List of Sri Lankan monarchs

The Sinhalese monarch -- anachronistically referred to as the Kings of Sri Lanka[N 1]—featured the heads of state of the Sinhala Kingdoms, in what is today Sri Lanka.

King of the Sinhala Kingdom
King of Kandy.svg
Royal Standard of the King of Kandy in 1815
The Consecration Of King Sinhala-Prince Vijaya (Detail From The Ajanta Mural Of Cave No 17).jpg
Prince Vijaya
Details
First monarchPrince Vijaya
Last monarchSri Vikrama Rajasinha
Formation543 BC (according to chronicles)
Abolition1815 AD
ResidenceTambapanni, Anuradhapura, Pulatthinagara,[1] Polonnaruwa, Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa, Kurunegala, Gampola, Kotte, Kandy

The Sinhalese monarchy originates in the settlement of North Indian Indo-Aryan speaking immigrants to the island of Sri Lanka. The Landing of Vijay (as described in the traditional early chronicles of the island, the Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa) recounts the date of the establishment of the first Sinhala Kingdom in 543 BC[N 2] when Indian prince Prince Vijaya (543–505 BC) and 700 of his followers arrived in Sri Lanka, establishing the Kingdom of Tambapanni.[2][3] In Sinhalese mythology, Prince Vijaya and followers are told to be the progenitors of the Sinhalese people. However, according to the story in the Divyavadana, the immigrants were probably not led by a scion of a royal house in India, as told in the romantic legend, but rather may have been groups of adventurous and pioneering merchants exploring new lands.[4] Historian G.C. Mendis on the other hand has suggested that the Vijaya myth has no historical basis.[5]

The Sinhala Kingdoms comprised the political states of the Sinhalese people and their ancestors; it existed not as a series of successive kingdoms known by the city which had the administrative centre. These are (in chronological order): the kingdoms of Tambapanni, Upatissa Nuwara, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Dambadeniya, Gampola, Kotte, Sitawaka and Kandy. The kingdoms existed in what is today the modern state of Sri Lanka.[6][7][8][9] The last Sinhala Kingdom ceased to exist by 1815 with Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy after generations of European influences and upheaval in the royal court. During the Kingdom's two millennia, other political entities also existed on the island, including the Jaffna Kingdom,[10] Vanni chieftaincies and the Portuguese and Dutch colonies.[11] However, these political entities were not part of the Sinhala Kingdoms.[12][13] A separate page lists the monarchs of the Jaffna Kingdom.

During the reign of Devanampiya Tissa (307–267 BC) Buddhism emerged through Ashoka of India.[14] By the time of Kithsirimevan (304–332), Sudatta, the sub king of Kalinga and Hemamala brought the Tooth Relic of the Buddha to Sri Lanka because of unrest in the country.[15] Kithsirimevan carried it in procession and placed the relic in a mansion named Datadhatughara.[16] He ordered this procession to be held annually, and this is still done as a tradition in the country. The Tooth Relic of the Buddha soon became one of the most sacred objects in the country and a symbol of kingship. The person who was in possession of the Tooth Relic thereafter would be the rightful ruler of the country.[17]

The role of the monarch was absolute. He was head of state but would be aided with high level officials and a board of ministers. The monarch was seen as the supreme ruler throughout the island, even at times when he did not have absolute control over it.[18] They sought to establish control over the whole island, though in reality this was more of an aspiration. However periods of effective control over the whole island did exist from time to time.[19] The monarch also held judicial power and influence. Judicial customs, traditions and moral principles based on Buddhism were used as the bases of law. The laws and legal measures were proclaimed by the king, and were to be followed by the justice administration.[20] However the king was the final judge in legal disputes, and all cases against members of the royal family and high dignitaries of the state were judged by him. Though, the king did have to exercise this power with care and after consulting with his advisers.[21]

This article is a list of monarchs that have reigned over the nine successive kingdoms under the Sinhalese monarchy.[22][23] It is based on the traditional list of monarchs as recorded in the chronicles of the island, in particular the Mahavamsa and Rajavaliya.[24][25] It is not a list of ethnically Sinhalese monarchs as it contains all Sinhalese and foreign rulers who have reigned, chronologically and in succession, in the Sinhala Kingdoms. Each monarch belongs to one of nine royal houses (Vijaya, Lambakanna I, Moriya, Lambakanna II, Vijayabahu, Kalinga, Siri Sanga Bo, Dinajara and Nayaks[N 3]), and follows a tradition of regnal names that span the entirety of the monarchy. For example, Vijayabahu was used 7 times over multiple kingdoms and multiple royal houses over a period of 500 years and there is no overlap of names, Vijayabahu I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII. The same is true for Aggabodhi, Bhuvanaikabahu, Kassapa, Mahinda, Parakramabahu and others. The Sinhalese Monarchy has also been ruled over by foreigners from India, which has occurred several times throughout the course of the kingdom's history. This is usually occurred through the usurpation of the throne.

  Those highlighted in blue are foreign usurping monarchs.

NotesEdit

This list should be used with the following factors kept in mind. Firstly, the dates provided for the earliest monarchs are difficult to objectively verify; those particularly difficult to know have been denoted with a (?) mark. The date August 20, 1200 is the earliest known fixed date in Sri Lankan history, which was for the coronation of Sahassa Malla.

Another thing to be noted is that several monarchs had usurped the throne of Lanka including Sinhalese monarchs such as Anikanga, Chodaganga, Sri Vallabha of Polonnaruwa and Mahinda VI.[26] The usurpers may have received support from rival kingdoms such as the Cholas.

Note on chronologyEdit

It should be borne in mind that there is controversy about the base date of the Buddhist Era, with 543 BC and 483 BC being advanced as the date of the parinibbana of the Buddha. As Wilhelm Geiger pointed out, the Dipawamsa and Mahawansa are the primary sources for ancient South Asian chronology; they date the consecration (abhisheka) of Ashoka to 218 years after the parinibbana. Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne 56 years prior to this, or 162 years after the parinibbana. The approximate date of Chandragupta's ascension is within two years of 321 BC (from Megasthenes). Hence the approximate date of the parinibbana is between 485 and 481 BC—which accords well with the Mahayana dating of 483 BC.[27]

According to Geiger, the difference between the two reckonings seems to have occurred at sometime between the reigns of Udaya III (946–954 or 1007–1015) and Pârakkama Pandya (c. 1046–1048), when there was considerable unrest in the country.[27] However, mention is made of an embassy sent to China by Cha-cha Mo-ho-nan in 428. The name may correspond to 'Raja (King) Mahanama', who (by the traditional chronology) reigned about this time.[28]

Furthermore, the traveller-monk Xuanzang, who attempted to visit Sri Lanka about 642, was told by Sri Lankan monks (possibly at Kanchipuram) that there was trouble in the kingdom, so he desisted;[29] this accords with the period of struggle for the throne between Aggabodhi III Sirisanghabo, Jettha Tissa III and Dathopa Tissa I Hatthadpath in 632–643.

Recent indological research has indicated that the Parinibbana of the Buddha may be even later than previously supposed. A majority of the scholars at a symposium held in 1988 in Göttingen regarding the problem were inclined towards a date of 440–360 BCE. However, their calculations were based on the chronology of Tibetan Buddhism, preferred over that of the Dipavamsa/Mahavamasa; the modified chronology, to work, needs to identify the Indian ruler Kalasoka, son of Susunaga, with the Emperor Ashoka, son of Bindusara.[30] The Sri Lankan chronicles are based on even earlier works and that the Theravada Buddhist canon was first put into writing in Sri Lanka. The chronology of the following list is based on the traditional Therevada/Sri Lankan system, which is based on 543 BC—60 years earlier than the Mahayana calendar. Dates after c. 1048 are synchronous.

The Mahavamsa was written nearly a millennium after the purported date of Vijaya's arrival, and the traditional chronology and relationships of the earliest kings have been called into question by some scholars.[31][32][33] Referring to the period following Devanampiya Tissa's rule, archaeologist W. D. J. Benilie Priyanka Emmanuel states:

"The traditional chronology for this period is manifestly incredible; for, according to it, the reigns of five brothers are spread over a period of 102 years, and that after their father is said to have himself ruled for sixty years. The round figure of ten years assigned to four of the rulers also makes the chronology open to suspicion. The historicity of one of these successors of Devanampiya Tissa, however, is proved by epigraphical records, and we have to conclude either that these rulers were contemporary, exercising authority in different regions of the Island, or that the relationship they bore to each other, as given in the chronicles, is wrong."[34]

Kingdom of Tambapanni (543–437 BC)Edit

House of Vijaya (543–437 BC)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Marriages Claim
  Vijaya ?
Sinhapura
son of Sinhabahu, and Sinhasivali
505 BC
Tambapanni
543 BC 505 BC Kuveni
two children Pandu Princess
Founded Kingdom
Marriage to Kuveni
Upatissa
(regent)
- - 505 BC 504 BC Prince Vijaya's Chief Minister
Panduvasdeva - - 504 BC 474 BC Nephew of Vijaya
Abhaya - - 474 BC 454 BC Son of Panduvasdeva
Tissa
(regent)
- - 454 BC 437 BC Younger brother of Abhaya

Anuradhapura Kingdom (437 BC – 1017 AD)Edit

House of Vijaya (437–237 BC)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Pandukabhaya 474 BC 367 BC 437 BC 367 BC *Grandson of Panduvasudeva
*Nephew of Abhaya and Tissa
Mutasiva - - 367 BC 307 BC *Son of Pandukabhaya
  Devanampiya Tissa - 267 BC 307 BC 267 BC *Son of Mutasiva
Uttiya - - 267 BC 257 BC *Son of Mutasiva
Mahasiva - - 257 BC 247 BC *Son of Mutasiva
Suratissa - 237 BC 247 BC 237 BC *Son of Pandukabhaya

Sena and Guttika (237–215 BC)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Claim
Sena and Guttika - - 237 BC 215 BC Defeated Suratissa in battle.

House of Vijaya (215–205 BC)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Asela ?
Son of Mutasiva
205 BC
Anuradhapura
215 BC 205 BC Son of Mutasiva

Elara (205–161 BC)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Claim
  Elara 235 BC
Chola Empire
161 BC
Anuradhapura
205 BC 161 BC Defeated Asela in battle

House of Vijaya (161–103 BC)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Dutugamunu the Great
(a.k.a. Dutta Gamini or Dutugemunu or Duttagamini Abaya)
- - 161 BC 137 BC *Defeated Elara
*Eldest son of Kavan Tissa
*Originally the ruler of Ruhuna
  Saddha Tissa - - 137 BC 119 BC *Brother of Dutugemunu
  Thulatthana
(Tulna)
- - 119 BC 119 BC *Second son of Saddha Tissa
  Lanja Tissa - - 119 BC 109 BC *Older brother of Thullattana
*Oldest son of Saddha Tissa
  Khallata Naga
(Kalunna)
- - 109 BC 103 BC *Brother of Lanja Tissa
*Third son of Saddha Tissa
  Vattagamani Abhaya
(a.k.a. Valagambahu I)
(Walagamba)
- - 103 BC 103 BC *Fourth son of Saddha Tissa

The Five Dravidans (103–89 BC)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Pulahatta - - 103 BC 100 BC *Tamil Chief
Bahiya - - 100 BC 98 BC *Chief Minister of Pulahatha
Panya Mara - - 98 BC 91 BC *Prime Minister of Bahiya
Pilaya Mara - - 91 BC 90 BC *Chief Minister of Panayamara
Dathika - - 90 BC 89 BC *Chief Minister of Pilayamara

House of Vijaya (89 BC – 67 AD)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Vattagamani Abhaya
(a.k.a. Valagambahu I)
(Walagamba)
- - 89 BC 77 BC *Fourth son of Saddha Tissa
  Mahakuli Mahatissa
(Maha Cula Maha Tissa)
- - 77 BC 63 BC *Son of Khallatanaga
*Nephew and adopted son of Valagambahu I
  Chora Naga
(Mahanaga)
- - 63 BC 51 BC *Son of Valagambahu I
*Cousin of Mahakuli Mahatissa
  Kuda Tissa - - 51 BC 48 BC *Son of Mahakuli Mahatissa
  Siva I - - 48 BC 48 BC
  Vatuka - - 48 BC 48 BC
  Darubhatika Tissa - - 48 BC 48 BC
  Niliya - - 48 BC 48 BC
  Anula - - 48 BC 44 BC *Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa
  Kutakanna Tissa - - 44 BC 22 BC *Brother of Kuda Tissa
*Second son of Mahakuli Mahatissa
  Bhatikabhaya Abhaya - - 22 BC 7 AD *Son of Kuttakanna Tissa
  Mahadathika Mahanaga - - 7 19 *Brother of Bhatika Abhaya
  Amandagamani Abhaya - - 19 29 *Son of Mahadathika Mahanaga
  Kanirajanu Tissa - - 29 32 *Brother of Amandagamani Abhaya
  Chulabhaya - - 32 33 *Son of Amandagamani Abhaya
  Sivali - - 33 33 *Sister of Chulabhaya
  Interregnum - - 33 33
  Ilanaga
(Elunna)
- - 33 43 *Nephew of Queen Sivali
  Chandamukha - - 43 52 *Son of Ilanaga
  Yassalalaka - - 52 60 *Younger brother of Candhamuka Siva
  Subharaja
(a.k.a. Subha)
- - 60 67 *The hall porter of King Yasalaka Tissa

House of Lambakanna I (67–429)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Vasabha - - 67 111 *A member of the Lambakanna clan
  Vankanasika Tissa - - 111 114 *Son of Vasabha
  Gajabahu I - - 114 136 *Son of Vankanasika Tissa
  Mahallaka Naga - - 136 143 *Father-in-Law of Gajabahu I
  Bhatika Tissa - - 143 167 *Son of Mahallaka Naga
  Kanittha Tissa - - 167 186 *Younger brother of Bhatika Tissa
  Cula Naga
(a.k.a. Khujjanaga)
- - 186 187 *Son of Kanitta Tissa
  Kuda Naga
(a.k.a. Kunchanaga)
- - 187 189 *Brother of Cula Naga
  Siri Naga I - - 189 209 *Brother-in-Law of Kuda Naga
  Voharika Tissa
(a.k.a. Vira Tissa & Voharikathissa)
- - 209 231 *Son of Siri Naga I
  Abhaya Naga - - 231 240 *Brother of Voharaka Tissa
  Siri Naga II - - 240 242 *Son of Voharaka Tissa
  Vijaya Kumara - - 242 243 *Son of Siri Naga II
  Sangha Tissa I - - 243 247 *A Lambakanna
  Siri Sangha Bodhi I
(a.k.a. Siri Sangabo)
- - 247 249 *A Lambakanna
  Gothabhaya - - 249 262 *Minister of State
*A Lambakanna
  Jettha Tissa I
(a.k.a. Detuthis I)
- - 263 273 *Eldest son of Gothabhaya
  Mahasena - - 274 301 *Brother of Jettha Tissa
*Younger son of Gothabhaya
  Sirimeghavanna - - 301 328 *Son of Mahasena
  Jettha Tissa II - - 328 337 *Brother of Sirimeghavanna
  Buddhadasa - - 337 365 *Son of Jettha Tissa II
  Upatissa I - - 365 406 *Eldest son of Buddhadasa
  Mahanama - - 406 428 *Brother of Upatissa I
  Soththisena - - 428 428 *Mahanama's son born to a Tamil mother
  Chattagahaka Jantu
(a.k.a. Chhattagahaka)
- - 428 428 *Husband of Sangha
*Daughter of Mahanama by his Sinhala Queen
  Mittasena - - 428 429 *A noted plunderer

The Six Dravidians (429–455)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Pandu - - 429 434 *Pandyan Invader
Parindu - - 434 437 *Son of Pandu
Khudda Parinda - - 437 452 *Younger brother of Pandu
Tiritara - - 452 452 *Fourth Tamil ruler
Dathiya - - 452 455 *Fifth Tamil ruler
Pithiya - - 455 455 *Sixth Tamil ruler

House of Moriya (455–691)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Dhatusena - - 455 473 *Son of Sangha, the daughter of Mahanama
*Liberated Anuradhapura from 27 years of Pandyan Rule
  Kashyapa I
(the Usurper),(of Sigiriya)
- - 479 497 *Son of King Dhatusena by a Pallava woman
  Moggallana I - - 497 515 *Son of Dhatusena
*Brother of Kasyapa
  Kumara Dhatusena - - 515 524 *Son of Mogallana
  Kittisena - - 524 524 *Son of Kumara Dhatusena
  Siva II - - 524 525 *Uncle of Kirti Sena
  Upatissa II - - 525 526 *Son-in-Law of Kumara Dhatusena
  Silakala Ambosamanera - - 526 539 *A Son-in-Law of Upatissa, prince of Lambakanna stock
  Dathappabhuti - - 539 540 *Second son of Silakala
  Moggallana II - - 540 560 *Eldest brother of Dathappabhuti
  Kittisiri Meghavanna - - 560 561 *Son of Mogallana II
  Maha Naga - - 561 564 *Minister of War under King Dathapatissa
  Aggabodhi I - - 564 598 *Mother's brother's son and Sub-King of Mahanaga
  Aggabodhi II - - 598 608 *Nephew and son-in-law of Aggabodhi I
  Sangha Tissa II - - 608 608 *Brother and Sword-bearer of Aggabodhi II
  Moggallana III - - 608 614 *Commander-in-Chief during the reign of Aggabodhi II
  Silameghavanna - - 614 623 *King Mogallana's Sword-bearer
  Aggabodhi III - - 623 623 *Son of Silimeghavanna
  Jettha Tissa III - - 623 624 *Son of King Sangha Tissa
  Aggabodhi III
(restored)
- - 624 640 *Son of Silimeghavanna
  Dathopa Tissa I
(Hatthadpatha)
- - 640 652 *General of Jettha Tissa (Dathasiva)
  Kassapa II - - 652 661 *Brother of Aggabodhi III
*Sub-King of Dathopa Tissa
  Dappula I - - 661 664 *Son in law of Silimeghavanna
  Dathopa Tissa II - 673 664 673 *Nephew of Dathopa Tissa I (Hattha Datha)
  Aggabodhi IV - - 673 689 *Younger brother of Dathopa Tissa
  Unhanagara Hatthadatha - - 691 691 *A chief of Royal blood who was placed on the throne by a wealthy Tamil Officer

House of Lambakanna II (691–1017)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Manavanna - - 691 726 *Son of Kassapa I
*Descendant of Silamegahavanna
  Aggabodhi V - - 726 732 *Son of Manavamma
  Kassapa III - - 732 738 *Brother of Aggabodhi V
  Mahinda I - - 738 741 *Younger brother of Kassapa III
  Aggabodhi VI - - 741 781 *Son of Kassapa III
  Aggabodhi VII
(From Polonnaruwa)
- - 781 787 *Son of Mahinda
  Mahinda II
(Silamegha)
- - 787 807 *Son of Aggabodhi VI
  Dappula II - - 807 812 *Son of Mahinda II
*The sub-king of Mahinda II
  Mahinda III - - 812 816 *Son of Dappula II
  Aggabodhi VIII - - 816 827 *Brother of Mahinda III
  Dappula III - - 827 843 *Younger brother of Aggabodhi VIII
  Aggabodhi IX - - 843 846 *Son of Dappula III
  Sena I - - 846 866 *Younger brother of Aggabodhi IX
  Sena II - - 866 901 *Nephew of Sena I
*Son of Kassapa
  Udaya I - - 901 912 *Brother of sub-king of Sena II
  Kassapa IV - - 912 929 *Son of Sena II
*Sub-king of Udaya I
  Kassapa V - - 929 939 *Son of Kassapa IV
  Dappula IV - - 939 940 *Son of Kassapa V
  Dappula V - - 940 952 *Brother of Dappula IV
  Udaya II - - 952 955 *Nephew of Sena II
*Sub-king of Dappula V
  Sena III - - 955 964 *Brother of Udaya II
  Udaya III - - 964 972 *Sub-king of Sena III (a great friend of the king)
  Sena IV - - 972 975 *Son of Kassapa V
*Sub-king of Udaya III
  Mahinda IV - - 975 991 *Brother of Sena IV
*Nephew of Udaya III
*Sub-king of Sena
  Sena V - - 991 1001 *Son of Mahinda IV
  Mahinda V
(Fled and ruled in Ruhuna)
(Deported c. 1017)
- 1029 1001 1029 *Younger brother of Sena V

Chola-occupied Anuradhapura (1017–1055)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Claim
Kassapa VI - - 1029 1040 Son of Mahinda V
Mahalana-Kitti - - 1040 1042
Vikrama Pandu - - 1042 1043
Jagatipala - - 1043 1046
Parakrama Pandu - - 1046 1048
Loka - - 1048 1054
Kassapa VII - - 1054 1055

Kingdom of Polonnaruwa (1055–1236)Edit

House of Vijayabahu (1055–1187)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Vijayabahu I - - 1055 1111 *Member of the Sinhala Royal Family
Jayabahu I
(Polonnaruwa and Ruhuna)
- - 1110 1111 *Brother of Vijayabahu I
*Prime Minister of Vijayabahu I
Vikramabahu I - 1132 1111 1132 *Son of Vijayabahu I
Gajabahu II - - 1131 1153 *Son of Vikramabahu I
  Parakramabahu I 'the Great' 1123 1186 1153 1186 *Grandson of Vijayabahu I
Vijayabahu II - - 1186 1187 *Parakramabahu I's nephew
Mahinda VI - - 1187 1187 *A Kalinga

House of Kalinga (1187–1197)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Nissanka Malla 1157 or 1158 1196 1187 1196 *Son-in-law or nephew to Parakrama Bahu I
Vira Bahu I - - 1196 1196 *Son of Nissanka Malla
Vikramabahu II - - 1196 1196 *Younger brother of Nissanka Malla
Chodaganga - - 1196 1197 *Nephew of Nissanka Malla

House of Vijayabahu, restored (1197–1200)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Queen Lilavati - - 1197 1200 *Widow of Parakramabahu I

House of Kalinga, restored (1200–1209)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Sahassa Malla - - 1200 1202 *Younger brother of Nissanka Malla
Kalyanavati - - 1202 1208 *Queen of Nissanka Malla
Dharmasoka - - 1208 1209 *Deposed Kalyanavati and installed by Ayasmantha
Anikanga - - 1209 1209 *Father of Dharmasoka

House of Vijayabahu, restored (1209–1210)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Lilavati
(1st Restoration)
- - 1209 1210 *Widow of Parakramabahu I

Lokissara (1210–1211)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Lokissara - - 1210 1211 Leader of a Tamil army.

House of Vijayabahu, restored (1211–1212)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Lilavati
(2nd Restoration)
- - 1211 1212 *Widow of Parakramabahu I

Pandyan dynasty (1212–1215)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Parakrama Pandya - - 1212 1215 *Pandyan King

Eastern Ganga dynasty (1215–1236)Edit

After Kalinga Magha invaded, with the intent of ruling the whole island, the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was sacked. This caused massive Sinhalese migration to the south and west of the island. Unable to capture the whole island Kalinga Magha establishes the Jaffna kingdom becoming its first monarch. The Jaffna kingdom is situated in modern northern Sri Lanka while the Kingdom of Dambadeniya was established by Vijayabahu III on the rest of the island in around 1220.[35]

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Kalinga Magha - - 1215 1236 *A prince of Kalinga

Kingdom of Dambadeniya (1220–1345)Edit

House of Siri Sanga Bo (1220–1345)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Vijayabahu III - - 1220 1234 *A patriotic Prince of Sinhala Royal blood
  Parakkamabahu II - - 1234 1269 *Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu III
  Vijayabahu IV - October 1270 1267/8 October 1270 *Eldest son of Panditha Parakrama Bahu II
  Bhuvanaikabahu I
(from Yapahuwa)
- - 1271 1283 *Brother of Vijaya Bahu IV
Interregnum - - 1283 1302
Parakkamabahu III
(from Polonnaruwa)
- - 1302 1310 *Nephew of Buvaneka Bahu I
*Son of Vijaya Bahu IV
Bhuvanaikabahu II
(from Kurunagala)
- - 1310 1325/6 *Son of Buvaneka Bahu I
*Cousin of Parakrama Bahu III
Parakkamabahu IV
(from Kurunagala)
- - 1325/6 1325/6 *Son of Buvanekka Bahu II
Bhuvanaikabahu III
(from Kurunagala)
- - 1325/6 1325/6 *Known as Vanni Buvaneka Bahu
Vijayabahu V
(from Kurunagala)
- - 1325/6 1344/5 *Second son of Chandra Banu of Jaffnapatnam

Kingdom of Gampola (1345–1412)Edit

House of Siri Sanga Bo (1345–1412)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Bhuvanaikabahu IV - - 1344/5 1353/4 *Son of Vijaya Bahu V
Parakkamabahu V
(from Dedigama)
1311 - 1344/5 1359 *Son of Vijaya Bahu V
*Brother of Buvaneka Bahu IV
Vikramabahu III - - 1357 1374 *Son of Buvaneka Bahu IV
Bhuvanaikabahu V - - 1371 1408 *Nissanka Alakeswara's son by the sister of Vikrama Bahu III
Vira Bahu II - - 1391/2 1397 *Brother in law of King Buvaneka Bahu V
Vira Alakesvara
(a.k.a. Vijaya Bahu VI)
- - 1397 1409
Parakrama Bahu Epa - - 1409 1412 *Grandson of Senalankahikara Senevirat
minister of Bhuvanaikabâhu IV.

Kingdom of Kotte (1412–1597)Edit

House of Siri Sanga Bo (1412–1597)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Parakramabahu VI - - 1412 1467 *Son of Vijaya Bahu VI and his Queen Sunetra Devi
*Or the third son of Chandra Banu of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam)
  Jayabahu II
(Vira Parakrama Bahu VII)
- - 1467 1472 *Son of Parakrama Bahu II's natural daughter, Ulakudaya Devi
  Bhuvanaikabahu VI - - 1469 1477 *Son of Parakrama Bahu VI
  Pandita Parakramabahu VII - - 1477 1477
  Vira Parakramabahu VIII - - 1477 1489 *Ambulagala Kumara
*Son of Parakrama Bahu VI
  Dharma Parakramabahu IX
(from Kelaniya)
- - 1489 1513 *Son of Vira Parakrama Bahu VIII
  Vijayabahu VI - 1521 1513 1521 *Brother of Dharma Parakrama Bahu IX
*Rajah of Menik Kadavara
  Bhuvanekabahu VII - 1551 1521 1551 *Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu
  Dharmapala - 27 May 1597 1551 27 May 1597 *Grandson and heir of Bhuvanekabãhu VII

Kingdom of Sitawaka (1521–1594)Edit

House of Siri Sanga Bo (1521–1594)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Mayadunne 1501 1581 1521 1581 *Brother of Bhuvaneka Bahu VII
*Son of Vijaya Bahu VII
  Rajasinha I
(a.k.a. Tikiri Banda)
1544 1593 1581 1593 *Son of Mayadunne
  Rajasuriya - - 1593 1594

Kingdom of Kandy (1591–1815)Edit

House of Dinajara (1591–1739)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Vimaladharmasuriya I
(a.k.a. Don João da Austria)
- 1604 1591 1604 *Son of Vijayasundara Bandara
  Senarat - 1635 1604 1635 *Cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya I
  Rajasinghe II 1608 6 December 1687 1635 25 November 1687 *Son of Senarat and Dona Catherina
  Vimaladharmasurya II - 4 June 1707 1687 4 June 1707 *Son of King Rajasinghe II
  Vira Narendra Sinha
(a.k.a. Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Singha)
1690 13 May 1739 4 June 1707 13 May 1739 *Son of Vimala Dharma Suriya II

Nayaks of Kandy (1739–1815)Edit

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Marriages Relationship with Predecessor(s)
  Sri Vijaya Rajasinha ?
Madurai, Madurai Nayak dynasty
son of Pitti Nayakkar
11 August 1747
Kandy
13 May 1739 11 August 1747 1 Madurai Spouse Brother-in-law of Vira Narendra Sinha
  Kirti Sri Rajasinha 1734
Madurai, Madurai Nayak dynasty
son of Narenappa Nayakkar
2 January 1782
Kandy
11 August 1747 2 January 1782 6 Madurai Spouses
Yakada Doli
2 sons, 6 daughters
Brother-in-law of Sri Vijaya Rajasinha
  Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha ?
Madurai
son of Narenappa Nayakkar
26 July 1798
Kandy
2 January 1782 26 July 1798 Queen Upendramma Brother of Kirti Sri Rajasinha
  Sri Vikrama Rajasinha
(a.k.a. Rajasinha IV; Kannasamy)
1780
Madurai
son of Sri Venkata Perumal and Subbamma Nayaka
30 January 1832
Vellore Fort, Company rule in India
26 July 1798 5 March 1815 4 spouses
3 children
Nephew of Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha

TimelineEdit

Kingdom of KandyKingdom of SitawakaKingdom of KotteKingdom of GampolaKingdom of DambadeniyaKingdom of PolonnaruwaChola occupation of AnuradhapuraAnuradhapura KingdomKingdom of Upatissa NuwaraKingdom of TambapanniNayaks of KandyHouse of DinajaraHouse of Siri Sanga BoHouse of KalingaHouse of VijayabahuHouse of Lambakanna IIHouse of MoriyaHouse of Lambakanna IHouse of VijayaHouse of VijayaHouse of VijayaHouse of Vijaya

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The name Sri Lanka refers to the modern-day republic.
  2. ^ This is the most common date.
  3. ^ The Nayaks were not an ethnically Sinhalese royal house, nonetheless are considered a part of the Sinhalese monarchy.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Anurādhapura". www.palikanon.com. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  2. ^ Mittal (2006) p 405
  3. ^ "483 BC – Arrival of Aryans to Sri Lanka". scenicsrilanka.com. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  4. ^ Paranavithana (1936) p 459
  5. ^ MENDIS, G. C. “The Mahābhārata Legends in the Mahāvaṃsa.” The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland 5, no. 1 (1957): 81–84. http://www.jstor.org/stable/45377709.
  6. ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 350–51. ISBN 978-0-7614-7631-3.
  7. ^ Bandaranayake, S. D. (1974). Sinhalese Monastic Architecture: The Viháras of Anurádhapura. Leiden: BRILL. p. 17. ISBN 9004039929.
  8. ^ De Silva, K. M. (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-19-561655-2. A History of Sri Lanka.
  9. ^ Blaze, L. E. (1938). History of Ceylon. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-8120618411.
  10. ^ Manogaran, Chelvadurai (1987). Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-8248-1116-7.
  11. ^ Malalgoda, Kitsiri (1976). Buddhism in Sinhalese Society, 1750–1900: A Study of Religious Revival and Change. University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-520-02873-2.
  12. ^ Dias, M.; Koralage, S.B.; Asanga, K. (2016). The archaeological heritage of Jaffna peninsula. Colombo: Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). pp. 183, 186. ISBN 978-955-9159-99-5.
  13. ^ Ray, H.C. (2016). University of Ceylon, History of Ceylon: Volume I (From the earliest time to 1505): Part II (From the Cola conquest in 1017 to the arrival of the Portuguese in 1505). Colombo: Ceylon University Press. p. 726.
  14. ^ Mendis (1999), p. 11
  15. ^ Blaze (1995), p. 58
  16. ^ Wijesooriya (2006), p. 89
  17. ^ Blaze (1995), p. 59
  18. ^ Perera (2001), p. 48
  19. ^ De Silva (1981), p. 21
  20. ^ Rambukwelle (1993), p. 38
  21. ^ Siriweera (2004), p. 92
  22. ^ Ratnatunga, Rhajiv. "LIST OF THE SOVEREIGNS OF LANKA". lakdiva.org. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  23. ^ de Silva, K. M. (2005). A History of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka: Penguin Books India. ISBN 9789558095928. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  24. ^ Gunasekara, B. (1900). The Rajavaliya : or, A historical narrative of Sinhalese kings from Vijaya to Vimala Dharma Surya II. Colombo: Government Printer, Ceylon. ISBN 81-206-1029-6. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  25. ^ "The Mahavamsa: Original Version Chapters 1 – 37". Mahavamsa.org. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  26. ^ Corrington, p. 67.
  27. ^ a b Geiger (Tr), Wilhelm (1912). The Mahawamsa or Great Chronicle of Ceylon. Oxford: Oxford University Press (for the Pali Text Society). p. 300. Archived from the original on 2008-10-30.
  28. ^ S G M Weerasinghe, A history of the cultural relations between Sri Lanka and China: an aspect of the Silk Route, Colombo: Central Cultural Fund, 1995, ISBN 955-613-055-1, p.40
  29. ^ Stephen Spencer Gosch, Peter N. Stearns, Premodern Travel in World History, Routledge, 2008; ISBN 0-415-22940-5, p.93
  30. ^ Cousins, L. S. "The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article". indology. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  31. ^ W. D. J. Benilie Priyanka Emmanuel, Civilization in its Own Words: Inscriptions and Archaeology in Ancient Sri Lanka, University of California, PhD, 2000 p.42
  32. ^ Ajith Amarasinghe, Finding Sinhabahu: An analysis of the early history of Sri Lanka documented in ancient chronicles, Vijitha Yapa Publications, 2019
  33. ^ KM Da Silva, A History of Sri Lanka, 1981, pp.3-4
  34. ^ W. D. J. Benilie Priyanka Emmanuel, Civilization in its Own Words: Inscriptions and Archaeology in Ancient Sri Lanka, University of California, PhD, 2000 p.42
  35. ^ Codrington, Humphry William. "The Dambadeniya And Gampola Kings". lakdiva.org. Retrieved 27 February 2013.

Further readingEdit

Primary sourcesEdit

Secondary sourcesEdit

  • De Silva, K. M. (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. India: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04320-0.
  • Blaze, L. E (1995). History of Ceylon. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-1074-3.
  • de Silva, K. M. (2005). A History of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa. p. 782. ISBN 955-8095-92-3.
  • Mendis, Ranjan Chinthaka (1999). The Story of Anuradhapura. Lakshmi Mendis. ISBN 978-955-96704-0-7.
  • Mittal, J. P. (2006). "Other dynasties". History of Ancient India: From 4250 BC to 637 AD. Vol. 2 of History of Ancient India: A New Version. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 81-269-0616-2.
  • Nicholas, C. W.; Paranavitana, S. (1961). A Concise History of Ceylon. Colombo University Press.
  • Perera, Lakshman S. (2001). The Institutions of Ancient Ceylon from Inscriptions. Vol. 1. International Centre for Ethnic Studies. ISBN 978-955-580-055-6.
  • Rambukwelle, P. B. (1993). Commentary on Sinhala Kingship — Vijaya to Kalinga Magha. Sridevi Printers. ISBN 978-955-95565-0-3.
  • Siriweera, W. I. (2004). History of Sri Lanka. Dayawansa Jayakodi & Company. ISBN 978-955-551-257-2.
  • Wijesooriya, S. (2006). A Concise Sinhala Mahavamsa. Participatory Development Forum. ISBN 978-955-9140-31-3.
  • Paranavithana, Senarath (July 1936). "Two Royal Titles of the Early Sinhalese, and the Origin of Kingship in Ancient Ceylon". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 68 (3): 443–462. doi:10.1017/S0035869X0007725X.

External linksEdit