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Linda Sarsour (born 1980)[1] is an American political activist and former executive director of the Arab American Association of New York. She gained national attention for her advocacy on behalf of American Muslims and as a co-chair of the 2017 Women's March.

Linda Sarsour
Linda Sarsour speaking at a panel discussion
Sarsour in May 2016
Born 1980 (age 36–37)
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Residence Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Nationality American
Alma mater Kingsborough Community College
Brooklyn College
Occupation Activist, writer
Known for Co-chair of the 2017 Women's March

Contents

Personal life

Born in Brooklyn, New York, Sarsour is the oldest of seven children of Palestinian immigrants.[2] She was raised in Sunset Park, Brooklyn, and went to John Jay High School in Park Slope. Sarsour was married in an arranged marriage at the age of 17 and had three children by her mid-20s.[1][3][4] Both Sarsour's family and her husband are from the Palestinian city of Al-Bireh.[5]

After high school, she took courses at Kingsborough Community College and Brooklyn College with the goal of becoming an English teacher.[6] As of 2011 Sarsour lives in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn.[2]

Political activism career

Arab American Association of New York

Sarsour's early activism included defending the civil rights of Muslim Americans following the September 11 attacks of 2001.[4][7] Shortly before the attacks, she was asked by Basemah Atweh, a relative and founder of the Arab American Association of New York, to volunteer for the organization.[1] Atweh, who held a prominent political role uncommon for a Muslim woman, became Sarsour's mentor there.[6]

When Sarsour and Atweh were returning from the 2005 gala opening of the Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, their car was struck by a tractor-trailer. Atweh died of her injuries, and two other passengers had broken bones. Sarsour, who was driving, was not seriously injured.[1][6] She returned to work immediately, saying of Atweh, "This is where she wanted me to be".[1] She was named to succeed Atweh as executive director of the association at age 25. Over the next several years she expanded the scope of the organization, building its budget from $50,000 to $700,000 annually.[1][6]

Sarsour has gained attention for protesting police surveillance of Muslim Americans.[4][7][8] As director of the Arab American Association of New York, she advocated for passage of the Community Safety Act in New York, which created an independent office to review police policy and expanded the definition of bias-based profiling in New York. She and the organization pressed for the law after instances of what they saw as biased policing in local neighborhoods, and it passed over the objections of the city's mayor and police chief.[6]

Sarsour became a regular attendee at Black Lives Matter demonstrations as well as a frequent television commentator on feminism.[7] According to the New York Times, Sarsour "has tackled issues like immigration policy, mass incarceration, stop-and-frisk and the New York Police Department’s spying operation on Muslims — all of which have largely inured her to hate-tinged criticism."[9]

She has spoken of the importance of building a progressive movement in the United States,[10] and her activism has drawn praise from liberal politicians and activists.[3] In 2012, during the presidency of Barack Obama, the White House recognized Sarsour as a "champion of change".[4][7] After President Donald Trump took office, the White House removed the mention of Sarsour from its website.[7]

Sarsour worked to have Muslim holidays recognized in New York City's public schools, which in 2015 started observing Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr.[4][11]

In the wake of the 2015 San Bernardino attack, President Obama called for Muslims to take responsibility and "root out misguided ideas that lead to radicalization".[12] Sarsour objected to Obama's singling out Muslims, saying, "We would never ask any other faith community to stand up and condemn acts of violence committed by people within their groups", commenting that many domestic terrorist plots had already been foiled because Muslims reported them to authorities.[13][14][undue weight? ]

Black Lives Matter

Following the shooting of Michael Brown, Sarsour helped to organize the American Muslim community's response as well as the wider Black Lives Matter protests. Sarsour helped form "Muslims for Ferguson", and traveled with other activists to Ferguson in 2014.[6][15] She has continued to work extensively with BLM since.[4][13]

Democratic Party involvement

In 2016 Sarsour ran for a position as a County Committee member with the Democratic Party of Kings County, New York.[16] She placed third in that election.[17]

Sarsour spoke as a surrogate for U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders during the 2016 presidential campaign.[3]

2017 Women's March and later activism

Teresa Shook and Bob Bland, organizers of the 2017 Women's March, recruited Sarsour as co-chair of the event, to be held the day after the inauguration of Donald Trump as president.[18] According to Politico, Sarsour had become "the face of the resistance" to Trump:

For Sarsour, Trump’s election came after years of standing up for people he had maligned—not just women, but Muslims, immigrants and black Americans, too. Her ties with activists from around the country helped her galvanize different groups during the disorienting period following the election [...] But the unyielding positions Sarsour took, and the friction they engendered, were also emblematic of a movement that has struggled to strike a balance between big-tent politics and the purity of its platform.[19]

Sarsour, along with her three co-chairs, was named as one of Time magazine's "100 Most Influential People" following the January march.[3][20] She has been active in opposing the Trump Administration's ban on travelers from several Muslim-majority countries, and was named lead plaintiff in a legal challenge brought by the Council on American–Islamic Relations.[4] In Sarsour v. Trump, the plaintiffs argued that the travel ban existed only to keep Muslims out of the United States.[21]

Controversy and opposition to her speaking

Following her leadership role in the Women's March, Sarsour was targeted with personal attacks on social media and in conservative news outlets, including false reports that she supported the militant Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and advocated imposing Islamic law in the United States.[4][7] Her critics among American conservatives have accused her of anti-Semitism and sympathizing with terrorists for her comments on Middle Eastern politics, including her stated support for the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement.[9][22] She stated that while the march was a high point in her career, the media attacks that followed caused concern for her safety.[7] According to the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, "Detractors often focus in on Sarsour's frequent criticism of Israel's policies in the occupied territories [...] Ironically, Sarsour’s acknowledgment that Israel has a right to exist, her support of a Jewish man, Bernie Sanders, for president and her relationships with politicians like Mayor Bill de Blasio have earned her criticism by some Islamists as a self-aggrandizing 'house Arab'".[23]

After a Jewish cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri was vandalized in an apparent anti-Semitic incident in February 2017, Sarsour worked with other Muslim activists to launch a crowdfunding campaign to raise money to repair the damage and restore the gravesites.[undue weight? ] More than $125,000 was raised, and Sarsour pledged to donate any funds not needed at the cemetery to other Jewish community centers or sites targeted by vandalism. She said the fundraising effort would "send a united message from the Jewish and Muslim communities that there is no place for this type of hate, desecration, and violence in America".[24][25] St. Louis's United Hebrew Congregation Senior Rabbi, Brigitte S. Rosenberg, whose congregants have family members buried in the vandalized cemetery, called the campaign "a beautiful gesture".[26] The project generated some controversy as the funds were not distributed as quickly as some had expected.[27][28]

Sarsour was a co-chairwoman of the 2017 Day Without a Woman strike and protest, organized to mark International Women's Day. During a demonstration outside Trump International Hotel and Tower in Manhattan, she was arrested along with other leaders of the January Women's March, including Bland, Tamika Mallory, and Carmen Perez.[29][30]

When Sarsour was scheduled to deliver a graduation address at the City University of New York (CUNY) in June 2017, some American conservatives strongly opposed her selection as speaker.[9][31] Controversy about her appearance began with Dov Hikind, a state assemblyman in New York, who sent Governor Andrew Cuomo a letter objecting to the choice of Sarsour as commencement speaker, signed by 100 Holocaust survivors.[9][22][32] Hikind was critical of Sarsour's previous appearance in Chicago with Rasmea Odeh, who was convicted by an Israeli court for taking part in a bombing that killed two civilians in 1969.[9]

Sarsour maintained that she had nothing to apologize for, saying that questions existed about the integrity of Odeh's conviction, that her beliefs had been misrepresented, and that criticism of Israeli policies was being conflated with anti-Semitism. She ascribed the critical reaction to her speech to her prominent role as an organizer for the 2017 Women's March.[9][22] The university chancellor, the dean of the college, and a group of professors defended her right to speak, as did some Jewish groups,[9][22] including Jews for Racial and Economic Justice.[33] Jonathan Greenblatt, CEO of the Jewish civil-rights group the Anti-Defamation League, defended Sarsour's First Amendment right to speak despite opposing her views on Israel.[34][35] A rally in support of Sarsour took place in front of New York's City Hall. Constitutional scholar Fred Smith Jr. tied the controversy to broader disputes over freedom of speech in America.[9]

The controversy may have been intensified by an exchange between Sarsour and a Dartmouth College student activist that was widely circulated on social media. The student had questioned Sarsour about a controversial, deleted tweet referring to Somali-born activist Ayaan Hirsi Ali and Brigitte Gabriel, leader of the lobbying group ACT! for America. Conservative media outlets emphasized the fact that Sarsour objected to a "white man" raising such a question at the event, which was held to honor Asian Pacific American Heritage Month.[31]

The tweet, in which Sarsour wrote of Ali and Gabriel, "I wish I could take their vaginas away", was circulated by Sarsour's critics as apparent proof of her intolerant views.[31] Sarsour had debated both women on radio or television; she said that the dispute centered on Ali's and Gabriel's promotion of the idea that Islam is a misogynistic religion.[36] In response, Ali called Sarsour a "fake feminist" and a "defender of sharia law",[4][37] and the New York Times columnist Bari Weiss criticized Sarsour for making "common cause with anti-feminists".[38][39][40]

At an address to a convention of the Islamic Society of North America in May 2017, Sarsour recounted a story from Islamic scripture in which a person asks "What is the best form of jihad or struggle?" The answer, according to Sarsour, was "a word of truth in front of a tyrant ruler or leader".[41][42] Speaking of the need for Muslim Americans to defend themselves against anti-Muslim policies from the Trump administration, Sarsour said:

I hope that we when we stand up to those who oppress our communities that Allah accepts from us that as a form of jihad, that we are struggling against tyrants and rulers not only abroad in the Middle East or on the other side of the world, but here in these United States of America where you have fascists and white supremacists and Islamophobes reigning in the White House.[42][43]

Sarsour's use of the word jihad was interpreted by several conservative media outlets and personalities as a call for violence against the president. Sarsour rejected that interpretation, citing her commitment to nonviolent activism. Some of her defenders commented that the controversy showed the need for a greater understanding of Islam in the United States.[42][44]

In August 2017 Sarsour spoke at the "United we Stand" rally in front of NFL headquarters in New York[undue weight? ] in support of Colin Kaepernick, who has remained unsigned by any NFL team after kneeling during the national anthem during the 2016-17 season. Sarsour laid out the protesters' demands, which included signing Kaepernick by the beginning of the season, protecting players from retributions should they protest, sensitivity training, and NFL investment in black and brown communities. Sarsour also asked protesters to call and tweet at Verizon, an NFL sponsor.[45][46] Kaepernick thanked Sarsour and fellow Women's March organizers for their support.[47]

Views on Israel–Palestine conflict

Sarsour has voiced support for Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions against Israel,[48] a campaign some view as anti-Semitic, which has led to criticism from American conservatives as well as leaders of the Anti-Defamation League.[3][31][22] Sarsour has stated that Israel has the right to exist, wishes to see Israelis and Palestinians coexist as part of a one-state solution, and does not support either Hamas or the Palestinian Authority.[2][31]

Sarsour has stated that members of her extended family have been arrested on accusations of supporting Hamas, but said they were not necessarily charged with crimes and that their situation was "just the reality of Palestinians living under military occupation".[2][7]

According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, "Soon after the Women’s March, [Sarsour] drew fire from Jewish leaders for telling The Nation that unabashed supporters of Israel cannot be feminists."[3] In an interview with The Nation, she said,

I would say that anyone who wants to call themselves an activist cannot be selective. There is no country in this world that is immune to violating human rights. You can't be a feminist in the United States and stand up for the rights of the American woman and then say that you don't want to stand up for the rights of Palestinian women in Palestine. It's all connected.[49]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Mitter, Siddhartha (May 9, 2015). "Linda Sarsour's rising profile reflects new generation of Muslim activists". Al Jazeera America. 
  2. ^ a b c d Mishkin, Budd (July 26, 2011). "One On 1: Arab American Association Director Finds Time For It All". New York: NY1. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Sales, Ben (May 2, 2017). "Linda Sarsour: Why the Palestinian-American activist is controversial". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Chandler, Michael Alison (7 February 2017). "March catapults Muslim American into national spotlight and social-media crosshairs". The Washington Post. 
  5. ^ Hatem, Yasmina (December 21, 2007). "Arranged marriages 'alive' in Brooklyn". Al Arabiya News. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Feuer, Alan (August 9, 2015). "Linda Sarsour Is a Brooklyn Homegirl in a Hijab". The New York Times. p. MB1. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Hajela, Deepti (January 26, 2017). "Attacks target Muslim-American activist after DC march". The Associated Press. 
  8. ^ Harris, Paul (5 September 2011). "Living with 9/11: the Muslim American". The Guardian. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Rosenberg, Eli (May 26, 2017). "A Muslim-American Activist's Speech Raises Ire Even Before It's Delivered". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-07-23. 
  10. ^
    • Katinas, Paula (February 21, 2017). "Sarsour leaving post at Arab American Association of NY". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. We are in a critical moment as a country and I feel compelled to focus my energy on the national level and building the capacity of the progressive movement, so it is with a heavy heart that I announce that I will be leaving my post as the executive director of the Arab American Association of New York. 
    • Alter, Charlotte (January 20, 2017). "How the Women's March Has United Progressives of All Stripes". Time. Bland quickly realized that in order to transform the march from an angry Facebook group into a progressive coalition, she'd need help. She enlisted veteran organizers Tamika Mallory, Carmen Perez and Linda Sarsour as national co-chairs... "people are expecting us to show up at a march and talk about our bodies and our reproductive rights," says co-chair Sarsour, executive director of the Arab American Association of New York. Instead, she says, "we're bringing together all the progressive movements. 
    • Walters, Joanna (January 14, 2017). "Women's March on Washington set to be one of America's biggest protests". The Guardian. We have no choice. We need to stand up against an administration that threatens everything we believe in, in what we hope will become one of the largest grassroots, progressive movements ever seen, said Sarsour. 
  11. ^ Botelho, Greg (March 4, 2015). "New York public schools to have Muslim holidays off". CNN. 
  12. ^ Transcript: President Obama's address to the nation on the San Bernardino terror attack and the war on ISIS, CNN, 7 December 2015
  13. ^ a b Some American Muslims Irritated By Obama's Call For Them To 'Root Out' Extremism, NPR, Tom Gjelten, 8 December 2015
  14. ^ 10 Actual Facts About Muslims You'll Never Hear From Donald Trump's Mouth, Mic, Marie Solis, 10 December 2015
  15. ^ Hing, Julianne (October 24, 2014). "Facing Race Spotlight: Palestinian-American Activist Linda Sarsour". Colorlines. 
  16. ^ "Primary Contest List" (PDF). Board of Elections City of New York. August 31, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2017. 
  17. ^ "Statement and Return Report by Election District" (PDF). Board of Elections City of New York. September 13, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2017. 
  18. ^ Alter, Charlotte (January 20, 2017). "The Women's March on Washington United Progressives". Time. Retrieved January 23, 2017. 
  19. ^ Gee, Taylor (September 2017). "Linda Sarsour: Activist and national co-chair of the Women's March". Politico. 
  20. ^ "See who is on @TIME's list of the world's most influential people #TIME100". Time. 2017. 
  21. ^ Ford, Matt (March 28, 2017). "How Trump's Travel Ban Could Still Be Upheld". The Atlantic. 
  22. ^ a b c d e Reilly, Katie (May 31, 2017). "Linda Sarsour's CUNY Commencement Address Has Become a Right-Wing Target". Time. 
  23. ^ Hajela, Deepti (January 27, 2017). "Brooklyn's Linda Sarsour, Muslim activist, faces more threats after Women's March". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. The Associated Press. 
  24. ^ Hanau, Shira (February 23, 2017). "Muslims 'Overjoyed' As $130K In Donations Pour In For Vandalized St. Louis Jewish Cemetery". The Forward. 
  25. ^ "Jewish governor of Missouri, Muslim activists pitching in to repair vandalized Jewish cemetery". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 21, 2017. 
  26. ^ Kerstenbaum, Sam (February 23, 2017). "Muslim Campaign For Jewish Cemetery Praised As 'Beautiful Gesture' — But Some Question Motives". The Forward. 
  27. ^ Solomon, Daniel J. (July 12, 2017). "Controversy Swirls Around Jewish Cemetery Fundraising Push Led By Linda Sarsour". The Forward. 
  28. ^ "Linda Sarsour, defending cemetery allocations, lashes out at 'right wing zionists'". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. July 13, 2017. 
  29. ^ Alter, Charlotte (March 8, 2017). "Women's March Organizers Arrested Outside Trump Hotel". Time. 
  30. ^ Chira, Susan; Abrams, Rachel; Rogers, Katie (March 8, 2017). "'Day Without a Woman' Protest Tests a Movement's Staying Power". The New York Times. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Nazaryan, Alexander (May 24, 2017). "Linda Sarsour, Feminist Movement Leader, Too Extreme for CUNY Graduation Speech, Critics Argue". Newsweek. 
  32. ^ Ziri, Danielle (17 May 2017). "Holocaust survivors attempt to prevent Linda Sarsour from CUNY event". The Jerusalem Post. 
  33. ^ "Scuffle erupts at rally against CUNY's hosting of BDS promoter Linda Sarsour". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 26 May 2017. 
  34. ^ Ziri, Danielle (26 May 2017). "After long silence, ADL defends Linda Sarsour's right to free speech". The Jerusalem Post. 
  35. ^ "Right-wing activists protest against Linda Sarsour speech". Middle East Eye. 27 May 2017. 
  36. ^ Chandler
  37. ^ "Ayaan Hirsi Ali says controversial Women's March organizer is a 'fake feminist'". Women in the World, The New York Times. February 2, 2017. 
  38. ^ Weiss, Bari (August 1, 2017). "When Progressives Embrace Hate". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2017. 
  39. ^ Kaufman, Eliot (August 8, 2017). "How Progressives Will Scare Off Moderates and Squander the Moral High Ground". National Review. 
  40. ^ Weiss, Philip (3 August 2017). "Bari Weiss and the neoconservative hold on the Democratic Party establishment". Mondoweiss. 
  41. ^ Moore, Jack (July 7, 2017). "Women's March organizer Linda Sarsour says standing up to Trump is a 'jihad'". Newsweek. 
  42. ^ a b c Abrams, Abigail (July 6, 2017). "Linda Sarsour Spoke of 'Jihad.' But She Wasn't Talking About Violence". Time. 
  43. ^ Schmidt, Samantha. "Muslim activist Linda Sarsour's reference to 'jihad' draws conservative wrath". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 7, 2017. 
  44. ^ 'Religious illiteracy': Right-wing websites raise ire after Sarsour's 'jihad' comment. Middle East Eye, 7 July 2017
  45. ^ Rohan, Tim (24 August 2017). "Colin Kaepernick Supporters Rally Outside NFL Office". Sports Illustrated. 
  46. ^ Helm, Angela (24 August 2017). "#ImWithKap: Hundreds Rally at NFL Headquarters for Colin Kaepernick, Call for Boycott if Demands Not Met". The Root. 
  47. ^ Grossman, Evan (24 August 2017). "Colin Kaepernick tweets appreciation for protests as NFL continues to blackball him". Daily News. New York. 
  48. ^ * Nussbaum Cohen, Debra (January 25, 2017). "Why Jewish Leaders Rally Behind a Palestinian-American Women's March Organizer". Haaretz. In [an interview] Sarsour acknowledged, 'I am a critic of the State of Israel. I always will be. I have come out in full support of BDS.' 
  49. ^ Meyerson, Collier (March 13, 2017). "Can You Be a Zionist Feminist? Linda Sarsour Says No". The Nation. 

Further reading

External links