List of Alberta general elections
This article needs to be updated.April 2019)(
The Canadian province of Alberta holds elections to its unicameral legislative body, the Legislative Assembly of Alberta. The maximum period between general elections of the assembly is five years, but the Lieutenant Governor is able to call one at any time. However, the Premier has typically asked the Lieutenant Governor to call the election in the fourth or fifth year after the preceding election. The number of seats has increased over time, from 25 for the first election in 1905, to the current 87.
The province from 1905 to 2015 was ruled by four "dynasties": the Liberal Party (1905–1921); the United Farmers of Alberta (1921–1935), the Social Credit Party (1935–1971), and the Progressive Conservative (PC) Association (1971–2015), the longest political dynasty in Canada. No minority government has ever been elected. Thus, Alberta can be said to have continuously had a dominant-party system for its entire political history, though the dominant party has changed over time.
In 2019 the newly formed United Conservative Party formed the government, effectively putting Alberta back into Conservative hands.
The table below shows the total number of seats won by each political party in each election. Full details on any election are linked via the year of the election at the start of the row, and details for the legislature that followed the election are available at the legislature number.
|Year||Seats||Winner||Legislature||United Conservative Party||Progressive Conservative[A]||Liberal||NDP[B]||Social Credit||United Farmers||Dominion Labor||Ind.||Other parties||Other parties||Voter turnout|
|1917||58||Liberal||4th||19||34||2||3||1 Labor Representation 2 Alberta Non-Partisan League|
|1940||57||Social Credit||9th||1||36||20||Independent Movement (19), Labour (1)|
|1944||60||Social Credit||10th||2||51||3||4||Independent Movement (3), Veterans' and Active Force (1)|
|2015||87||NDP||29th||10||1||54||22||Wildrose (21), Alberta Party (1)||58.4%|
|Elections||Edmonton||Calgary||Medicine Hat||Rest of Alberta|
|1905||First past the post|
|1909||Double-member plurality-at-large||First past the post|
|1913||Double-member||First past the post|
|1917||First past the post|
|1921||Five-member plurality-at-large||Double-member||First past the post|
|1926–1955||Multiple-member single transferable vote||Single-member instant-runoff voting|
|1959–present||First past the post|
Alberta's first election was fought in 25 single-member first past the post districts. The Liberal government, like other Canadian jurisdictions at the time, introduced two-member constituencies in Edmonton and Calgary in 1909 to accommodate their population. Voting in these multi-member districts was by Block Voting.
Each was broken up into three single-member districts by 1917, as the overall number of districts increased rapidly. As well 1917 saw two other innovations - election of two MLAs by soldiers and nurses overseas; and automatic re-election of 11 MLAs who were serving in the armed forces.
The Liberal government introduced five-member block voting constituencies in Edmonton and Calgary in 1921, and briefly made Medicine Hat a two-member district. Each voter in the cities was given five votes, the Liberal party was leading in Edmonton and its candidates received many multiple votes. Thus it won many votes but not many seats. The [[United Farmers of Alberta|United Farmers] won many rural seats and formed government.
The UFA government, which had campaigned on a promise of electoral reform, in 1924 adopted single transferable vote in Edmonton and Calgary and instant-runoff voting (IRV) (AKA Alternative Voting) in the rural constituencies. STV in Edmonton and Calgary produced mixed roughly proportional results in the election of city MLAs.
These parallel systems, STV in the cities and IRV in the rest of the province, lasted until Ernest Manning's Social Credit government abolished both prior to the 1959 election, without public consultations or a referendum. The change entailed the breaking up of the urban city-wide districts and creation of single-member districts and the end to transferable votes. The government reintroduced first past the post across the province. This remains the system used in Alberta and throughout Canada for provincial and federal elections.
- "Legislative Assembly Act". Queen's Printer. 1983. Section 3(1). Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- Elections Alberta (2008). "Common Questions". Elections Alberta. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- Office Consolidation (2000). "Election Act". Province of Alberta. Alberta Queen's Printer. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
1.1.1.nn ""writ" means a writ of election issued by the Chief Electoral Officer pursuant to an order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council."
39.0 "Every election shall be commenced by the passing of an order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council"
- Elections Alberta (May 30, 2008). "Candidate Summary of Results (General Elections 1905–2004)". Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
- Elections Alberta (2008). "General Election Reports (1997–2008)". Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
- Election Alberta (July 28, 2008). 2008 General Report (PDF). p. 158. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Elections Alberta (November 25, 2007). "General Elections 1975-2004 (Overall Summary of Ballots Cast and % of Voter Turnout)". Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "The PC dynasty falls: Understanding Alberta's history of one-party rule". Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Barnes, André; Lithwick, Dara; Virgint, Erin (January 11, 2016). "Electoral Systems and Electoral Reform in Canada and Elsewhere: An Overview". Library of Parliament. Ottawa. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 12, 2018.