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Life imprisonment in Australia

Life imprisonment in Australia is the most severe punishment handed down in the country. It is handed down for serious criminal offences by the State and Territory Supreme Courts in Australia. The vast majority of convictions punished by life imprisonment are for murder. It is also imposed, albeit rarely, for sexual assault, manufacturing and trafficking commercial quantities of illicit drugs, and offences against the justice system and government security, among others.

As of 2018, there are 1008 prisoners serving terms of life imprisonment in Australia.[1]

Offences and minimum termsEdit

Mandatory life imprisonmentEdit

As the death penalty in Australia fell into disuse in 1967 and was completely abolished nationwide in 1985, some jurisdictions replaced the death penalty with mandatory life imprisonment. Mandatory life imprisonment has since been abolished in Victoria in 1986, Tasmania in 1995[2] and Western Australia in 2008.[3]

New South Wales also abolished mandatory life sentences in 1982,[4] however in 2011 the Parliament of New South Wales passed legislation imposing a mandatory life imprisonment without parole sentence for the murder of a police officer.[5][6]

When the Australian Capital Territory abolished the death penalty in 1973, it was not replaced with mandatory life imprisonment for any offence.[7] Even so, life imprisonment can be and is imposed as a maximum penalty in Australian Capital Territory (and every Australian jurisdiction).

Life imprisonment is mandatory for murder in South Australia, the Northern Territory, and Queensland, as well as aircraft hijacking across Australia under the Crimes (Aviation) Act 1991.[citation needed]

State and territoriesEdit

The criminal law and prisons are primarily administered by state and territory governments within Australia’s federal system. As such, there is considerable divergence of which offences can attract life sentences across Australia.

The minimum non-parole period on a life sentence varies between jurisdictions, and between different crimes attracting the penalty. A life sentence in Western Australia, for a crime other than murder, attracts a minimum non-parole period of 7 years, while the equivalent term in Queensland is 15 years. For murder, the minimum non parole period on a life sentence in Australian Capital Territory is 10 years, as it is in Western Australia except when committed during an aggravated home burglary, in which case it is 15 years.

In South Australia, Queensland and Northern Territory, the minimum non parole period for a life sentence resulting from a murder conviction is 20 years. Though in Queensland, if the victim is known by the offender to be a police officer, the non-parole period is 25 years; in the case of multiple murder victims or where the offender has a prior murder conviction, the minimum non-parole period is 30 years.[8] In Northern Territory, exceptional circumstances can lessen the minimum 20 year non parole period; conversely the minimum term for murder in circumstances of aggravation is 25 years.[9] The default minimum non-parole term for a life sentence in Victoria is 30 years, unless a court considers it not in the interest of justice to set such a term.[10]

New South Wales is the only Australian state or territory to provide for a mandatory life without parole sentence; specifically for the offence of murder where the victim was known to be, or ought reasonably to have been known to be a police officer.[11]

Following a string of high profile ‘coward punch’ related deaths, in 2014 the Queensland government created a new offence of unlawful striking causing death, the maximum penalty for which is life imprisonment.[12]

The Criminal Code of Queensland,[13] Western Australia[14] and Northern Territory[15] provide for life imprisonment for aiding a suicide, terrorism and for perjuring to procure a conviction of an offence punishable by life imprisonment. The Criminal Code of the Northern Territory also provides for life imprisonment for terrorism and aircraft hijacking, as well as for most other serious violent offences.

The Criminal Code of Queensland provides life imprisonment as a mandatory punishment for repeat child sex offences, which cannot be mitigated or varied under any law.

Every state and territory except Tasmania provide for life imprisonment for some drug offences (though Tasmanians remain subject to Commonwealth law, which allows for life imprisonment for some drug offences). Primarily these offences are manufacturing, trafficking or cultivating commercial quantities of controlled drugs, procuring children to do so and in Queensland, supplying any quantity of particular drugs to children under 16.

Child sexual abuse offences can attract a life sentence in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Northern Territory. In Queensland, if child sexual abuse was committed by a repeat offender, a life sentence is mandatory and cannot be mitigated or varied under any law. Other offences capable of attracting a sentence of life imprisonment sentence are rape, arson, incest, riot (under aggravated circumstances), piracy and destroying sea walls (Queensland) and treason (Tasmania). In Queensland, the law also provides a maximum punishment of life imprisonment for aircraft hijacking, burglary or unlawful entry into a dwelling (under aggravated circumstances or by means of a break), armed robbery, violent robbery, attempt to commit armed robbery, attempt to commit violent robbery, conspiracy to bring false accusation against another where an innocent person is convicted and punished with life imprisonment for a crime he or she did not commit, rape, aggravated sexual assault, manslaughter, attempted murder, stupefying (poisoning or drugging) with the intent to commit another indictable offence, disabling with intent to commit an indictable offence (choking, suffocating or strangulating or rendering or attempted to render any person incapable of resistance), and most other serious violent offences.

The Australian Capital Territory[16] and Victoria[17][18] are the only Australian jurisdictions to explicitly prohibit the imposition of life sentences on children.

Prisoners serving life sentences in Australia (2018)[19]
Most serious offence Number of prisoners Number expected to serve total life sentence
Homicide offences 951 406
Illicit drug offences 19 4
Offences against justice procedures, government security/operations 17 16
Sexual assault offences 7 7
Miscellaneous offences 3 0
Total 1008 438

CommonwealthEdit

Under Commonwealth legislation, there are 68 offences that can attract life imprisonment.

Sixty three such offences are within the Criminal Code Act 1995.[20] They include the setting or placing of explosive and lethal devices, treason, treachery and espionage offences; terrorist acts, as well as preparing or planning terrorist acts and financing terrorism; incursions into foreign countries with the intention of engaging in hostile activity and related preparatory conduct (including accumulating weapons, providing or participating in training, giving or receiving goods and services and allowing use of buildings and vehicles to support such offences).

Further offences in the Criminal Code that allow for life imprisonment include crimes against humanity (genocide, war crimes), the murder of UN personnel and various drug offences including manufacturing, trafficking importing and exporting of commercial quantities controlled drugs and plants, cultivating commercial quantities of controlled plants and procuring children to facilitate similar drug offences.

The Crimes (Aviation) Act 1991[21] provides for life imprisonment for hijacking offences, destruction of aircraft with intent to kill and prejudicing safe operation of an aircraft with intention to kill.

The Crimes Act 1914 contains one more offence punishable by life imprisonment: piracy.[22]

Notable sentencesEdit

With non-parole periodsEdit

Notable prisoners serving at least one life imprisonment with specified non-parole period:

Name State Convictions Sentence Non-parole period Age at sentence Date of sentence Notes
Dieter Pfennig SA Murder x 2; abduction x 2; rape 2 x life imprisonment 60 years 44 1992: 25* years; 2016: additional 35 years [23] *1994 ‘Truth in sentencing’ legislation reduced an initial 38 year term to 25 years. Pfenning has the longest non-parole period of any Australian prisoner; he will be 103 before he becomes eligible for parole.
Michael Fyfe SA Murder; attempted murder; causing grevious bodily harm; causing death by dangerous driving; assaulting a police officer x 2; several assaults; assault occasioning actual bodily harm Life imprisonment 45 years and 6 months In custody since age 25 [24] In custody since May 1987[25] [26] Fyfe’s total non-parole period is the longest of any Australian prisoner convicted of a single murder.
Jesse Penhall SA Murder Life imprisonment 23 years 40 June 2019 [27]
Angelika Gavare SA Murder Life imprisonment 32 years 35 November 2011 [28][29] Gavare’s non-parole period is, equal with Cai Xia Liao, the longest imposed on a female by any Australian court.
James Miller SA Murder x 6 6 x life imprisonment 35 years* 40 March 1980 Deceased; died of cancer in October 2008. *Miller applied for a non-parole period to be determined in 1999, which was approved and imposed in February 2000. [30]
James Gargasoulas Victoria Murder x 6; reckless conduct endangering life x 27 6 x life imprisonment 46 years 27 February 2019 [31] Gargasoulas received the longest non-parole period resulting from a single trial of any Australian prisoner.
Carl Williams Victoria 3 x murder, 1 x conspiracy to murder 3 x life imprisonment 35 years 36 May 2007 [32] Deceased; killed in prison April 2010
Keith Faure Victoria 2 x murder 2 x life imprisonment 19 years 54 May 2006 [33]
Malcolm Clarke Victoria Murder Life imprisonment 25 years 49 December 2004 [34]
Nicola Spina Victoria Murder x 2, false imprisonment 2 x life imprisonment 25 years 54 August 2003 [35] Deceased, died in prison in 2011 of a heart attack
John Sharpe Victoria Murder x 2 2 x Life imprisonment 33 years 38 August 2005 [36]
Brent Quarry Victoria Murder, causing injury intentionally, causing injury recklessly Life imprisonment 24 years 32 February 2004 [37]
Michael Lane Victoria Murder Life imprisonment 24 years 48 June 2003 [38]
Gregory Brazel Victoria Murder Life imprisonment 27 years 48 March 2003 [39] *
Lloyd Crosbie Victoria Murder x 2 2 x life imprisonment 30 years 20 March 2003 [40]
Andrew Norrie Victoria Murder Life imprisonment 14 years and 6 months 39 December 2001 [41]
Peter Knight Victoria Murder Life imprisonment 23 years 48 November 2002 [42]
John Horrocks Victoria Murder, attempted murder, conduct endangering life Life imprisonment 23 years 39 October 2000 [43]
Truong Phuc Victoria Murder, kidnapping Life imprisonment 23 years and 8 months 40 June 2000 [44]
Dean Williamson Victoria Murder Life imprisonment 24 years 30 March 2000 [45] Deceased; died by suicide in 2000 at Barwon Prison
Robert Parsons Victoria Murder Life imprisonment 25 years 55 May 1999 [46]
Manuel Adajian Victoria Murder x 2; attempted murder; armed robbery 2 x life imprisonment 25 years 42 May 1998 [47][48]
Lindsay Beckett Victoria Murder x 2 2 x life imprisonment 35 years 24 August 1998 [49][50]
Christopher Hudson Victoria Murder, attempted murder x 2, intentionally causing serious injury Life imprisonment 35 years 30 September 2008 [51] Hudson received the longest non-parole period for a single murder of any Australian prisoner.
Cai Xia Liao Victoria Murder x 2; intentionally causing injury; false imprisonment Life imprisonment 32 years 45 December 2015 [52] Liao’s non-parole period is, equal with Angelika Gavare, the longest imposed on a female by any Australian court
Massimo Sica QLD Murder x 3 3 x life imprisonment 35 years 42 July 2012 [53]
Valmae Beck QLD Murder, rape Life imprisonment 14 years and 6 months 44 1988 Deceased, died of heart failure May 2008
Tracey Wigginton QLD Murder Life imprisonment 13 years 25 January 1991 Wigginton was released on parole in January 2012[54]
Jessica Stasinowsky WA Wilful murder Strict security life imprisonment 24 years 21 March 2008 [55]
Valerie Parashumti WA Wilful murder Strict security life imprisonment 24 years 19 March 2008 [56]
Catherine Birnie WA Murder x 4; aggravated sexual assault; deprivation of liberty 4 x strict security life imprisonment 20 years 35 March 1987 [57] *Though becoming parole eligible in 2007, every serving Attorney General since has invariably stated Birnie will be denied parole during their tenure.[58][59][60]
David Birnie WA Murder x 4; aggravated sexual assault; deprivation of liberty 4 x strict security life imprisonment 20 years 36 February & March 1987 [61] Deceased; died by suicide in October 2005
Dante Arthurs WA Murder, unlawful detention Life imprisonment 13 years 23 November 2007 [62] Arthurs was refused parole in 2019[63]
‘F’ (an unidentified child) WA Wilful murder Life imprisonment 12 years 16 (15 at time of offence) August 1992 [64] ‘F’ was released from prison in 2014 after serving 22 years, with a subsequent parole term of five years [65]
Douglas Crabbe NT Murder x 5 5 x Life imprisonment 30 years* 38 October 1985 *Changes to NT sentencing laws resulted in a non-parole period being set in December 2004. Crabbe was transferred to a Western Australian prison in 2005, and despite being parole eligible from 2013, successive Attorney Generals have indicated they will not approve his release[66]
Bradley Murdoch NT Murder, deprivation of liberty, aggravated unlawful assault Life imprisonment 28 years 47 December 2005 [67]
Evelyn Namatjira NT Murder Life imprisonment 15 years 46 December 2012 [68]
Ben William McLean NT Murder x 2 2 x life imprisonment 25 years 20 May 2005 [69]
Phu Ngoc Trinh NT Murder x 2 2 x life imprisonment 25 years 19 May 2005 [70]
James O'Neill Tasmania Murder Life imprisonment undetermined* 28 Convicted November 1975 [71][72][73] *O'Neill was denied parole after applications in 1991 and 2005. He is now Tasmania's longest serving prisoner[74] See also: Disappearance of the Beaumont children

Without the possibility of paroleEdit

In the most extreme cases, the sentencing judge will refuse to fix a non-parole period, which means that the prisoner will spend the rest of their life in prison.

People serving at least one sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole include:

Name State Conviction Sentence Age at sentence Date of sentence Notes
Bronson Blessington NSW Murder; abduction; rape; robbery × 2 Life imprisonment plus 25 years* 16; 14 at time of offending September 1990 *When sentencing, the trial judge recommended Blessington never be released.[75] While this order had no legally binding effect at that time, legislative changes passed through New South Wales parliament since have effectively extinguished any possibility of Blessington receiving a determinate sentence or release on parole.[76] This is despite Australia being signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which explicitly prohibits imprisonment without the possibility of release as a punishment for children.[77]
Matthew Elliott NSW Murder; abduction; rape × 2; robbery × 2 Life imprisonment plus 25 years* 18; 16 at time of offending September 1990 *When sentencing, the trial judge recommended Elliott never be released.[78] While this order had no legally binding effect at that time, legislative changes passed through New South Wales parliament since have effectively extinguished any possibility of Elliott receiving a determinate sentence or release on parole.[79] This is despite Australia being signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which explicitly prohibits imprisonment without the possibility of release as a punishment for children.[80]
Phuong Ngo NSW Murder Life imprisonment 43 November 2001 [81]
Glen McNamara NSW Murder; supplying of a prohibited drug in an amount not less than a large commercial quantity Life imprisonment plus 12 years 57 September 2016 [82]
Roger Rogerson NSW Murder; supplying of a prohibited drug in an amount not less than a large commercial quantity Life imprisonment plus 12 years 75 September 2016 [83]
Mark Valera NSW Murder × 2 Life imprisonment × 2 21 December 2000 [84]
Sef Gonzales NSW Murder × 3 Life imprisonment × 3 24 September 2004 [85]
Andrew Garforth NSW Murder Life imprisonment plus 30 years 29 July 1993 [86]
Crespin Adanguidi NSW Murder × 3 Life imprisonment × 3 27 June 2005 [87]
Ramzi Aouad NSW Murder × 2 Life imprisonment × 2 25 November 2006 *Originally sentenced to three terms of life without parole, for three murders; [88] successfully appealed against one murder conviction in April 2011[89]
Allan Baker NSW Murder; conspiracy to murder; malicious wounding with intent to prevent lawful apprehension × 2 Life imprisonment plus 55 years hard labour 26 June 1974 [90]
Kevin Crump NSW Murder; conspiracy to murder; malicious wounding with intent to prevent lawful apprehension × 2 Life imprisonment plus 55 years hard labour 25 June 1974 Reduced to one term of life without parole plus 55 years on appeal in 1997[91]
John Travers NSW Murder; taking with intent to hold for advantage; assault; robbery; wounding; inflicting actual bodily harm with the intent to have sexual intercourse; stealing a car Life imprisonment plus 50 years 20 July 1987 [92]
Michael Murphy NSW Murder; taking with intent to hold for advantage; assault; robbery; wounding; inflicting actual bodily harm with the intent to have sexual intercourse; stealing a car Life imprisonment plus 50 years 34 July 1987 Deceased; died February 2019[93]
Gary Murphy NSW Murder; taking with intent to hold for advantage; assault; robbery; wounding; inflicting actual bodily harm with the intent to have sexual intercourse; stealing a car Life imprisonment plus 50 years 29 July 1987 [94]
Leslie Murphy NSW Murder; taking with intent to hold for advantage; assault; robbery; wounding; inflicting actual bodily harm with the intent to have sexual intercourse; stealing a car Life imprisonment plus 48 years 23 July 1987 [95]
Michael Murdoch NSW Murder; taking with intent to hold for advantage; assault; robbery; wounding; inflicting actual bodily harm with the intent to have sexual intercourse; stealing a car Life imprisonment plus 50 years 20 July 1987 [96]
Malcolm Baker NSW Murder × 6 Life imprisonment × 6 45 August 1993 [97]
Samuel Boyd NSW Murder × 4; wounding with intent to murder Life imprisonment × 4 plus 25 years 29 January 1985 The life sentence for the conviction of wounding with intent to murder was reduced to 25 years on appeal in 1994[citation needed][98]
John Cribb NSW Murder × 3; rape × 3; kidnapping × 2; false imprisonment × 2; armed robbery × 9; escaping lawful custody Life imprisonment × 3 plus 45 years 28 May 1979 Deceased; died February 2018[99]
Adnan Darwiche NSW Murder × 2; attempted murder; discharging a firearm with intent to do grevious bodily harm Life imprisonment × 2 plus 26 years 30 November 2006 [100]
John Glover NSW Murder × 6; attempted murder; robbery with wounding; robbery; indecent assault × 4; assault Life imprisonment × 6 58 November 1990 Deceased; died by suicide September 2005[101]
Matthew Harris NSW Murder × 3; armed robbery Life imprisonment × 2 plus 40 years 31 December 1999* *Originally sentenced to 40 years for each count of murder and 3 years for armed robbery with a non-parole period of 25 years; sentence increased on appeal in December 2000: [102]
Michael Kanaan NSW Murder × 3; malicious wounding with intent to do grevious bodily harm × 4; discharging firearm with intent to prevent lawful apprehension; accessory to the fact after malicious wounding Life imprisonment × 3 plus 50 years and 4 months 26 October 2001 [103]
Lindsey Rose NSW Murder × 5; robbery × 2; conspiracy to pervert the course of justice; kidnapping; robbery while armed; maliciously destroying property by fire; malicious wounding; larceny; supplying a prohibited drug Life imprisonment × 5 plus 39 years 43 September 1998 [104]
Naseam El-Zeyat NSW Murder × 2* Life imprisonment × 2* 26 November 2006 *Originally sentenced to three terms of Life imprisonment, for three murders;[105] successfully appealed against one murder conviction in April 2011[106]
Ivan Milat NSW Murder × 7; attempted murder; false imprisonment; robbery Life imprisonment × 7 plus 18 years 51 July 1996 [107]
Katherine Knight NSW Murder Life imprisonment 46 November 2001 [108]
Mark Lewis NSW Murder × 2 Life imprisonment plus 18 years 58 June 2000 [109]
Jason Roberts Victoria Murder × 2 Life imprisonment with non-parole period of 35 years; defacto life imprisonment without parole* 22; 17 at the time of offences** February 2003 *Despite receiving a sentence of life imprisonment with a non-parole period of 35 years, legislative changes passed by the Victorian parliament in 2016 extinguished any prospect of release for those convicted of murdering a police officer.[110] The legislation was acknowledged by the government to be incompatible with Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities, including the right to protection from cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment.[111] **Despite Australia being signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which explicitly prohibits imprisonment without the possibility of release as a punishment for children,[112] Roberts was 17 years old at the time of offending
Julian Knight Victoria Murder × 7; attempted murder × 46 De facto life imprisonment*; original sentence: life imprisonment × 7, non-parole period 27 years 21 November 1989 [113]*In 2014 the Parliament of Victoria legislated that Knight could only be granted parole if imminently dying or seriously incapacitated to the extent he could do no physical harm to any person and demonstrably posed no risk to the community. The Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities was suspended for the purpose of this provision.[114][115] See also: Hoddle Street massacre
Michael Cardamone Victoria Murder; incitement to murder; breaching a prescribed condition of parole Life imprisonment plus 8 years and three months 50 August 2017 [116]
Leslie Camilleri Victoria Murder × 3 Life imprisonment × 2 plus 28 years 29 April 1999 In December 2013, Camilleri was sentenced to a further 28 years prison for his third murder conviction [117][118]
Ashley Coulston Victoria Murder × 3; armed robbery × 2; false imprisonment × 2; recklessly endangering life × 2; intentionally causing injury; assault; using a firearm to resist arrest Life imprisonment × 3 plus 7 years 38 September 1995 [119]
Bandali Debs Victoria Murder × 4 Life imprisonment × 4 49 February 2003 Sentenced to two life sentences in February 2003; a further life sentence in June 2007; and another in February 2012 [120][121][122]
Raymond Edmunds Victoria Murder × 2; rape × 6; attempted rape × 2; indecent assault x 3; assault causing bodily harm x 2; attempt to escape lawful custody and false imprisonment Life imprisonment × 2 plus 54 years 5 months 42 April 1986 Sentenced to 2 x life plus 30 years for two murders and rapes in October 1986[123]; received an additional 12 months for attempted prison escape in 1992, and 23 years and 5 months for further rapes in 2019
Paul Haigh Victoria Murder × 6, armed robbery Life imprisonment × 6 + 60 years 23 November 1980 Haigh was convicted of the murder of an inmate in 1993 and sentenced to a further term of life imprisonment with a minimum term of 15 years[124]
Peter Dupas Victoria Murder × 3 Life imprisonment × 3 47 August 2000 First life imprisonment sentence imposed in August 2000; second in August 2004; the third in August 2007[125][126][127]
Robert Lowe Victoria Murder; kidnapping Life imprisonment plus 15 years 57 December 1994 [128]
Stanley Taylor Victoria Murder; intentionally causing serious injury × 2; causing an explosion; burglary; car theft; theft Life imprisonment plus 13 years 50 August 1988 Deceased; died October 2016[129]
John Bunting South Australia Murder × 11 Life imprisonment × 11 37 October 2003 [130]
Robert Wagner South Australia Murder × 10 Life imprisonment × 10 31 October 2003 Wagner's application for a non-parole period to be set was denied in May 2019[131][132]
Mark Rust South Australia Murder × 2; rape; assault; gross indecency Life imprisonment × 2 plus 12 years 39 April 2004 [133]
Rebecca Mahony QLD Attempted murder; rape × 13; indecent treatment of a child under 16 × 6; assault occasioning bodily harm while armed and in company × 3; unlawfully procuring a child under 16 years to commit and indecent act; taking a child for immoral purposes; making child exploitation material; deprivation of liberty; common assault; stupefying in order to commit an indictable offence; torture; unlawfully wounding another Life imprisonment × 2 plus 80 years 32 December 2011 [134]Conflicting reports as to whether Mahony will be eligible for parole[135][136][additional citation(s) needed]
Barrie Watts QLD Murder, rape, abduction Life imprisonment plus 18 years 37 February 1990 [137]
Anthony Harvey WA Murder × 5 Life imprisonment × 5 25 July 2019 [138]Harvey is the first person in Western Australia to receive a 'never to be released' order.[139]
Martin Leach NT Murder × 2; rape; assaulting a police officer Life imprisonment × 3 plus 3 months 25 May 1984 [140]
Andrew Albury NT Murder Life imprisonment 22 July 1984 [141]
William Turner NT Various sexual assaults, including sexual assaults against children Indefinite sentence plus nine years 52 May 2008 [142]
Martin Bryant Tasmania Murder × 35; attempted murder × 20; grevious bodily harm × 3; wounding × 8; aggravated assault × 4; unlawful setting fire to property; arson Life imprisonment × 35 plus 777 years 29 November 1996 [143]
Allen Thompson ACT Murder × 6 Life imprisonment × 6 24 October 1984 [144][145]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Prisoner characteristics, Australia (Tables 11 & 12) https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4517.02018?OpenDocument
  2. ^ 'The history of sentencing for wilful murder and murder', Review of the Law of Homicide, Law Reform Commission of Western Australia https://www.lrc.justice.wa.gov.au/_files/P97-ch07.pdf
  3. ^ 'A review of the law of homicide', Law Reform Commission of Western Australia https://www.lrc.justice.wa.gov.au/P/project_97.aspx
  4. ^ 'The history of sentencing for wilful murder and murder', Review of the Law of Homicide, Law Reform Commission of Western Australia https://www.lrc.justice.wa.gov.au/_files/P97-ch07.pdf
  5. ^ 'Murder of Police Officers', LIAC Crime Library, State Library of New South Wales https://guides.sl.nsw.gov.au/c.php?g=671792&p=4729414
  6. ^ Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) section 19B http://www5.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/ca190082/s19b.html
  7. ^ 'The history of sentencing for wilful murder and murder', Review of the Law of Homicide, Law Reform Commission of Western Australia https://www.lrc.justice.wa.gov.au/_files/P97-ch07.pdf
  8. ^ https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/inforce/current/act-2006-029#sec.181
  9. ^ Sentencing Act 1995 (NT) Section 53A (3) https://legislation.nt.gov.au/api/sitecore/Act/PDF_History?id=17757
  10. ^ Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) Section 11A 4(a) http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/download.cgi/cgi-bin/download.cgi/download/au/legis/vic/consol_act/sa1991121.txt
  11. ^ https://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/#/view/act/1900/40/part3/div1/sec19b
  12. ^ https://russolawyers.com.au/blog/what-are-the-one-punch-assault-laws-in-queensland/
  13. ^ https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/inforce/current/act-1899-009
  14. ^ http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/download.cgi/cgi-bin/download.cgi/download/au/legis/wa/consol_act/ccaca1913252.txt
  15. ^ https://legislation.nt.gov.au/Legislation/CRIMINAL-CODE-ACT-1983
  16. ^ Crimes (Sentencing) Act 2005 (ACT) section 133G(4) https://www.legislation.act.gov.au/View/a/2005-58/current/PDF/2005-58.PDF
  17. ^ ‘Young persons’ may not be sentenced to indefinite sentences http://www.judicialcollege.vic.edu.au/eManuals/VSM/6116.htm
  18. ^ Sentencing Act 1991 (Victoria) Section 18A(1) http://classic.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/sa1991121/s18a.html
  19. ^ Prisoner characteristics, Australia (Tables 11 & 12) https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4517.02018?OpenDocument
  20. ^ https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2019C00152
  21. ^ https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2018C00156
  22. ^ https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2019C00048
  23. ^ Louise Bell murderer Dieter Pfennig jailed until age of 103 as non-parole period extended to 60 years https://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/south-australia/prosecutors-urge-supreme-court-to-ensure-louise-bells-murderer-dieter-pfennig-is-never-released-from-prison/news-story/81f6e49bf3dea6549ff57835ffb31a13
  24. ^ R v FYFE [2004] SASC 391 https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/sa/SASC/2004/391.html
  25. ^ ibid.
  26. ^ R v FYFE [2004] SASC 321 https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/sa/SASC/2004/321.html
  27. ^ R V JESSE RAY PENHALL AND HANS THALLER SASC, retrieved on 13 July 2019 http://www.courts.sa.gov.au/SentencingRemarks/Pages/default.aspx
  28. ^ R v GAVARE [2011] SASC 142 https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/sa/SASC/2011/142.html
  29. ^ Pensioner killer jailed for 32-year minimum https://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-11-04/gavare-non-parole-murder-mcglynn/3627136
  30. ^ THE TRURO SERIAL MURDERS https://web.archive.org/web/20070127181046/http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/predators/worrell/index_1.html
  31. ^ DPP v Gargasoulas [2019] VSC 87 https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2019/87.html
  32. ^ R v Williams [2007] VSC 131 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2007/131.html
  33. ^ R v Faure [2006] VSC 169 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2006/169.html
  34. ^ R v Clarke [2006] VSCA 43 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSCA/2006/43.html
  35. ^ R v Spina [2003] VSC 296 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2003/296.html
  36. ^ R v Sharpe [2005] VSC 276 http://www7.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2005/276.html
  37. ^ DPP v Quarry [2004] VSC 15 http://www7.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2004/15.html
  38. ^ R v Lane [2003] VSC 180 http://www7.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2003/180.html
  39. ^ DPP v Brazel [2003] VSC 95 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2003/95.html
  40. ^ R v Crosbie [2003] VSC 69 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2003/69.html
  41. ^ R v Norrie [2002] VSCA 232 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSCA/2002/232.html
  42. ^ R v Knight [2002] VSC 498 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2002/498.html
  43. ^ R v Horrocks [2000] VSC 467 https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2000/467.html
  44. ^ R v Truong Hong Phuc [2000] VSC 296 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2000/296.html
  45. ^ DPP v Williamson [2000] VSC 115 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2000/115.html
  46. ^ R v Parsons [2000] VSCA 15 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSCA/2000/15.html
  47. ^ R v Adajian, Manuel [1998] VicSC 270 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/vic/VicSC/1998/270.html
  48. ^ Director of Public Prosecutions v Adajian [1999] VSCA 105 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSCA/1999/105.html
  49. ^ R v Beckett [1998] VSC 219 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/1998/219.html
  50. ^ R v Beckett [1998] VSCA 148 http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSCA/1998/148.html
  51. ^ R v Hudson [2008] VSC 389 https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2008/389.html
  52. ^ The Queen v Liao [2015] VSC 730 www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VSC/2015/730.html?query=
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  56. ^ STASINOWSKY -v- THE STATE OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA [2009] WASCA 20 https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/wa/WASCA/2009/20.html
  57. ^ ’No remorse by killer’, says judge, Sydney Morning Herald, 4 March 1987 https://www.newspapers.com/clip/25556262/the_sydney_morning_herald/
  58. ^ Serial killer Catherine Birnie's parole ‘no hope’: Attorney-General John Quigley https://www.perthnow.com.au/news/wa/serial-killer-catherine-birnies-parole-no-hope-attorney-general-john-quigley-ng-1a87f11505cd522b2bfb1a1a67c65e4e
  59. ^ Serial killer Catherine Birnie given no hope of parole https://www.perthnow.com.au/news/wa/serial-killer-catherine-birnie-given-no-hope-of-parole-ng-613c0d45b01e834e3469d46015f2c844
  60. ^ Extract from Hansard of Legislative Assembly (WA), 24 May 2007 http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/Hansard/hansard.nsf/0/d8dd7301eb698274c82575720029ecb6/$FILE/A37%20S1%2020070524%20p454c-470a.pdf
  61. ^ ’No remorse by killer’, says judge, Sydney Morning Herald, 4 March 1987 https://www.newspapers.com/clip/25556262/the_sydney_morning_herald/
  62. ^ Perth man jailed for 8yo’s murder https://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-11-07/perth-man-jailed-for-8yos-murder/718992
  63. ^ Evil child killer Dante Arthurs refused parole https://www.perthnow.com.au/news/crime/evil-child-killer-dante-arthurs-refused-parole-ng-b881237322z
  64. ^ F v. the Queen [2001] WASCA 247 https://jade.io/article/142254
  65. ^ WA schoolgirl murderer released from jail https://www.watoday.com.au/national/western-australia/wa-schoolgirl-murderer-released-from-jail-20131211-2z5z3.html
  66. ^ Parole Ban, Sunday Times https://www.pressreader.com/australia/the-sunday-times-9029/20180708/281578061420466
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  71. ^ O'NEILL v. THE QUEEN 1976 https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/tas/TASStRp/1976/8.pdf
  72. ^ James Ryan O'Neill https://web.archive.org/web/20140109031502/http://www.beaumontchildren.com/beaumontJamesRyanONeill.html
  73. ^ The Fishermen: A Journey Into The Mind Of A Killer available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtF4NWwNXh8
  74. ^ Notorious Tasmanian child killer James O’Neill faces new probe over 1974 missing boy case https://www.themercury.com.au/news/scales-of-justice/notorious-tasmanian-child-killer-james-oneill-faces-new-probe-over-1974-missing-boy-case/news-story/301935b04858fb6a79ae5f0d8584f28b
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  77. ^ Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 37 (a) https://www.unhcr.org/en-au/protection/children/50f941fe9/united-nations-convention-rights-child-crc.html
  78. ^ R v Jamieson; R v Elliott; R v Blessington (1992) 60 A Crim R
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  80. ^ Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 37 (a) https://www.unhcr.org/en-au/protection/children/50f941fe9/united-nations-convention-rights-child-crc.html
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  110. ^ Parole Reforms To Put Victims First And Protect Police https://www.premier.vic.gov.au/parole-reforms-to-puts-victims-first-and-protect-police/
  111. ^ Justice Legislation Amendment (Parole Reform and Other Matters) Bill 2016, Parliament of Victoria Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) p 4722, https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/images/stories/daily-hansard/Assembly_2016/Assembly_Daily_Extract_Tuesday_6_December_2016_from_Book_17.pdf
  112. ^ Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 37 (a) https://www.unhcr.org/en-au/protection/children/50f941fe9/united-nations-convention-rights-child-crc.html
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