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LineageOS, also known as LineageOS Android Distribution and Lineage (/ˈlɪn.i.ɪdʒ/), is a free and open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. It is the successor to the highly popular custom ROM CyanogenMod, from which it was forked in December 2016 when Cyanogen Inc. announced it was discontinuing development and shut down the infrastructure behind the project.[3][4] Since Cyanogen Inc. retained the rights to the Cyanogen name, the project rebranded its fork as LineageOS.[5]

LineageOS
LineageOS Android Distribution
Lineage OS Logo.png
LineageOS 14.1 homescreen german.png
The default LineageOS 14.1 home screen, based on Android Nougat
Developer LineageOS open-source community
Written in C (core), C++ (some third party libraries), Java (UI)
OS family Unix-like
Working state Active
Source model Open source
Latest preview LineageOS 14.1 / 3 July 2017; 24 days ago (2017-07-03)[1]
Marketing target Firmware replacement for Android mobile devices
Available in
Update method Over-the-air (OTA), ROM flashing
Package manager APK or Google Play Store (if installed)
Platforms ARM, ARM64, x86, x86-64
Kernel type Monolithic (Linux)
License Apache License 2.0[2]
Preceded by CyanogenMod
Official website lineageos.org

LineageOS was officially launched on December 24, 2016, with the source code available on GitHub.[6] Since that time, LineageOS has been described as highly popular and forcibly[clarification needed] developed[citation needed]; within 4 months from the initial announcement, LineageOS development builds covered more than 160 models[7] of phone, and over a million users, having doubled its user base in the month February–March 2017.[8]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

CyanogenMod (often abbreviated "CM") was a highly popular[9] open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. Although only a subset of total CyanogenMod users elected to report their use of the firmware,[10] as of 23 March 2015, some reports indicated over 50 million people running CyanogenMod on their phones.[9][11] It was also frequently used as a starting point by developers of other ROMs.[citation needed]

In 2013, the founder, Steve Kondik, obtained venture funding under the name Cyanogen Inc. to allow commercialization of the project.[12][13] In his view, the company did not capitalize on the project's success, and in 2016 he either left, or was forced out[14][15] as part of a corporate restructure which involved a change of CEO, closure of offices and projects, and cessation of services.[16] The code itself, being both open source and popular, was quickly forked under the new name LineageOS and community efforts began to resume development as a community project.

CyanogenMod offered a number of features and options not available in the official firmware distributed by most mobile device vendors. Features supported by CyanogenMod included native theme support,[17] FLAC audio codec support, a large Access Point Name list, Privacy Guard (per-application permission management application), support for tethering over common interfaces, CPU overclocking and other performance enhancements, root access, soft buttons and other "tablet tweaks", toggles in the notification pull-down (such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS), and other interface enhancements. Many of the features from CyanogenMod would later be integrated into the official Android code base. CyanogenMod did not contain spyware or bloatware, according to its developers.[18][19] CyanogenMod was also said to increase performance and reliability compared with official firmware releases.[20]

DevelopmentEdit

Similar to CyanogenMod, the project is developed by numerous device-specific maintainers and uses Gerrit for its code review process. It also retained the old versioning format (for example, Android 7.1 is LineageOS 14.1). Builds are released on a weekly basis and are signed with LineageOS' private keys.[21]

Prior to the official launch of LineageOS, many developers from XDA had already developed unofficial versions of LineageOS from the source code.

Version historyEdit

LineageOS main version Android version Last or major release Recommended build release date Notable changes[22]
Older version, yet still supported: 13 Android 6.0.1
(Marshmallow)
Older version, yet still supported: 13.0 22 January 2017 Based on CyanogenMod 13
Latest preview version of a future release: 14 Android 7.1.1/7.1.2
(Nougat)
Latest preview version of a future release: 14.1 22 January 2017 14.1 is considered a "work in progress". This was the introductory version when forked from CyanogenMod 14.1
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Preinstalled AppsEdit

LineageOS is a bloat-free ROM, with no software preinstalled by the phone's manufacturer or carrier. However, LineageOS includes a few "home-grown" apps including:

  • Audio FX - Audio optimizer with presets to alter the music listening experience.
  • Browser - A light-weight browser that relies on the System Webview, for low end devices, also known as Jelly.
  • FlipFlap - An app for smart flip covers, only included on select devices
  • Gello (discontinued) - A browser based on Chromium with custom features, included in every device except low end devices.
  • Music - A music player, formerly known as Eleven.
  • Recorder - A screen and/or sound recorder.
  • Trebuchet - A customizable launcher that supports protected apps.

Although they are not included by default, users can flash the normal Google apps, including the Google Play Store and Play Apps with a gapps zip package.

Supported devicesEdit

As of 15 July, 2017, LineageOS officially supports 163 devices[23], including Nexus and Google-released devices. They provide official builds on the current development branch labeled as "nightly", although they are generally released once per week with builds for various devices staggered throughout the week to ease the load on their automated build infrastructure. For the first two months of the project, they also produced parallel experimental builds intended to allow in-place upgrades from previous CyanogenMod installations, to ease migration to LineageOS.[24][25][26][27]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Changelog 12 - Jam-packed Jelly, Terrific Tiles, and Updated Updater". LineageOS. Retrieved 15 July 2017. 
  2. ^ "LineageOS Downloads". LineageOS. Retrieved 28 January 2017. 
  3. ^ Heater, Brian (24 December 2016). "After having its infrastructure shuttered, CyanogenMod will live on as Lineage". TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  4. ^ "A fork in the road". CyanogenMod. 24 December 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  5. ^ Levy, Nat (26 December 2016). "Open-source Lineage project rises from Cyanogen’s ashes as Android maker abruptly shuts down services". GeekWire. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  6. ^ Burns, Chris (26 December 2016). "Why did CyanogenMod die? What is LineageOS? All the important details". SlashGear. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  7. ^ "LineageOS/hudson". GitHub. Retrieved 2017-05-26. 
  8. ^ http://www.androidauthority.com/lineageos-one-million-users-one-plus-one-757895/
  9. ^ a b Helft, Miguel. "Meet Cyanogen, The Startup That Wants To Steal Android From Google". Forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  10. ^ Soyars, Chris (21 March 2011). "CM Stats explanation". Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2011. 
  11. ^ CyanogenMod [CyanogenMod] (12 January 2012). "CyanogenMod just passed 1 million active users." (Tweet). Retrieved 26 December 2016 – via Twitter. 
  12. ^ "Lineage Android Distribution". LineageOS. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  13. ^ Reed, Brad (18 September 2013). "With $7 million in funding, Cyanogen aims to take on Windows Phone". Boy Genius Report. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  14. ^ Tal, Lior (30 November 2016). "Update on Cyanogen". Cyanogen Inc. Retrieved 24 January 2017. 
  15. ^ Ruddock, David (28 November 2016). "Cyanogen Inc. will shutter Seattle office by end of year, more layoffs happening, Kondik could be out". Android Police. Retrieved 24 January 2017. Kondik was removed from the company's board, allegedly 
  16. ^ CyanogenMod [CyanogenMod] (25 December 2016). "UPDATE: As of this morning we have lost DNS and Gerrit is now offline — with little doubt as a reaction to our blog post yesterday. Goodbye" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 December 2016 – via Twitter. 
  17. ^ "Themes Support". CyanogenMod. 19 February 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "Maintenance Mode". Computer-Howto. December 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  19. ^ "Video: CyanogenMod founder Steve Kondik talks Android". UnleashThePhones.com. 6 July 2012. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  20. ^ "About". CyanogenMod.org. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  21. ^ OS, Lineage. "Update & Build Prep". lineageos.org. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  22. ^ "Gerrit Changelog". 
  23. ^ "LineageOS build targets". 30 June 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017. 
  24. ^ "Devices | LineageOS Wiki". wiki.lineageos.org. 8 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  25. ^ "LineageOS Downloads". Retrieved 24 January 2017. 
  26. ^ "Update & Build Prep". LineageOS. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017. 
  27. ^ Rigg, Jamie (24 January 2017). "The first builds of CyanogenMod successor LineageOS are out". Engadget. Retrieved 24 January 2017. 

External linksEdit