List of American federal politicians convicted of crimes
This list consists of American politicians convicted of crimes either committed or prosecuted while holding office in the federal government.The politicians are sublisted under the President they served. It includes politicians who were convicted or pleaded guilty in a court of law; and does not include politicians involved in unprosecuted scandals (which may or may not have been illegal in nature), or politicians who have only been arrested or indicted. The list also does not include crimes that occur outside the politician's tenure unless they specifically stem from acts while they were in office. It does not include convictions which were vacated (e.g. Ted Stevens (R)).
Although the convicted politicians are arranged by presidential terms starting with the most recent, many of the crimes have little or no connection to who is president. Since the passage of 20th Amendment on January 23, 1933, presidential terms have begun on January 20 of the year following the presidential election; prior to that, they began on March 4.
2017–present (Donald Trump (R) presidency)Edit
2009–2017 (Barack Obama (D) presidency)Edit
- General David Petraeus (R) Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. On April 23, 2015, a federal judge sentenced Petraeus to two years' probation plus a fine of $100,000 for providing classified information to Lieutenant Colonel Paula Broadwell. (2015)
- Steve Stockman (R-TX) was convicted of fraud. (2018)
- Anthony Weiner (D-NY) was convicted of sending sexually explicit photos of himself to a 15-year-old girl and was made to sign the sexual offenders register. (2017)
- Corrine Brown (D-FL) was convicted on 18 felony counts of wire and tax fraud, conspiracy, lying to federal investigators, and other corruption charges. (2017)
- Chaka Fattah (D-PA) was convicted on 23 counts of racketeering, fraud, and other corruption charges. (2016)
- Dennis Hastert (R-IL) Speaker of the United States House of Representatives pleaded guilty in court for illegally structuring bank transactions related to payment of $3.5 million to quash allegations of sexual misconduct with a student when he was a high school teacher and coach decades ago. (2016)
- Michael Grimm (R-NY) pleaded guilty of felony tax evasion. This was the fourth count in a 20-count indictment brought against him for improper use of campaign funds. The guilty plea had a maximum sentence of three years; he was sentenced to eight months in prison. (2015)
- Trey Radel (R-FL) was convicted of possession of cocaine in November 2013. As a first-time offender, he was sentenced to one year probation and fined $250. Radel announced he would take a leave of absence, but did not resign. Later, under pressure from a number of Republican leaders, he announced through a spokesperson that he would resign. (2013)
- Rick Renzi (R-AZ) was found guilty on 17 of 32 counts against him June 12, 2013, including wire fraud, conspiracy, extortion, racketeering, money laundering and making false statements to insurance regulators. (2013)
- Jesse Jackson Jr. (D-IL) pleaded guilty February 20, 2013, to one count of wire and mail fraud in connection with his misuse of $750,000 in campaign funds. Jackson was sentenced to two-and-one-half years' imprisonment. (2013)
- Laura Richardson (D-CA) was found guilty on seven counts of violating US House rules by improperly using her staff to campaign for her, destroying the evidence and tampering with witness testimony. The House Ethics Committee ordered Richardson to pay a fine of $10,000. (2012)
- Mark E. Fuller (R) Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama, was found guilty of domestic violence and sentenced to 24 weeks of family and domestic training and forced to resign his position. (2015)
2001–2009 (George W. Bush (R) presidency)Edit
- Scott Bloch (R) United States Special Counsel, pleaded guilty to criminal contempt of Congress for "willfully and unlawfully withholding pertinent information from a House Committee investigating his decision to have several government computers wiped...." Bloch was sentenced to one day in jail and two years' probation, and also ordered him to pay a $5,000 fine and perform 200 hours of community service. (2013)
- Felipe Sixto (R) Special Assistant for Intergovernmental Affairs, convicted of misusing money. Sentenced to 30 months. (2009)
- Robert E. Coughlin (R) Deputy Chief of Staff for the Criminal Division, pleaded guilty to accepting bribes relating to the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal. (2009)
- David Safavian (R) Administrator for the Office of Management and Budget He was found guilty of blocking justice and lying, and sentenced to 18 months. (2008)
- Scooter Libby (R) Chief of Staff to Vice President Dick Cheney (R). 'Scooter' was convicted of perjury and obstruction of justice in the Plame Affair on March 6, 2007 and was sentenced to 30 months in prison and fined $250,000. His sentence was commuted by George W. Bush (R) on July 1, 2007. (2007) Libby was pardoned by President Donald Trump on April 13, 2018.
- Lester Crawford (R) Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, pleaded guilty to conflict of interest and received 3 years suspended sentence and fined $90,000. (2006)
- Claude Allen (R) Director of the Domestic Policy Council, was arrested for a series of felony thefts in retail stores. He was convicted on one count (2006).
- John Korsmo (R) Chairman of the Federal Housing Finance Board, pleaded guilty to lying to congress. (2005)
- William J. Jefferson (D-LA) was charged in August 2005 after the FBI seized $90,000 in cash from his home freezer. He was re-elected to the House in 2006, but lost in 2008. He was convicted November 13, 2009, of 11 counts of bribery and sentenced to 13 years in prison. (2009) Jefferson's Chief of Staff Brett Pfeffer, was sentenced to 84 months for bribery. (2006)
- Jack Abramoff CNMI scandal involves the efforts of Abramoff to influence Congressional action concerning U.S. immigration and minimum wage laws. See Executive branch convictions. Congressmen convicted in the Abramoff scandal include:
- Duke Cunningham (R-CA) pleaded guilty November 28, 2005, to charges of conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, wire fraud and tax evasion in what came to be called the Cunningham scandal and was sentenced to over eight years in prison. (2005)
- Frank Ballance (D-NC) admitted to federal charges of money laundering and mail fraud in October 2005 and was sentenced to four years in prison. (2005)
- Bill Janklow (R-SD) was convicted of second-degree manslaughter for running a stop sign and killing a motorcyclist. Resigned from the House and given 100 days in the county jail and three years' probation. (2003)
- Jim Traficant (D-OH) was found guilty on ten felony counts of financial corruption, sentenced to eight years in prison and expelled from the House of Representatives. (2002)
- Larry Craig (R-ID) was arrested for lewd conduct in a men's restroom at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport on June 11, 2007, and entered a guilty plea to a lesser charge of disorderly conduct on August 8, 2007.
1993–2001 (Bill Clinton (D) presidency)Edit
- Wade Sanders (D), Deputy Assistant United States Secretary of the Navy, for Reserve Affairs, was sentenced to 37 months in prison on one charge of possession of child pornography. (2009)
- Darleen A. Druyun (D), Principal Deputy United States Under Secretary of the Air Force. She pleaded guilty to inflating the price of contracts to favor her future employer, Boeing. In October 2004, she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined $5,000, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service (2005). CBS News called it "the biggest Pentagon scandal in 20 years" and said that she pleaded guilty to a felony.
- Mel Reynolds (D-IL) was convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault, obstruction of justice and solicitation of child pornography. (1997) He was later convicted of 12 counts of bank fraud. (1999)
- Wes Cooley (R-OR), was convicted of having lied on the 1994 voter information pamphlet about his service in the Army. He was fined and sentenced to two years' probation (1997) He was later convicted of income tax fraud connected to an investment scheme. He was sentenced to one year in prison and to pay restitution of $3.5 million to investors and $138,000 to the IRS.
- Austin Murphy (D-PA) was convicted of one count of voter fraud for filling out absentee ballots for members of a nursing home. (1999)
- House banking scandal The House of Representatives Bank found that 450 members had overdrawn their checking accounts, but not been penalized. Six were convicted of charges, most only tangentially related to the House Bank itself. Twenty two more of the most prolific over-drafters were singled out by the House Ethics Committee. (1992)
- Buz Lukens (R-OH) convicted of bribery and conspiracy.
- Carl C. Perkins (D-KY) pleaded guilty to a check kiting scheme involving several financial institutions (including the House Bank).
- Carroll Hubbard (D-KY) was convicted of illegally funneling money to his wife's 1992 campaign to succeed him in Congress.
- Mary Rose Oakar (D-OH) pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor campaign finance charge not related to the House Bank.
- Walter Fauntroy (D-District of Columbia) was convicted of filing false disclosure forms to hide unauthorized income.
- Congressional Post Office scandal (1991–1995) was a conspiracy to embezzle House Post Office money through stamps and postal vouchers to congressmen.
- Thomas Porteous (D) Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, was convicted of perjury (2010).
1989–1993 (George H. W. Bush (R) presidency)Edit
- Catalina Vasquez Villalpando, (R) Treasurer of the United States, pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and tax evasion. (1992)
- Nicholas Mavroules (D-MA]]) was convicted of extortion, accepting illegal gifts and failing to report them on congressional disclosure and income tax forms. Mavroules pleaded guilty to fifteen counts in April 1993 and was sentenced to a fifteen-month prison term. (1993)
- Albert Bustamante (D-TX) was convicted of accepting bribes and sentenced to three-and-one-half years in prison. (1993)
- David Durenberger Senator (R-MN) denounced by Senate for unethical financial transactions and then disbarred (1990). He pleaded guilty to misuse of public funds and given one year's probation (1995)
- Jay Kim (R-CA) accepted $250,000 in illegal 1992 campaign contributions and was sentenced to two months' house arrest. (1992)
- Samuel B. Kent (R) Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, was convicted of perjury (2009).
1981–1989 (Ronald Reagan (R) presidency)Edit
- Housing and Urban Development Scandal was a controversy concerning bribery by selected contractors for low income housing projects.
- Deborah Gore Dean (R) Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, convicted of fraud (1988).
- Michael Deaver (R) White House Deputy Chief of Staff to Ronald Reagan, pleaded guilty to perjury related to lobbying activities and was sentenced to 3 years' probation and fined $100,000. (1987)
- Operation Ill Wind was a three-year investigation launched in 1986 by the FBI into corruption by U.S. government and military officials, and private defense contractors.
- Melvyn Paisley, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, was found to have accepted hundreds of thousands of dollars in bribes. He pleaded guilty to bribery and served four years in prison.
- James E. Gaines, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy, took over when Paisley resigned his office. Gaines was convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity and theft and conversion of government property. He was sentenced to six months in prison.
- Victor D. Cohen, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, was the 50th conviction obtained under the Ill Wind probe when he pleaded guilty to accepting bribes and conspiring to defraud the government. He was sentenced to 33 months in prison.
- Iran–Contra affair (1985–1986); A secret sale of arms to Iran, to secure the release of hostages and allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras, in violation of the Boland Amendment.
- Elliott Abrams (R) Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, convicted of withholding evidence. Given 2 years' probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush.
- Abscam FBI sting involving fake 'Arabs' trying to bribe 31 congressmen. (1980) The following Congressmen were convicted:
- Harrison A. Williams Senator (D-NJ) Convicted on 9 counts of bribery and conspiracy. Sentenced to 3 years in prison.
- John Jenrette (D-SC) sentenced to two years in prison for bribery and conspiracy.
- Richard Kelly (R-FL) Accepted $25K and then claimed he was conducting his own investigation into corruption. Served 13 months.
- Raymond Lederer (D-PA) "I can give you me" he said after accepting $50K. Sentenced to 3 years.
- Michael Myers (D-PA) Accepted $50K saying, "...money talks and bullshit walks." Sentenced to 3 years and was expelled from the House.
- Frank Thompson (D-NJ) Sentenced to 3 years.
- John M. Murphy (D-NY) Served 20 months of a 3-year sentence.
- Wedtech scandal Wedtech Corporation was convicted of bribery in connection with Defense Department contracts.
- Pat Swindall (R-GA) convicted of 6 counts of perjury. (1989)
- George V. Hansen (R-ID) censured for failing to fill out disclosure forms. Spent 15 months in prison. (1984)
- Frederick W. Richmond (D-NY), Convicted of tax evasion and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months (1982)
- Dan Flood (D-PA) censured for bribery. After a trial ended in a deadlocked jury, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to a year's probation. (1981)
- Joshua Eilberg (D-PA) pleaded guilty to conflict-of-interest charges. (1981)
- Jon Hinson (R-MS) was arrested for having homosexual oral sex in the House of Representatives' bathroom with a government staffer. Hinson, who was married, later received a 30-day jail sentence, and a year's probation, on condition that he get counseling and treatment. (1981)
1977–1981 (Jimmy Carter (D) presidency)Edit
- Frank M. Clark (D-PA) pleaded guilty to mail fraud and tax evasion and was sentenced to two years in prison. (1979)
- J. Herbert Burke (R-FL) pleaded guilty to disorderly intoxication, resisting arrest, and nolo contendere to an additional charge of witness tampering. He was sentenced to three months plus fines.(1978)
- Fred Richmond (D-NY) – Convicted of tax fraud and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months in prison. Charges of soliciting sex from a 16-year-old boy were dropped after he submitted to counseling. (1978)
- Charles Diggs (D-MI), convicted on 29 charges of mail fraud and filing false payroll forms which formed a kickback scheme with his staff. Sentenced to 3 years. (1978)
- Richard Tonry (D-LA) pleaded guilty to receiving illegal campaign contributions. (1977)
- Andrew J. Hinshaw (R-CA) US Representative was convicted of accepting bribes. He served one year in prison. (1977)
- Harry E. Claiborne (D) Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada, was convicted of tax evasion (1984).
1974–1977 (Gerald R. Ford (R) presidency)Edit
- Earl Butz (R) United States Secretary of Agriculture. He was charged with failing to report more than $148,000 in 1978. Butz pleaded guilty to the tax evasion charge and was sentenced to 30 days in jail and five years of probation and was ordered to make restitution. He served 25 days behind bars before his release.
- James F. Hastings (R-NY), convicted of kickbacks and mail fraud, he also took money from his employees for personal use. Served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary. (1976)
- Bertram Podell (D-NY), pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest. He was fined $5,000 and served four months in prison. (1974)
- Frank Brasco (D-NY) sentenced to 5 years in jail and fined $10,000 for conspiracy to accept bribes from a reputed Mafia figure who sought truck leasing contracts from the Post Office and loans to buy trucks. (1974)
- Richard T. Hanna (D-CA), convicted in an influence-buying scandal. (1974)
- John V. Dowdy (D-TX), convicted of perjury and served 6 months in prison. (1973)
1969–1974 (Richard M. Nixon (R) presidency)Edit
- Maurice Stans (R) United States Secretary of Commerce, pleaded guilty to three counts of violating the reporting sections of the Federal Election Campaign Act and two counts of accepting illegal campaign contributions and was fined $5,000.(1975)
- Spiro Agnew (R) Vice President of the United States, convicted of income-tax evasion. (1973)
- Watergate (1972–1973) Republican 'bugging' of the Democratic Party National Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel led to a burglary which was discovered. The cover up of the affair by President Richard Nixon (R) and his staff resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 pleading guilty, including 7 for actual burglary. Eventually, Nixon resigned his position.
- John N. Mitchell (R) former United States Attorney General, convicted of perjury.
- Richard Kleindienst (R) United States Attorney General, convicted of obstruction, given one month in jail.
- H. R. Haldeman (R) White House Chief of Staff, convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury. Served 18 months in prison.
- John Ehrlichman (R) former White House Counsel, convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury. Served 18 months in prison.
- Egil Krogh (R) United States Undersecretary of Transportation, sentenced to six months.
- John Dean (R) White House Counsel, convicted of obstruction of justice, later reduced to felony offenses and served 4 months.
- Dwight Chapin (R) Secretary to the President of the United States, convicted of perjury.
- Herbert W. Kalmbach (R) Nixon's Personal Attorney, guilty of corrupt practices, 191 days in jail.
- Charles Colson (R) Special Counsel to the President for Public Liaison, convicted of obstruction of justice. Served 7 months.
- James Fred Hastings (R-NY) convicted of receiving kickbacks and mail fraud. He served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary (1976).
- Edwin Reinecke (R-CA) convicted of perjury and sentenced to 18 months in prison as part of the Watergate investigation. (1973)
- J. Irving Whalley (R-PA) received suspended three-year sentence and fined $11,000 in 1973 for using mails to deposit staff salary kickbacks and threatening an employee to prevent her from giving information to the FBI. (1973)
- Martin B. McKneally (R-NY) placed on one year's probation and fined $5,000 for failing to file income tax return. He had not paid taxes for many years prior. (1971)
- Cornelius Gallagher (D-NJ) pleaded guilty to tax evasion, and served two years in prison.(1972)
- Ted Kennedy Senator (D-MA) drove his car into the channel between Chappaquiddick Island and Martha's Vineyard, killing passenger Mary Jo Kopechne. Kennedy pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of an accident and received a suspended sentence of two months (1969)
1963–1969 (Lyndon B. Johnson (D) presidency)Edit
- Daniel Brewster (D-MD) pleaded no contest to accepting "an unlawful gratuity without corrupt intent." (1969)
- Frank W. Boykin (D-AL) was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest. (1963)
- Walter Nixon (D) Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi, was convicted of perjury (1986).
1961–1963 (John F. Kennedy (D) presidency)Edit
1953–1961 (Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) presidency)Edit
- Thomas J. Lane (D-MA) convicted for evading taxes on his congressional income. Served 4 months in prison, but was re-elected three more times (1956).
- Ernest K. Bramblett (R-CA) received a suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine for making false statements in connection with payroll padding and kickbacks from congressional employees. (1954)
1945–1953 (Harry S. Truman (D) presidency)Edit
- Walter E. Brehm (R-OH) convicted of accepting contributions illegally from one of his employees. Received a 15-month suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine. (1951)
- J. Parnell Thomas (R-NJ) was convicted of salary fraud and given an 18-month sentence and a fine. He was imprisoned in Danbury Prison. After serving his 18 months he was pardoned by Truman. (1950)
- Andrew J. May (D-KY) convicted of accepting bribes from a war munitions manufacturer. Was sentenced to 9 months in prison, after which he was pardoned by Truman. (1947)
- James M. Curley (D-MA) fined $1,000 and served six months for fraud before Harry S. Truman commuted the rest of his sentence. (1947)
1933–1945 (Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) presidency)Edit
1929–1933 (Herbert Hoover (R) presidency)Edit
1923–1929 (Calvin Coolidge (R) presidency)Edit
- William P. MacCracken Jr. (R) convicted of contempt of congress for the Air Mail scandal. (1934):436
1921–1923 (Warren G. Harding (R) presidency)Edit
1909–1913 (William Howard Taft (R) presidency)Edit
- William Lorimer Senator (R-IL), The 'blond boss of Chicago' was found guilty of accepting bribes in 1912.
- Robert Archbald (R) Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, was convicted of corruption in 1912.
1901–1909 (Theodore Roosevelt (R) presidency)Edit
- Henry B. Cassel (R-PA) was convicted of fraud related to the construction of the Pennsylvania State Capitol (1909).
- John Hipple Mitchell Senator (R-OR) was involved with the Oregon land fraud scandal, for which he was indicted and convicted while a sitting U.S. Senator (1905).
- Joseph R. Burton Senator (R-KS) was convicted of accepting a $2,500 bribe. (1904)
- Matthew Lyon (DR-KY). First Congressman to be recommended for censure after spitting on Roger Griswold (Federalist-Connecticut). The censure failed to pass. Separately, found guilty of violating Alien and Sedition Acts and sentenced to four months in jail, during which time he was re-elected (1798).
- Aaron Burr (Thomas Jefferson's Vice President) was arrested in 1805 following Alexander Hamilton's death resulting from the duel Burr initiated. The charges were eventually dropped following his trial.
- Robert Smalls (R-NC) NC Representative was charged with accepting a $5,000 bribe during 1877 in relation to a government printing contract and found guilty. Smalls was pardoned in 1879 by South Carolina Governor William Simpson.
- Charles F. Mitchell (R-NY) US Representative from the 33rd District, was convicted of forgery, sentenced to one year in prison and fined, though he was paroled early due to poor health.(1841)
- Thomas Porteous (D), Federal Judge of the U.S. Eastern District of Louisiana was impeached, convicted and removed from office December 8, 2010, on charges of bribery and lying to Congress (2010).
- Jack Camp (R), Senior Federal U.S. District Court Judge was arrested in an undercover drug bust while trying to purchase cocaine from an FBI agent. Judge Jack T. Camp resigned his position after pleading guilty to three criminal charges. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail, 400 community service hours and fined (2010).
- Samuel B. Kent (R), Federal District Judge of the Galveston Division of the U.S. Southern District of Texas, was sentenced May 11, 2009, to 33 months in prison for having lied about sexually harassing two female employees (2009).
- Alcee Hastings (D), Federal District court judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of soliciting a bribe (1989). Subsequently, elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1992).
- Robert Frederick Collins (D), Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, was convicted of bribery and sentenced to six years, ten months (1991).
- Walter Nixon (D) Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate for perjury November 3, 1989.
- Harry Claiborne (D), Federal District court Judge was tried and convicted of federal tax evasion; he served over one year in prison (1983). He was later impeached by the House, convicted by the Senate and removed from office (1986).
- 2017–18 United States political sexual scandals
- List of federal political scandals in the United States
- List of federal political sex scandals in the United States
- List of United States representatives expelled, censured, or reprimanded
- List of United States senators expelled or censured
State and local politics
- "Ex-Trump adviser Flynn admits lying to FBI". Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- Steve Coll, The General's Dilemma: David Petraeus, the pressures of politics, and the road out of Iraq The New Yorker September 8, 2008
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Apuzzo, Matt (23 April 2015). "David Petraeus Is Sentenced to Probation in Leak Investigation". Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
- "Former Rep. Steve Stockman Found Guilty of 23 Felonies". The Daily Beast. 12 April 2018.
- Katz, Celeste (June 20, 2011). "Document Drop: Weiner's Resignation Letter". New York Daily News. Dear Secretary Perales and Governor Cuomo: I hereby resign as the Member of the House of Representatives for New York's Ninth Congressional District effective at midnight, Tuesday, June 21, 2011. It has been an honor to serve the people of Queens and Brooklyn. (scan of letter of resignation at this link)
- "Anthony Weiner will register as a sex offender after pleading guilty to sexting with a 15-year-old". Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Stevens, Matt (11 May 2017). "Ex-Florida Congresswoman Convicted of Taking Money Meant for Charity". Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
- Wootson Jr., Cleve (4 December 2017). "Former congresswoman Corrine Brown sentenced to five years in prison in charity slush-fund case". Retrieved 8 May 2018 – via WashingtonPost.com.
- "US congressman Chaka Fattah convicted on corruption charges". 21 June 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "The top political sex scandals of 2015". Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Christina Wilkie (24 December 2014). "Rep. Michael Grimm Pleads Guilty To Felony Tax Fraud". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Ex-Rep. Grimm sentenced to 8 months in prison in tax evasion case". Fox News. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Debenedetti, Gabriel (November 20, 2013). "Florida Congressman Radel gets probation on cocaine charge". Yahoo! News. Reuters. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Mike Levine; Maryalice Parks (November 21, 2013). "Florida Rep. Trey Radel to Take Leave of Absence After Cocaine Charge". Good Morning America.
- King, Ledyard (January 28, 2014). "Rep. Trey Radel to resign from Congress". USA Today. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Rick Renzi, Former Congressman, Convicted On 17 Of 32 Counts In Corruption Case". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. June 11, 2013. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (February 20, 2013). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Pleads Guilty: 'I Lived Off My Campaign'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Yager, Jordy. "Ethics Committee finds Rep. Laura Richardson guilty on seven counts". THe Hill. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Pershing, Ben (August 1, 2012). "Ethics panel says Rep. Laura Richardson broke federal law, obstructed probe". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- http://www.salon.com, MONDAY, JUN 1, 2015, America's most heinous judge resigns: Wife-beater Mark Fuller leaves the bench, finally, but not easily by BRAD FRIEDMAN 
- http://www.latimes.com, March 15, 2015 U.S. Judge Mark Fuller of Alabama may face ouster after domestic abuse claim By TIMOTHY M. PHELPS,
- http://www.al.com/news | Federal judge Mark Fuller accepts plea deal in domestic violence case; could have arrest record expunged | Kent Faulk | firstname.lastname@example.org By Kent Faulk | updated September 05, 2014 | 
- Elliott, Justin (April 27, 2010). "Ex-Bush Official Pleads Guilty To Contempt In Geeks On Call Case". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Hsu, Spencer. Bush whistle-blower protector faces jail. Washington Post, 2010-02-03.
- Marimow, Ann E. "Former federal official sentenced to probation with a day in jail," The Washington Post, 24 June 2013, accessed 10 November 2013.
- "Comparing presidential administrations by arrests and convictions: A warning for Trump appointees". Daily Kos.
- "Personnel Announcement". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Smith, R. Jeffrey; Schmidt, Susan (20 September 2005). "Bush Official Arrested in Corruption Probe". Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via washingtonpost.com.
- "#08-1138: Former GSA Chief of Staff David Safavian Convicted of Obstruction, Making False Statements (2008-12-19)". Justice.gov. 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. (June 21, 2006). "Ex-Aide To Bush Found Guilty". The Washington Post.
- "Safavian sentenced to 18 months in jail - politics | NBC News". MSNBC. 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- "David Safavian". www.nndb.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo (Associated Press),"Libby Found Guilty in CIA Leak Trial: Ex-Cheney Aide Libby Found Guilty of Obstruction, Perjury, Lying to the FBI in CIA Leak Case", ABC News, March 6, 2007
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-04-22. Retrieved 2018-08-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Ex-FDA Chief Gets Probation, Fine for Lying About Stocks". The Associated Press. February 28, 2007.
- "Former Top Bush Aide Accused of Md. Thefts". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Cook, Dave (November 13, 2009). "Former Representative William Jefferson Sentenced to 13 years in Prison". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Radelat, Ana (January 11, 2006). "Former congressional aide pleads guilty to bribery". USA Today. Gannett News Service. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Schmidt, Susan; Grimaldi, James V. (January 20, 2007). "Ney Sentenced to 30 Months In Prison for Abramoff Deals". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Babcock, Charles R.; Weisman, Jonathan (November 29, 2005). "Congressman Admits Taking Bribes, Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Ballance completes federal sentence". WRAL-TV News. June 22, 2009. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Janklow sentenced to 100 days in jail". USA Today. Associated Press. January 21, 2004. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Gillispie, Mark (September 27, 2014). "Convicted ex-congressman James Traficant dies at 73". PBS NewsHour. Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Susan Schmidt (December 15, 2007). "Republican With Links to Abramoff Is Sentenced". Washington Post.
- Navy Hero from Vietnam Stripped of Medal; San Diego Union-Tribune; July 28, 2011
- "The Rise And Fall of A Maverick". Government Executive. 1 February 2004. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Ex-Official Goes to Prison". 5 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
- "Cashing In For Profit?". Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Broderick, Chris (January 29, 2009). "Wes Cooley indicted on federal fraud charges". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Wes Cooley, former Oregon congressman, sentenced to federal prison for tax fraud". The Oregonian. Associated Press. December 11, 2012. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Heltzel, Bill (May 25, 1999). "Election fraud indictment credited to minor official". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Krause, Clifford (April 16, 1992). "House bank scandal backfires on GOP". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Lukens Convicted of Taking Bribes". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. March 16, 1996. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Former Congressman Perkins is Charged, Agrees to Plead Guilty" (Press release). Department of Justice. December 13, 1994. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Ex-Lawmaker, Wife Admit Misusing Funds". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. April 6, 1994. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Ex-Rep. Oakar Will Admit Breaking Law". Los Angeles Times. September 30, 1997. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Former Delegate Fauntroy is Charged, Agrees to Plead Guilty" (Press release). Department of Justice. March 22, 1995. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Labaton, Stephen (July 20, 1993). "House Aide Links a Top Lawmaker to Embezzlement". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Jackson, Robert L. (April 10, 1996). "Rostenkowski Pleads Guilty, Gets Prison". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Ex-house Member Gets 6 Months In Stamp Scandal". Orlando Sentinel. August 1, 1996. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- https://www.nytimes.com, August 1, 1996, "Ex-congressman Gets 6 Months in Prison"
- Duff, James C. (2008-06-18). "Judicial Conference of the United States Determination" (PDF). Judicial Conference of the United States. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
- "Former United States Treasurer Gets Prison Term for Tax Fraud". The New York Times. September 14, 1994. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Abel, David (December 26, 2003). "Nicholas Movroules, at 74: served 7 terms in US House". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Laidler, John (May 4, 2006). "Peabody set to honor Mavroules, Scandal tainted years of service". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Ex-Rep. Bustamante Sentenced to 3 1/2 Years for Racketeering". Los Angeles Times. Reuters. October 2, 1993. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Durenberger Denounced By Senate On 96-0 Vote". Orlando Sentinel. July 23, 1990. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Kim Pleads Guilty to Illegal Donations", Asian Week, August 1998.
- "Congress: America's Criminal Class - Part III". Capitol Hill Blue. 1999-08-18. Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
- "Washingtonpost.com: Days in the Life of Jay Kim in the U.S. House of Correction". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "National News Briefs; Congressman Sentenced For Taking Illegal Funds". The New York Times. March 10, 1998. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Flood, Mary; Powell, Stewart (11 May 2009). "Effort to impeach Galveston federal judge may start today". Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Suzanne Gamboa, House Approves Inquiry to Decide on Federal Judge's Impeachment Archived August 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press, May 13, 2009. Retrieved on June 24, 2009
- DeHaven, Tad. "HUD Scandals". Cato Institute. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "James Watt Draws a Fine But Not Jail". The New York Times. March 13, 1996. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- FindLaw for Legal Professionals - Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code
- Guide to Federal Records, Michael Deaver". National Archives. https://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/449.html#449.6.
- http://www.people.com, August 08, 1988, Dealmaker Melvyn Paisley's True Colors Are Questioned in a Defense Corruption Probe by Montgomery Brower, 
- "Ex-navy Official Sentenced For Fraud". Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved 2016-01-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- FRANTZ, DOUGLAS (19 October 1991). "Paisley Gets 4-Year Term in Ill Wind Case : Pentagon: He is the highest-ranking target and his sentence is the stiffest yet in the defense procurement scandal". Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via LA Times.
- Ap (1 June 1992). "Ex-Official Sentenced". Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
- latimes.com, August 23, 1991, Ex-Official Enters 'Ill Wind' Guilty Plea : Defense: It marks the 50th conviction obtained under the probe of Pentagon procurement fraud. He faces 20 years in jail at sentencing Dec. 6 by ROBERT L. JACKSON, 
- "Featured Articles about Victor D Cohen - Page 2 - latimes". articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Walsh Iran / Contra Report - Obtaining Copies". Fas.org. Retrieved 2018-09-21.
- Walsh, Lawrence E. (August 4, 1993). "Final Report of the Independent Counsel For Iran/Contra Matters Vol. I: Investigations and Prosecutions". Summary of Prosecutions. U. S. Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia.
- "Abscam Scandal". Nndb.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- https://www.nytimes.com, November 11, 2001, "Ex-Senator Harrison Williams Jr. Dies" by Douglas Martin,
- https://www.nytimes.com, April 6, 1985, "Around the Nation" by the AP.
- https://www.nytimes.com, August 26, 2005, "Richard Kelly, 81, Congressman Who Went to Prison in Scandal, Dies" by Wolfgang Saxon,
- http://www.nytimes Archived 2013-07-11 at the Wayback Machine, December 3, 2008, "Raymond Lederer, Abscam Figure, Is Dead at 70 " by the AP
- https://www.nytimes.com, June 23, 1983, "Around the Nation" by UPI
- https://www.nytimes.com, July 24, 1989, "Frank thompson, 70 Career in Congress Ended with Abscam" by Joseph Fried
- ""Abscam conspirator begins prison term", The New York Times, 16 July 1983". Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Traub, James (July 27, 1990). "Too Good to Be True: The Outlandish Story of Wedtech". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Biaggi Indicted in Wedtech Case: Congressman, Son, 5 Others Charged With Racketeering". work=Los Angeles Times. June 3, 1987. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Ex-Rep. Garcia, Wife Sentenced to 3-Year Terms in Wedtech Case". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. January 20, 1990. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, November 22, 2009, "Pat Swindall fights in court on multiple fronts" by Steve Visser
- "Congressional Bad Boys". congressionalbadboys.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. George v. Hansen, Defendant-appellant.united States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. John F. Scoresby, Defendant-appellant - 19 F.3d 30 - Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- http://www.nytimes Archived 2013-07-11 at the Wayback Machine, October 23, 1987, "Life After Jail; Politicians Get Help From Their Friends" by Frank Lynn
- Lyons, Richard D. (1994-05-29). "Daniel Flood, 90, Who Quit Congress in Disgrace, Is Dead - Obituary; Biography". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
-  Censure Citations
- Paul B. Beers (1 November 2010). Pennsylvania Politics Today and Yesterday: The Tolerable Accommodation. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 403. ISBN 978-0-271-04498-9.
- AP (1981-02-06). "Hinson Pleads Not Guilty To a Reduced Charge". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- Associated Press (1981-05-29). "Hinson Pleads No Contest To Oral Sodomy Charge". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- Beaver County Times - Dec 15, 1985
- LLC, New York Media (18 February 1980). "New York Magazine". New York Media, LLC. Retrieved 22 June 2017 – via Google Books.
- "Heading South", Page Six, New York Post, February 24, 2009
- https://www.nytimes.com, August 26, 1998, "Charles Diggs, 75, Congressman Censured Over Kickbacks" by Byron Molotsky
- "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Richard A. Tonry, Defendant-appellant - 605 F.2d 144 - Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. 1979-10-09. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- "SFGate: San Francisco Bay Area - News, Bay Area news, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Classifieds - SFGate". SFGate. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2017-11-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Turner, Wallace (December 6, 1983). "ALLEGATIONS AGAINST JUDGE STIR U.S.-NEVADA FEUD". New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- https://www.nytimes.com, May 23, 1981, EARL BUTZ, A TOP AIDE FOR FORD AND NIXON, ADMITS TAX EVASION by UPI 
- "The Lewiston Daily Sun - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "U.S. is Suing Legislator to Get $50,000 Returned," New York Times, Mar. 27, 1977
- https://www.washingtonpost.com, August 22, 2005, Obituary, "Convicted Politician Bertram Podell, 79"
- http://www.latimes Archived 2013-07-20 at the Wayback Machine, June 13, 2001, "Richard Hanna: Congressman Sent to Prison in Bribery Scandal" by David Haldane 
- St. Petersburg Times.com, January 23, 1974, "Congressman Ordered to Prison" by UPI
- Washington Observer, April 15, 1973.
- David Rohde (1998-04-15). "Maurice Stans Dies at 90; Led Nixon Commerce Dept". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- Agnew, Spiro T., Go Quietly....or else, p. 15.
- https://www.nytimes.com, October 30, 2005, "Ideas and Trends: When Criminal Charges Hit the White House" by Bill Marsh
- https://www.washingtonpost.com, November 10, 1988, "John N. Mitchell, Principal in Watergate, Dies at 75" by Lawrence Meyer
- Political corruption in America: an ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2003. ISBN 9781576070604. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Political corruption in America: an ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2003. ISBN 9781576070604. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Russell, Jenna (2009-02-17). "Chapter 3: Chappaquiddick: Conflicted ambitions, then, Chappaquiddick". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2009/02/17/chapter_3_chappaquiddick/. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
- Political corruption in America: an ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- "BOYKIN, Frank William - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- Nixon v. United States, 506 U.S. 224 (1993).
- AP (1988-02-03). "Thomas Johnson, 78 - Lost Post in Congress - Obituary". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Viser, Matt (2009-11-04). "Embattled Turner calls easy reelection victory 'significant' - The Boston Globe". Boston.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- "TRIALS: Congressman Convicted". TIME. 1972-01-10. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Rosenzweig, David (1995-12-09). "Tucker Is Fourth California Congressman to Be Convicted Since 1936 - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- "britiannica.com". www.britiannica.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- J. Parnell Thomas at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Time magazine, "Artful Dodger", December 5, 1949.
- "Congressional Bad Boys". www.congressionalbadboys.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- David Rosenzweig, "Tucker Is Fourth California Congressman to Be Convicted Since 1936," Los Angeles Times, December 9, 1995
- "HOGAN CONVICTED OF TAKING BRIBES; Ex-Representative Gets Year and a Day in Prison in Naturalization Fraud Case". 16 October 1935. Retrieved 18 March 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
- nytimes.com, April 15, 1931, ROWBOTTOM GUILTY IN POSTAL JOB SALES; Ex-Indiana Representative Gets Year in Leavenworth on BribeTaking Charges,
- Daniel D. Lee (1991) "Senator Black's Investigation of the Air Mail 1933-34", The Historian 53: 423–42
- "LANGLEY, Katherine Gudger - US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "He wears the breeches but the lady has the brains - Appalachian History". 15 July 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Senate Investigates the "Teapot Dome" Scandal". Historical Minutes: 1921–1940. Art & History, United States Senate. https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Senate_Investigates_the_Teapot_Dome_Scandal.htm.
- Chicago Tribune, December 26, 2008, Section 1, page 43, "An Illinois civics lesson from an early scandal' by Nina Owen
- Robert Wodrow Archbald at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- "A not-so-proud history". Harrisburg Patriot News, archived at webcite.com. 2009-11-05. Archived from the original on 2009-11-16.
- "Governor Edwin Sydney Stuart". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
- "U.S. Senate: Expulsion and Censure". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Joseph Ralph Burton - Kansapedia - Kansas Historical Society". www.kshs.org. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Matthew Lyon, the Hampden of Congress by James Fairfax McLaughlin, pg 257". Retrieved 22 June 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Matthew Lyons". Retrieved September 3, 2010.[dead link]
- "SMALLS, Robert". Black Americans in Congress, 1870 to Present. History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- Henry Clay, The Papers of Henry Clay: The Whig Leader, January 1, 1837-December 31, 1843, 1988, page 519
- Houston Daily Mercury, The Lockport Union Has a Bit of History to Tell, December 24, 1873
- William M. Gouge, The Journal of Banking, From July 1841 to July 1842, 1842, page 183
- Prison Association of New York, Report of the Prison Association of New York, 1845, page 51
- New York Spectator, General Sessions, July 15, July 15, 1842
- Evans, Ben (December 8, 2010). "Federal judge convicted on 4 impeachment charges". The Washington Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Memoli, Michael A. (December 9, 2010). "Senate convicts Louisiana federal judge in impeachment trial". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
The Senate also voted to bar him from ever holding public office in the future... The vote on the first count was unanimous, 96-0. On subsequent counts, the votes were 69-27, 88-8, and 90-6. Impeachment required a vote of two-thirds of the Senate.
- https://www.forbes.com, 3/15/2011, U.S. Federal Judge Jack Camp Retired To Discover Life of Crime by Walter Pavlo, 
- http://www.times-herald.com, November 27, 2010, Judge Camp Pleads Guilty To 2 Drug Charges By ALEX McRAE, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-20. Retrieved 2015-01-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- http://www.ajc.com, March 11, 2011, Ex-judge Camp sentenced to 30 days in prison 
- Powell, Stewart (June 19, 2009). "Judge Kent's impeachment came fast and furious". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2009-06-20. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Johnston, David (October 21, 1989). "Hastings Ousted As Senate Vote Convicts Judge". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Federal Judge Gets 6 Years in Bribe Plot". Los Angeles Times. September 7, 1991. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Senate Convicts U.S. Judge on Perjury Counts". Los Angeles Times. November 4, 1989. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "News: Ex-federal judge Claiborne kills self". reviewjournal.com. 2004-01-21. Retrieved 2010-09-05.