New Zealand Archived 13 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine, victoriacross.org.uk
- Items of significance Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Army Museum of Western Australia, 4 January 2009. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- Wilson, Neil (9 August 2003). "Rise & shrine". Herald Sun. p. 6.
- Robert Grieve's medal is on loan to the Shrine by its owners, Wesley College
- "Reginald Roy Inwood's - Victoria Cross Medal". Adelaide City Council. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
- Capt. Clarence Smith Jeffries Memorial Park (Abermain) Archived 19 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Register of War Memorials in New South Wales, 2002. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- William Joynt's VC medal is thought to be held at Melbourne Grammar School.
- Kenna's VC had been on loan to the AWM since 9 April 2010 - see AWM Media Release 335 - but no longer appears on the War Memorial's list of Victoria Crosses held at the Memorial.
- Co Sergeant Major Lewis McGee Archived 28 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, victoriacross.org.uk
- VC medals in the RAF Museum, London, victoriacross.org.uk
- "A History and Detailed Guide to St George's Cathedral"[permanent dead link], Revised 2007, pp.10&14. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- Blair Wark's medal, owned by the United Service Club Queensland, is on loan to the Queensland Museum until 2012.
- Whittle's VC has been on loan to the AWM since October 2009 - see AWM Media Release 296.
- Donaldson's VC has been on loan to the AWM since January 2009 - see AWM Media Release 215.
- "Australia's latest Victoria Cross recipient Corporal Ben Roberts-Smith VC MG views his newly installed panel and medal display for the first time" (PDF). Media alert. Australian War Memorial. 3 April 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "Victoria Crosses at the Australian War Memorial". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
- "List of Australian recipients of the Victoria Cross". Anzac Day Commemoration Committee. Archived from the original on 28 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
- Wigmore, Lionel (1986). They Dared Mightily. Second Edition. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.