LineageOS Android Distribution is a free and open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. It is the successor to the highly popular custom ROM CyanogenMod, from which it was forked in December 2016 when Cyanogen Inc. announced it was discontinuing development and shut down the infrastructure behind the project. Since Cyanogen Inc. retained the rights to the Cyanogen name, the project rebranded its fork as LineageOS.
The default LineageOS 14.1 home screen, based on Android Nougat
|Developer||LineageOS open-source community|
|Written in||C (core), C++ (some third party libraries), Java (UI)|
|Source model||Open source|
|Latest preview||14.1 (October 26, 2017[±])|
|Marketing target||Firmware replacement for Android mobile devices|
|Update method||Over-the-air (OTA), ROM flashing|
|Package manager||APK based (optional Repositories like F-Droid, Amazon Appstore or Google Play Store) (if installed)|
|Platforms||ARM, ARM64, x86, x86-64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|License||Under multiple licenses; these can be viewed per repo on GitHub under NOTICE/LICENSE files|
LineageOS was officially launched on December 24, 2016, with the source code available on GitHub. Since that time LineageOS development builds now cover more than 178 phone models with over 1.7 million installs, having doubled its user base in the month February–March 2017.
CyanogenMod (often abbreviated "CM") was a highly popular open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. Although only a subset of total CyanogenMod users elected to report their use of the firmware, as of 23 March 2015, some reports indicated over 50 million people running CyanogenMod on their phones. It was also frequently used as a starting point by developers of other ROMs.
In 2013, the founder, Steve Kondik, obtained venture funding under the name Cyanogen Inc. to allow commercialization of the project. In his view, the company did not capitalize on the project's success, and in 2016 he either left, or was forced out as part of a corporate restructure which involved a change of CEO, closure of offices and projects, and cessation of services. The code itself, being both open source and popular, was quickly forked under the new name LineageOS and community efforts began to resume development as a community project.
CyanogenMod offered a number of features and options not available in the official firmware distributed by most mobile device vendors. Features supported by CyanogenMod included native theme support, FLAC audio codec support, a large Access Point Name list, Privacy Guard (per-application permission management application), support for tethering over common interfaces, CPU overclocking and other performance enhancements, root access, soft buttons and other "tablet tweaks", toggles in the notification pull-down (such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS), and other interface enhancements. Many of the features from CyanogenMod would later be integrated into the official Android code base. CyanogenMod did not contain spyware or bloatware, according to its developers. CyanogenMod was also said to increase performance and reliability compared with official firmware releases.
Similar to CyanogenMod, the project is developed by numerous device-specific maintainers and uses Gerrit for its code review process. It also retained the old versioning format (for example, Android 7.1 is LineageOS 14.1). Builds are released on a weekly basis and are signed with LineageOS' private keys.
Prior to the official launch of LineageOS, many developers from XDA had already developed unofficial versions of LineageOS from the source code.
LineageOS allows the community to get involved with the development in various ways. Gerrit is used for the code review process of either the operating system and the infrastructure.
The Wiki, containing information regarding installation, support and development of LineageOS is also open to contributions through Gerrit. Other Lineage platforms include Crowdin for managing translations, Jira for bug tracking, a CVE tracker page for checking out what kernel vulnerabilities have been addressed in a specific kernel (note that this page does not always reflect the real status of the kernel because it has to be updated manually by the maintainer). There is also an official subreddit, r/lineageos, and two IRC channels, hosted on Freenode (#lineageos and #lineageos-dev).
During the month of August, in 2017, LineageOS team held a Summer Survey in which they asked users some feedback to improve the development of the operating system. The results were later published in the month of October, and according to the team, they'll use the gathered data to improve the upcoming LineageOS 15 release.
|LineageOS main version||Android version||Last or major release||Recommended build release date||Notable changes||Changelog|
|Older version, yet still supported: 13||Android 6.0.1
|Older version, yet still supported: 13.0||22 January 2017||Based on CyanogenMod 13||Lineage OS 13|
|Latest preview version of a future release: 14||Android 7.1.1/7.1.2
|Latest preview version of a future release: 14.1||22 January 2017||14.1 is considered a "work in progress." This was the introductory version when forked from CyanogenMod 14.1.||Lineage OS 14|
|Future release: 15||Android 8.0.0
|Future release: 15||Q4 2017||15 is currently in development with unofficial builds already available on XDA.||Lineage OS 15|
The severe vulnerability of Android (and other) devices to the WiFi KRACK (Key Reinstallation Attack) was addressed in the Lineage ROM as of 16 October 2017[update]. Many devices, which will not receive a patch for the manufacturers' stock ROM, can be protected against KRACK by installing a LineageOS ROM.
- AudioFX - Audio optimizer with presets to alter the listening experience.
- Browser - A lightweight browser that relies on the System Webview, for low-end devices, also known as Jelly.
- FlipFlap - An app for smart flip covers, only included on select devices.
- Calculator - which resembles a four-function calculator and offers some more advanced functions.
- Calendar - Calendar functionality with Day, Week Month, Year or Agenda views.
- Camera - Dependent on device specification will take video or photos, including panoramic.
- Clock - World clock, countdown timer, stopwatch and alarms.
- Contacts - Phonebook for numbers and email addresses.
- Email - Email client that handles POP3, IMAP and Exchange.
- Files - Simple File Manager to move, copy and rename files on internal storage or SD card.
- Gallery - Organise photos and videos into a timeline or albums for easy viewing.
- Messaging - SMS messaging.
- Music - A music player, formerly known as Eleven.
- Phone - for making calls. Includes speed dial, phone number lookups and call blocking.
- Recorder - A screen and/or sound recorder.
- Trebuchet - A customizable launcher that supports protected apps.
Although they are not included by default due to legal issues, users can flash the normal Google apps, including the Google Play Store and Play Apps with a gapps zip package.
Apps available in GappsEdit
There are many packages available to download in the official[Gapps] website depending on the size preferred
The Stock package has the following
- Android Messages (not installed on tablet devices) (replaces stock/AOSP SMS App)
- Chrome Browser (replaces stock/AOSP Browser)
- Cloud Print
- Device Health Services
- Gmail (replaces stock/AOSP Email)
- Google Calculator (replaces stock/AOSP Calculator)
- Google Calendar (replaces stock/AOSP Calendar)
- Google Camera (replaces stock/AOSP Camera)
- Google Contacts (replaces stock/AOSP Contacts)
- Google Desk Clock (replaces stock/AOSP Desk Clock)
- Google Dialer (replaces stock/AOSP Dialer)
- Google Docs
- Google Drive
- Google Duo
- Google Fitness
- Google Keep
- Google Keyboard (replaces stock/AOSP Keyboard)
- Google News & Weather
- Google NFC Tags (replaces stock/AOSP NFC Tags)
- Google Now Launcher (replaces stock/AOSP Launcher)
- Google Package Installer (replaces stock/AOSP Package Installer)
- Google Play Books
- Google Play Games
- Google Play Movies & TV
- Google Play Music
- Google Play Newsstand
- Google Play services
- Google Print Service Recommendation Service (replaces stock/AOSP Print Service Recommendation Service)
- Google Search
- Google Sheets
- Google Slides
- Google Storage Manager (replaces stock/AOSP Storage Manager)
- Google Text-to-Speech (replaces stock/AOSP Pico TTS)
- Google VR Services
- Google WebView (replaces stock/AOSP WebView)
- Messenger (not installed on tablet devices) (replaces stock/AOSP SMS App)
- Pixel Icons
- Pixel Launcher (replaces stock/AOSP Launcher)
- Photos (replaces stock/AOSP Gallery)
As of 8 September 2017[update], LineageOS officially supports 190 devices, including Nexus and Google-released devices. Official builds on the current development branch are labeled as "nightly," although they are generally released once per week with builds for various devices staggered throughout the week to ease the load on the automated build infrastructure. For the first two months of the project, they also produced parallel experimental builds to allow in-place upgrades from previous CyanogenMod installations and ease migration to LineageOS.
Lineage OS 15Edit
LineageOS 15 is the coming release which is going to be based on Android Oreo(8.0). With LineageOS 15 right around the corner there are devices which are confirmed to support LineageOS 15 with the initial build.
- Heater, Brian (24 December 2016). "After having its infrastructure shuttered, CyanogenMod will live on as Lineage". TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- "A fork in the road". CyanogenMod. 24 December 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Levy, Nat (26 December 2016). "Open-source Lineage project rises from Cyanogen's ashes as Android maker abruptly shuts down services". GeekWire. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Gallagher, Sean Gallagher (27 December 2016). "Cyanogen Inc. shuts down CyanogenMod in Christmas bloodbath". Ars Technica. Ars Technica.
- "LineageOS/hudson". GitHub. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- "LineageOS Statistics". stats.lineageos.org. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
- Helft, Miguel. "Meet Cyanogen, The Startup That Wants To Steal Android From Google". Forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- Soyars, Chris (21 March 2011). "CM Stats explanation". Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- CyanogenMod [@CyanogenMod] (12 January 2012). "CyanogenMod just passed 1 million active users" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Lineage Android Distribution". LineageOS. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- Reed, Brad (18 September 2013). "With $7 million in funding, Cyanogen aims to take on Windows Phone". Boy Genius Report. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Tal, Lior (30 November 2016). "Update on Cyanogen". Cyanogen Inc. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- Ruddock, David (28 November 2016). "Cyanogen Inc. will shutter Seattle office by end of year, more layoffs happening, Kondik could be out". Android Police. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
Kondik was removed from the company's board, allegedly
- CyanogenMod [@CyanogenMod] (25 December 2016). "UPDATE: As of this morning we have lost DNS and Gerrit is now offline — with little doubt as a reaction to our blog post yesterday. Goodbye" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Themes Support". CyanogenMod. 19 February 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- "Cyanogenmod promises to never include apps like Carrier IQ". Computer-Howto. 5 December 2011. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016.
- "Video: CyanogenMod founder Steve Kondik talks Android". UnleashThePhones.com. 6 July 2012. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "About". CyanogenMod.org. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- OS, Lineage. "Update & Build Prep". lineageos.org. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
- LineageOS. "Summer Survey". www.lineageos.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
- LineageOS. "Summer Survey - Results". www.lineageos.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
- LineageOS. "Changelog 13 - Wonderful Webviews, Pedantic Permissions and Disappearing Dates". www.lineageos.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
- "Gerrit Changelog".
- "All official 14.1 builds built after this tweet have been patched for KRACK". twitter.com. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- @LineageOS (16 October 2017). "LineageOS' tweet". Twitter. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- Siddharth Chauhan (7 February 2017). "How to: Install Lineage OS on your smartphone". In.pcmag.com. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
As far as user interface goes, Lineage OS presents a clean and bloatware free stock Vanilla Android experience but still has some tricks up its sleeve.
- "Google hits Android ROM modder with a cease-and-desist letter". Engadget. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
- http://opengapps.org/ http://opengapps.org/.
|last1=in Authors list (help); Missing or empty
|title=(help); External link in
- "LineageOS build targets". 30 June 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Devices | LineageOS Wiki". wiki.lineageos.org. 8 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- "LineageOS Downloads". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Update & Build Prep". LineageOS. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- Rigg, Jamie (24 January 2017). "The first builds of CyanogenMod successor LineageOS are out". Engadget. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- OS, Lineage. "List Of Devices Getting The Lineage OS 15.0 Rom (Android 8.0 Oreo)". Lineageosrom.